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Management 300
Test 1
167
Management
09/26/2010

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Term
Organization:
Definition
A group of people who work together to achieve some specific purpose
Term
Management is defined as:
(three things)
Definition
1. The pursuit of organizational goals efficiently and effectivly by
2. Integrating the work of people through
3. Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the organization's resources
Term
To be efficient means:
Definition
To use resources-people, money, raw materials, and the like-wisely and cost-effectively
Term
To be effective means:
Definition
to achieve results, to make the right decisions and to succssfullly carry them out so that they achieve organizational goals
Term
Examples of Efficiency vs. Effectiveness
Definition
Many companies now use a recorded “telephone menu” of options to answer customer calls
This is efficient for the companies, but not effective
Most consumers prefer a live agent
Term
Example – Losing Competitive Advantage
Definition
Major networks – ABC, NBC, CBS, and Fox have lost their competitive advantage
Rise of cable, change to an “on-demand” viewing model, and the networks’ obsession with beating other hit shows
Term
Competitive advantage:
Definition
the ability of an organization to produce goods or services more efficiently than competitors do, thereby outperforming them
Term
Keys to maintaining a competitive advantage: (4 things)
Definition
1.Being responsive to customers
2.Innovation
3.Quality
4.Efficiency
Term
What are the four principal functions of managers:
Definition
Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling
Term
Planning:
Definition
You set goals and decide how to achieve them
Term
Organizing:
Definition
You arrange tasks, people, and other resources to accomplish the work
Term
Leading:
Definition
You motivate, direct, and otherwise influence people to work hard to achieve the organization's goals
Term
Controlling:
Definition
You monitor performance, compare it with goals, and take corrective action as needed
Term
What are the 4 levels of management?
Definition
nonmanagerial personnel, First-line managers, middle managers, top managers
Term
What are the functional areas of management?
Definition
R&D, Marketing, Finance, Production, Human resources
Term
Top managers:
Definition
make long-term decisions about the overall direction of the organization and establish the objectives, policies, and strategies for it
Term
Middle managers:
Definition
implement the policies and plans of the top managers above them and supervise and coordinate the activities of the first-line managers below them
Term
First-line managers:
Definition
make short-term operating decisions, directing the daily tasks of nonmanagerial personnel
Term
Functional manager:
Definition
responsible for just one organizational activity
Term
General manager
Definition
responsible for several organizational activities
Term
The manager’s roles: Mintzberg’s useful findings
Definition
1.A manager relies more on verbal than on written communication
2.A manager works long hours at an intense pace
3.A manager’s work is characterized by fragmentation, brevity, & variety
Term
Three types of managerial roles:
Definition
Interperosnal, Informational, Decisional
Term
Interpersonal roles:
Definition
managers interact with people inside and outside their work units. figurehead, leader, liaison
Term
Informational roles:
Definition
managers receive and communicate information. monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
Term
Decisional roles:
Definition
managers use information to make decisions to solve problems or take advantage of opportunities. entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
Term
Entrepreneurship:
Definition
process of taking risks to try to create a new empire. Entrepreneur, intrapreneur
Term
Entrepereneur:
Definition
someone who sees a new opportunity for a product or service and launches a business to try to realize it
Term
Intrapreneur:
Definition
someone who works inside an existing organization who sees an opportunity for a product or service and mobilizes the organization’s resources to try to realize it
Term
Differences between entrepreneurs and managers:
Definition
Being an entrepreneur is what it takes to start a business. Being a manager is what it takes to grow or maintain a business. Entrepreneurs more than managers
-have high self confidence and tolerance for risk

