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Marriage and Family
Roberson-AU
160
Other
12/07/2010

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Term
Polygamy
Definition
preferred marital arrangement worldwide, having 2 or more spouses
Term
Monogamy
Definition
only legal form of marriage in the US, having only one spuose, only form of marriage recognized in all cultures
Term
Polyandry
Definition
practice of having two or more husbands
Term
Polygyny
Definition
having two or more wives
Term
Serial monogamy/ modified polygamy
Definition
practice in which one person may have several spouses over his or her lifetime although no more than one at any given time
Term
Affiliated kin
Definition
unrelated individuals who feel and are treated as if they were relatives; boyfriend,best friend,neighbor, pet
Term
Traditional family
Definition
mostly middle-class version of the nuclear family in which women's primary roles are wife and mother and men's primary roles are husband and breadwinner
Term
Family of orientation
Definition
family in which we grow up, the family that orients us to the world
Term
family of procreation
Definition
family formed through marriage and childbearing
Term
conjugal
Definition
relationships created through marriage
Term
consanguineous
Definition
created through biological ties. Relationships between adopted children and parents, though not related by blood, might be considered fictive consanguineous
Term
conflict theory
Definition
life involves discord and competition. theorists see society not as basically cooperative but as divided, with individuals and groups in conflict with one another. conflict is not bad, but natural
Term
socialization
Definition
The shaping of individual behavior to conform to social or cultural norms
Term
Feminist Perspectives
Definition
to work to accomplish changes and create conditions in society that remove barriers to opportunity and oppressive conditions and are instead, good for women
Term
Symbolic interaction theory
Definition
looks at how people interact with one another
Term
social exchange theory
Definition
we measure our actions and relationships on a cost-benefit basis, seeking to maximize rewards and minimize costs by employing our resources to gain the most favorable outcome
Term
family development theory
Definition
the only theory exclusively directed at families. emphasizes the patterned changes that occur in families through stages and across time
Term
family systems theory
Definition
combines two of the previous sociological theories, structural functionalism and symbolic interaction, to form a more psychological even therapeutic theory
Term
Ethical guidelines
Definition
protect the privacy and safety of people who provide information in the research, anonymity, confidentiality, minimize controllable harm.assure accuracy
Term
matrilineal
Definition
rights and property descended form the mother
Term
patrilineal
Definition
rights and property flowed from the father
Term
patriarchy
Definition
influenced by Christianity, rule by father or eldest male
Term
bundling
Definition
the New England custom in which a young man and woman spent the night in bed together, separated by a wooden bundling board, provided a courting couple with privacy; did not encourage restraint
Term
two person career
Definition
upper class women often function as supports for their husbands' successful economic and political activities
Term
impact of industrialization on family
Definition
went from being primarily a production unit to being more of a consumer-and service oriented unit. brought love to the foreground as the basis of marriage
Term
working poor
Definition
spent at least 27 weeks in the labor force but whose incomes fell below the poverty threshold. represents 10-15% of the population
Term
gender role
Definition
differing expectations to which males and females are held to
Term
matriarchy
Definition
societies wherein women rule over men and where men are denied the right to political office-not documented
Term
gender identity
Definition
sense of ourselves as of a certain gender, the most basic element of one's identity
Term
gender stereotype
Definition
rigidly held and oversimplified belief that males and females, as a result of their sex, possess distinct psychological and behavioral traits
Term
Social learning theory
Definition
derived from behaviorist psychology and its emphasis on observable events and their consequences rather than internal feelings and drives
Term
manipulation
Definition
daughters are treated more gently and sons more roughly. children eventually incorporate such views as integral parts of their personalities
Term
Channeling
Definition
children are directed toward specific objects and activities and away from others
Term
verbal appellation
Definition
parents use different words with boys and with girls to describe the sam behavior
Term
activity exposure
Definition
both genders are usually exposed to feminine activities early in life, but boys are discouraged from imitating their mothers, whereas girls are encouraged to be "mother's little helper"
Term
intensive mothering ideology
Definition
the belief that children need full-time, unconditional attention from mothers to develop into healthy, well adjusted people
Term
instrumental traits
Definition
task oriented
Term
expressive traits
Definition
emotion oriented
Term
peer marriage
Definition
relationship built on principles of equity, equality, and deep friendship
Term
self-disclosure
Definition
the sharing of both the facts of our lives and our deeper feelings
Term
feminization of love
Definition
seeing love in largely expressive terms (telling each other how you feel), important qualities or aspects of both women's and men's intimacy get ignored or overlooked
Term
triangular theory of love
Definition
love is composed of three elements that can be visualized as the points of a triangle; intimacy, passion, and decision or commitment
Term
attachment theory of love
Definition
maintains that the degree and quality of attachments one experiences in early life influence one's later relationships
Term
How many styles of infant attachment are there?
