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Management Chapters
Chapters 7
34
Management
10/13/2010

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Term
Organizational Innovation
Definition
the successful implementation of creative ideas in organizations
Term
Creativity
Definition
the production of novel and useful ideas
Term
organizational change
Definition
a difference in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time
Term
Technology Cycle
Definition
A cycle that begins with the birth of a new technology and ends when that technology reaches its limits and is replaced by a newer, substantially better technology
Term
S-Curve pattern of innovation
Definition
a pattern of technological innovation characterized by slow initial progress, then rapid progress, and then slows progress again as a technology matures and reaches its limits
Term
Innovation Streams
Definition
patterns of innovation over that can create sustainable competitive advantage
Term
Technological Discontinuity
Definition
when a scientific advance or a unique combination of existing technologies creates a significant breakthrough in the performance or function
Term
Discontinuous Change
Definition
the phase of a technology cycle characterized by technological substitution and design competition
Term
Technological Substitution
Definition
the purchase of new technologies to replace older ones
Term
Design Competition
Definition
Competition between old and new technologies to establish a new technological standard or dominant design
Term
Dominant Design
Definition
a new technological design or process that becomes the accepted market standard
Term
Technological Lockout
Definition
when a new dominant design prevents a company from competitively selling its products or makes it difficult to do so
Term
Incremental Change
Definition
the phase of a technology cycle in which companies innovate by lowering costs and improving the functioning and performance of the dominant technological design
Term
Creative Work Environments
Definition
workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged
Term
Flow
Definition
a psychological state of effortlessness, in which you become completely absorbed in what you're doing and time seems to pass quickly
Term
Experiential approach to innovation
Definition
an approach to innovation that assumes a highly uncertain environment and uses intuition, flexible options, and hands-on experience to reduce uncertainty and accelerate learning and understanding
Term
Design iteration
Definition
a cycle of repetition in which a company tests a prototype of a new product or service, improves on that design, and then builds and tests the improved prototype
Term
Product Prototype
Definition
a full-scale, working model that is being tested for design, function, and reliability
Term
Testing
Definition
the systematic comparison of different product designs or design iterations
Term
Milestones
Definition
formal project review points used to assess progress and performance
Term
Multifunctional Teams
Definition
work teams composed of people from different departments
Term
Compression approach to innovation
Definition
an approach to innovation that assumes that incremental innovation can be planned using a series of steps and that compressing those steps can speed innovations
Term
Generational Change
Definition
change based on incremental improvements to a dominant technological design such that the improved technology is fully backward compatible with the older technology
Term
Organizational Decline
Definition
A large decrease in organizational performance that occurs when companies don't anticipate, recognize neutralize, or adapt to the internal or external pressures that threaten their survival
Term
Change Forces
Definition
forces that produce differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time
Term
Resistance Forces
Definition
Forces that support the existing state of conditions in organizations
Term
Resistance to Change
Definition
opposition to change resulting from self-interest, misunderstanding and distrust, and a general intolerance for change
Term
Unfreezing
Definition
getting the people affected by change to believe that change is needed
Term
Change Intervention
Definition
the process used to get workers and managers to change their behavior and work practices
Term
Refreezing
Definition
supporting and reinforcing new changes that they stick
Term
Coercion
Definition
using formal power and authority to force others to change
Term
General Electric Workout
Definition
a three-day meeting in which managers and employees from different levels and parts of an organization quickly generate and act on solutions to specific business problems
Term
Organizational Development
Definition
A philosophy and collection of planned change interventions designed to improve an organization's long-term health and performance
Term
Change Agent
Definition
the person formally in charge of guiding a change effort