Term
Similarities between entrepreneurs and managers:
Definition
Both entrepreneurs and managers
-have a high need for achievement
-believe in personal control of destiny
-have high energy levels and an action orientation
-have a high tolerance for ambiguity
Term
Necessity entrepreneurs:
Definition
people who suddenly must earn a living and are simply trying to replace lost income and are hoping a job comes along
Term
Opportunity entrepreneurs
Definition
those who start their business out of a burning desire rather than because they lost a job
Term
3 skills star managers need:
Definition
Technical skills, conceptual skills, Human skills
Term
Technical skills:
Definition
the job-specific knowledge needed to perform well in a specialized field
Term
Conceptual skills:
Definition
the ability to think analytically, to visualize an organization as a whole and understand how the parts work together
Term
Human skills:
Definition
the ability to work well in cooperation with other people to get things done
Term
4 most valued traits in managers
Definition
The ability to motivate and engage others. The ability to communicate. Work experience outside the United States. High energy levels to meet the demands of global travel and a 24/7 world
Term
Technical skills:
Definition
the job-specific knowledge needed to perform well in a specialized field
Term
Conceptual skills:
Definition
the ability to think analytically, to visualize an organization as a whole and understand how the parts work together
Term
Human Skills:
Definition
the ability to work well in cooperation with other people to get things done
Term
The most valued traits in managers:
Definition
The ability to motivate and engage others
The ability to communicate
Work experience outside the United States
High energy levels to meet the demands of global travel and a 24/7 world
Term
2 management types associated with the classical viewpoint
Definition
Scientific management and administrative management
Term
Scientific management:
Definition
emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers. Frederick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian, Gilbreth
Term
Frederick W. Taylor
Definition
Taylor's approach is also often referred to, as Taylor's Principles, or frequently disparagingly, as Taylorism. Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles:

Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks.
Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves.
Provide "Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task" (Montgomery 1997: 250).
Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.
Term
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Definition
According to Claude George (1968), Gilbreth reduced all motions of the hand into some combination of 17 basic motions. These included grasp, transport loaded, and hold. Gilbreth named the motions therbligs, "Gilbreth" spelled backwards with the th transposed. He used a motion picture camera that was calibrated in fractions of minutes to time the smallest of motions in workers.

Term
4 Principles of Scientific Management:
Definition
1.Scientifically study each part of the task
2.Carefully select workers with the right abilities
3.Give workers the training and incentives to do the task
4.Use scientific principles to plan the work methods
Term
Administrative management:
Definition
concerned with managing the total organization
Term
Henri Fayol
Definition
French engineer and industrialist
first to identify the major functions of management
Term
Five Positive Bureaucratic Features:
Definition
1.A well-defined hierarchy of authority
2.Formal rules and procedures
3.A clear division of labor
4.Impersonality
5.Careers based on merit
Term
Why the Classical Viewpoint is Important:
Definition
Work activity was amenable to a rational approach. Through the application of scientific methods, time and motion studies, and job specialization it was possible to boost productivity
Term
Problems with the classical viewpoint
Definition
Mechanistic
Tends to view humans as cogs within a machine, not taking into account the importance of human needs

Term
Three types of management associated with the behavioral viewpoint:
Definition
Behaviorism, Human Relations, & Behavioral Science
Term
Behavioral viewpoint
Definition
emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement
Term
Hugo Munsterberg
Definition
father of industrial psychology

Study jobs and determine which people are best suited to specific jobs
Identify the psychological conditions under which employees do their best work
Devise management strategies to influence employees to follow management’s interests
Term
Mary Parker Follett
Definition
social worker and social philosopher
Organizations should be operated as “communities”
Conflicts should be resolved by having managers and workers talk over differences and find solutions that would satisfy both parties
The work process should be under control of workers with relevant knowledge
Term
Hawthorne effect:
Definition
employees worked harder if they received added attention, thought that managers cared about their welfare and that supervisors paid special attention to them
Term
Elton Mayo
Definition
Mayo is known as the founder of the Human Relations Movement, and is known for his research including the Hawthorne Studies and his book The Human Problems of an Industrialized Civilization (1933). The research he conducted under the Hawthorne Studies of the 1930s showed the importance of groups in affecting the behavior of individuals at work. Mayo's employees, Roethlisberger and Dickinson, conducted the practical experiments. This enabled him to make certain deductions about how managers should behave. He carried out a number of investigations to look at ways of improving productivity, for example changing lighting conditions in the workplace. What he found however was that work satisfaction depended to a large extent on the informal social pattern of the work group. Where norms of cooperation and higher output were established because of a feeling of importance, physical conditions or financial incentives had little motivational value. People will form work groups and this can be used by management to benefit the organization.