Definition
three
Term
secure attachment
Definition
infant feels secure when more is out of sight, confident that the mother will offer protection and care
Term
ambivalent attachment
Definition
infant shows separation anxiety when mother leaves. or insecure then the mother is not present
Term
avoidant attachment
Definition
infant senses mother's detachment and rejection when he or she desires close bodily contact.
Term
Wheel theory of love
Definition
depicts the development of love as a spinning wheel, consisting of four spokes
Term
four spokes of wheel theory
Definition
rapport
self revelation
mutual dependency
fulfillment of the need for intimacy
Term
rapport
Definition
sense of ease, the feeling that 2 people understand eachother
Term
self-revelation
Definition
disclosure of intimate feelings, may depend on more than the presence or absence of rapport
Term
mutual dependency
Definition
two people form a couple. each becomes each others confidant
Term
fulfillment of intimacy needs
Definition
if one finds that his or her need for love and intimacy are met by his or her partner, the other 3 spokes will become greater and stronger
Term
suspicious jealousy
Definition
generally occurs in the early stages of a relationship, occurs when there is either no reason to be suspicious or only ambiguous evidence to suspect that a partner is involved with another
Term
Reactive jealousy
Definition
occurs when a partner reveals a current, past, or anticipated relationship with another person; more intense and basic trust is questioned
Term
is spanking ever ok?
Definition
no. never
Term
always assume US does better or worse?
Definition
worse
Term
Parental monitoring
Definition
positively related to adolescents use of contraceptives
Term
homophobia
Definition
an irrational or phobic fear of gay men and lesbians
Term
types of infidelity
Definition
sexual but not emotional
sexual and emotional
emotional but not sexual
Term
erectile dysfunction
Definition
inability to achieve or maintain an erection
Term
premature ejaculation
Definition
inability to delay ejaculation after penetration
Term
performance anxiety
Definition
the fear of failure, most important immediate cause of erectile dysfunctions and orgasmic dysfunctions in women
Term
pleasuring
Definition
nongenital touching and caressing
Term
nonverbal communication
Definition
reflects more of the relationshp part of the message. conveys the attitude and indicates how the words are to be interpreted
Term
functions of nonverbal communication
Definition
conveying interpersonal attitudes
expressing emotions
handling the ongoing interaction
the importance of nonverbal communication
Term
proximity
Definition
nearness, in terms of physical space, time, and so on
Term
honeymoon effect
Definition
you can say almost anything during the first year and it will not seriously affct marriage
Term
One of the problems for women of repeatedly having unsatisfactory sex
Definition
It can lead to the development of aversion to sex
Term
The traditional female sexual script includes all of the following assumptions except
Definition
There are many right ways to experience orgasm
Term
A student who has an intense crush on a married professer despite the fact they have no chance the love will ever be reciprocated
Definition
Cryano
Term
According to Sternberg, the combo of intimacy, passion and commitment
Definition
Consummate love
Term
Scanzoni suggest that both friendships and romantic relationships provide
Definition
intrinsic support
Term
What brain chemical is linked to our tendency to attach to other people
Definition
oxytocin
Term
What percent of couples complain of infidelity
Definition
40%
Term
What is a treatment for premature ejactulation
Definition
Slower masturbation and squeeze technique
Term
The following couples tend to be the most romantic over the lifespan
Definition
volatile
Term
Benefits of premarital couple’s counseling include all of the following except
Definition
It allows the couple to work out all of their problems
Term
Barriers to marriage for low-income unmarried couples with children include all except
Definition
Concerns about relationship with new in-laws
Term
The ______refers to the weakeneing of the social norms that define institution such as marriage
Definition
deinstitutionalization
Term
marital history homogamy
Definition
The fact that never-married people will marry never-married people as opposed to divorced
Term
Which of the following is not a component of intimacy
Definition
sexual attraction
Term
Which was not listesd as an external cause of jealousy
Definition
self esteem
Term
what do wives ten to do more in terms of communication?
Definition
give more positive or negative messages; smile or laugh when they send messages, and send fewer neutral messages.
Term
demand-withdrawl patterns
Definition
in which one person makes an effort to engage the other person in a discussion of some issue of importance. the one raising the issue may criticize, complain or suggest a need for change while the other party in response, withdraws by leaving the discussion or failing to reply.
Term
more satisfaction for wives if
Definition
housework is divided equally
Term
2 career marriages
Definition
both husband and wife have careers; benefits include having more say in family decision making and greater legitimacy in asking for help with domestic and child-rearing tasks
Term
marianismo
Definition
stresses women’s roles as self-sacrificing mothers suffering for their children and subordinating themselves to men
Term
feminization of love
Definition
the idea that our cultural construction of love is based on mostly expressive qualities, more compatible with women’s earlier socialization; more instrumental displays of love tend not to be recognized as love
Term
parental bonds and teen sexuality
Definition
parents, especially mothers, are important sources of information and advice about sexuality; although both sons and daughters speak more to mothers than fathers about sexual issues, most parent-child sexual communication is really between mothers and daughters
Term
Redefining sex in marital or other long-term relationships
Definition
in new relationships, sex is often passionate and intense and may be the central focus; in long term marital or cohabiting relationships, the passionate intensity associated with sex is often eroded by habituation, competing parental and work obligations, fatigue, and unresolved conflicts..sexuality in later adulthood
Term
Reevaluating sexuality
Definition
single men and women may need to weigh the costs and benefits of sex in causal or lightly committed relationships; in long-term relationships, sexuality often becomes less central to relationship satisfaction..sexuality in later adulthood
Term
accepting biological aging process
Definition
our skin wrinkles, our flesh sags, our hair grays (or falls out), our vision blurs—and we become in the age of society less attractive and less sexual; the challenges of aging are to accept its biological mandate and to reject the stereotypes associated with it..sexuality in later adulthood
Term
low sexual desire
Definition
failure of timing, failure of intimacy, failure of sexual empathy, failure reciprocity, failure of overromanticization
Term
performance anxiety
Definition
the fear of failure, most important immediate cause of erectile dysfunctions and, to a lesser extent, of orgasmic dysfunctions in women; if a man does not become erect, anxiety is fairly common
Term
stimulus-values-role theory
Definition
depict what happens between that “magic moment” with its mysterious chemistry of attraction and the decision to maintain a long-term relationship such as marriage; the stimulus, value, and role stages
Term
stimulus
Definition
each person is drawn or attracted to the other before actual interaction; can be physical, mental, or social
Term
value
Definition
partners weigh each other’s basic values, seeking compatibility; philosophy of life, politics, sexual values, religious beliefs, and so on.
Term
role
Definition
each person analyzes the other’s behaviors, or the person fulfills his or her roles as lover, companion, friend and worker and potential husband or wife and mother or father
Term
Types of never-married individualized marriages
Definition
•Never-married people are more likely to marry other never-married people than they are to “intermarry” by marrying divorced people
•Never-married individuals who marry divorced partners may find that they have to deal with lower amounts of resources because of the continued demands of former spouses and the needs of children of former marriages
Term
Types of enduring marriages
Definition
conflict-habituated
passive-congenial
devitalized
vital
total
Term
conflict-habituated marriages
Definition
relationships in which tension, arguing, and conflict “permeate the relationship”—conflict holds couple together
Term
passive-congenial marriages
Definition
relationships that begin without the emotional “spark” or intensity contained in our romantic idealizations of marriage
Term
devitalized marriages
Definition
begin with high levels of emotional intensity that dwindles over time; they have a history of having been in a more intimate, sexual gratifying, emotional relationship and that has become an emotional void
Term
vital marriages
Definition
appeal more to our romantic notions of marriage cause they begin and continue with high levels of emotional intensity; the relationship is most valued aspect of their lives, and they allocate their time and attention on the basis of such priority, conflict is not absent but it is managed in such a manner as to make quick resolution likely
Term
total marriages
Definition
relationships in which characteristics of vital relationships are present but to a wider and deeper degree
Term
Best position for female orgasm
Definition
any position where the woman is on top
Term
types of never marrieds
Definition
voluntarily and temporarily
involuntarily and temporarily
resolveds
involuntarily
Term
voluntarily and temporarily unmarrieds
Definition
these are usually younger men and women actively pursuing education, career goals, or “having a good time”; consider their singleness temporary
Term
involuntarily and temporarily unmarrieds
Definition
women and men in this category are actively and consciously seeking marital partners; their desires to marry someday are referred to as wishfuls
Term
resolveds
Definition
individuals who regard themselves as permanently single; include priests and nuns
Term
involuntarily unmarrieds
Definition
considered regretfuls in that they would prefer to be married but are others resigned to their “fate”
Term
involuntarily childless
Definition
they wanted or were supposed to have children; have an “impaired ability” to have children or those couples who seek help for infertility
Term
childfree
Definition
referring to those without children; child-free marriages are couples who expect and intend to remain nonparents
Term
open adoption
Definition
there is contact between adoptive family and birth parents; involvement can either be mediated or direct
Term
infant mortality
Definition
highest in the US than most of the developed world
Term
SIDS
Definition
sudden infant death syndrome; a perplexing phenomenon wherein an apparently healthy infant dies suddenly while sleeping
Term
culture and conduct of fatherhood
Definition
culture of fatherhood has clearly changed in the directions; conduct of fatherhood has kept pace
Term
parentified child
Definition
children forced to become caregivers well before adulthood; when parents are chronically independent, mentally ill, incapacitated after a divorce or widowhood, or socially isolated or incapacitated
Term
bifurcation and working time
Definition
wherein some work longer and longer days and weeks while others work fewer hours than they need or want
Term
time strain
Definition
in which individuals feel that they do not have or spend enough time in certain roles and relationships
Term
work spillover
Definition
the effect that work has on individuals and families, absorbing their time and energy and impinging on their psychological states
Term
wage gap
Definition
the differences in women’s and men’s incomes translate into more women than men experiencing poverty and in need of state or federal assistance
Term
abuse of power
Definition
sexual harassment consists of unwelcomed advances, request sexual favors or other verbal or physical conduct of sexual nature as a condition of instruction or employment
Term
hostile environment
Definition
someone acts in sexual ways to interfere with a person’s performance by creating a hostile or offensive learning or work environment
Term
mental labor
Definition
the process of worrying about the baby, seeking and processing information about infants and their needs, and managing division of infant care in the househould
Term
shift couples
Definition
structure their home and work lives into a turn-taking, alternating system of paid work and family work; when one is at work, the other is at home
Term
types of intimate violence
Definition
common couple violence/situational couple violence
intimate terrorism
violent resistance
mutual violent control
Term
common couple violence
Definition
erupts during an argument when one partner strikes the other in the heat of the moment; not part of a wider relationship pattern; rarely escalates
Term
intimate terrorism
Definition
one partner tries to dominate and control the other; violent episodes that escalate and emotional abuse are two common traits
Term
violent resistance
Definition
encompasses what is often meant by “self-defensive” violence; more commonly perpetrated by women than men
Term
mutual violent control
Definition
relationships in which both partners are violently trying to control each other and the relationship
Term
differences in men and women as perpetrators
Definition
females between the ages of 20 and 24 were at the greatest risk of nonfatal intimate partner violence; males between 12 and 15 or those age 65 experienced the lowest rates of nonfatal partner violence; half the female victims of nonfatal intimate partner violence suffered an injury; unmarried women have higher rates of intimate partner violence victimization than do married women
Term
marital rape
Definition
form of battering inflicted by husbands on wives and male-on-female or male intimate partners, often as a pattern on intimate terrorism; “unwanted sexual penetration, perpetrated by force, threat of harm, or when a victim is intoxicated”
Term
characteristics of parents who abuse their children
Definition
parent was physically punished by his or her parents; his or her father physically abused their mother; parents believe in corporal discipline of child; unrealistic expectations of their children and less understanding of age-appropriate behaviors; marital relationship itself may not be valued by the parents; parental substance abuse
Term
frequency of psychological aggressoin
Definition
the verbal attacks on children; 89% report having committed at least one of the five kinds of psychological aggression
Term
child sex abuse
Definition
such actions as fondling, raping, or exposing child to other sexual activities; girls most at risk; half white; children under age of 1 had the highest rate of victimization
Term
intergenerational transgression
Definition
the increased likelihood that divorce will later occur to them; those whose parents were divorce
Term
separation distress
Definition
when a marriage breaks ; the distress is real, results from absence of one’s spouse, fortunately, does not last forever; almost all attention is centered on the missing partner and is accompanied by the apprehensiveness, anxiety, fear and often panic
Term
dating again-biggest problems and how it differs from premarital dating
Definition
•Greatest problem is how to meet other unmarried people
•Separated and divorced men in their 20s and 30s are at a particular disadvantage; considerably young women are available than men[
•Divorced people are often too pressed for time to waste it on a first date that might as not go well
•Less spontaneous for divorced people
Term
alimony
Definition
spousal support, monetary payment a former spouse makes to the other to meet his or her economic needs; it is not intended to be punitive
Term
child support
Definition
the monetary payments made by the noncustodial spouse to the custodial spouse to assist in child-rearing expenses
Term
3 stages of divorce for kids
Definition
initial
transition
restabilization
Term
initial stage
Definition
follows the decision to separate, was extremely successful conflict escalated, and unhappiness was epidemic; children’s aggressive responses were magnified by the parents’ inability to cope because of the crisis in their own lives
Term
transition stage
Definition
began about a year after the separation, when extreme emotional responses of the children had diminished or disappeared
Term
restabilization stage
Definition
families have reached the restabilization stage by the end of five years; economic and social changes had been incorporated into daily living
Term
divorce mediation
Definition
the process in which a mediator attempts to assist divorcing couples in resolving personal, legal, and parenting issues in a cooperative manner
Term
social father
Definition
a male relative, family associative, or mother’s partner—who demonstrates parental behaviors and is like a father to the child
Term
binuclear family
Definition
a post-divorce family system with children; consists of two nuclear family
Term
who is more likely to remarry
Definition
men
Term
structural differences of blended families
Definition
•Almost all the members in a stepfamily have lost an important primary relationship
•One biological parent typically lives outside the current family
•The relationship between a parent and his or her children pre-dates the relationship between new partner
•Stepparent roles are ill defined
•Many children in stepfamilies are also members of a noncustodial parent’s household
Children in stepfamilies have at least one extra pair of grandparents
Term
paternal claiming
Definition
embracing stepchildren as if they were biological children and becoming involved in the processes of nurturing, providing for, and protecting them, is a two-way process
Term
women tend to report higher marital satisfaction than men
Definition
false
Term
cuddle hormone
Definition
oxytocin
Term
antidepressants
Definition
fear of intimacy, too much work, low sexual desire NOT lack of adequate vitamins and minerals
Term
moving closer to someone can suggest
Definition
intimacy, threat, and interest
Term
how many positives are there for every negative
Definition
five
Term
authoritative
Definition
warm and fuzzy, but firm
Term
authoritative
Definition
warm and fuzzy, but firm
Term
what age group is most likely to be abused?
Definition
elderly