He concluded that people's work performance is dependent on both social issues and job content. He suggested a tension between workers' 'logic of sentiment' and managers' 'logic of cost and efficiency' which could lead to conflict within organizations.

Term
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Definition
Physiological
Safety
Social
Esteem
Self-actualization
Term
Douglas McGregor
Definition
Theory X versus Theory Y
Term
Theory X
Definition
represents a pessimistic, negative view of workers
workers are irresponsible, resistant to change, lack ambition, hate work, and want to be led
Term
Theory Y
Definition
represents an optimistic, positive view of workers
Workers are considered capable of accepting responsibility, self-direction, self control and being creative
Term
Behavioral science
Definition
relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers
Term
Two management types associated with the quantitative viewpoint
Definition
Management Science and operations research
Term
Quantitative management
Definition
application to management of quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations
Management science, operations management
Term
Management science
Definition
Stresses the use of rational, science-based techniques and mathematical models to improve decision making and strategic planning
Term
Operations management
Definition
focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products or services more effectively
work scheduling, production planning, facilities location and design
Term
Systems viewpoint
Definition
regards the organization as a system of interrelated parts
collection of subsystems
part of the larger environment
Term
Four parts of a system:
Definition
Inputs, Transformational processes, Outputs, Feedback
Term
Inputs:
Definition
People, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce an organization's goods or services
Term
Transformational processes:
Definition
The organizations capabilities in management and technology that are applied to converting inputs to outputs.
Term
Outputs:
Definition
The products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent. etc. produced by the organization
Term
Feedback:
Definition
Information about the reaction of the enviroment to the outputs, which affects the inputs
Term
Open system
Definition
continually interacts with its environment
Term
Closed system
Definition
has little interaction with its environment
Term
Contingency viewpoint
Definition
emphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary according to the individual and the environmental situation
Most practical because it addresses problems on a case-by-case basis
Term
Quality control
Definition
the strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production
Term
Quality assurance
Definition
focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for “zero defects”
Term
Total quality management (TQM)
Definition
comprehensive approach-led by top management and supported throughout the organization-dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction
Term
Edward Deming
Definition
Deming began to move toward the application of statistical methods to industrial production and management. Shewhart's idea of common and special causes of variation led directly to Deming's theory of management. Deming saw that these ideas could be applied not only to manufacturing processes but also to the processes by which enterprises are led and managed. This key insight made possible his enormous influence on the economics of the industrialized world after 1950.[8]
Term
Joseph Juran
Definition
When he began his career in the 1920s the principal focus in quality management was on the quality of the end, or finished, product. The tools used were from the Bell system of acceptance sampling, inspection plans, and control charts. The ideas of Frederick Winslow Taylor dominated.

Juran is widely credited for adding the human dimension to quality management. He pushed for the education and training of managers. For Juran, human relations problems were the ones to isolate. Resistance to change—or, in his terms, cultural resistance—was the root cause of quality issues. Juran credits Margaret Mead's book Cultural Patterns and Technical Change for illuminating the core problem in reforming business quality.[9] He wrote Managerial Breakthrough, which was published in 1964, outlining the issue.

Term
Steps to Total Quality Management
Definition
1.Make continuous improvement a priority
2.Get every employee involved
3.Listen to and learn from customers and employees
4.Use accurate standards to identify and eliminate problems
Term
Learning organization
Definition
organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge
Term
Stakeholders
Definition
the people whose interests are affected by an organization’s activities
Internal, external
Term
Examples of internal stakeholders
Definition
Employees, owners, board of directors
Term
Examples of external stakeholders in the task enviroment
Definition
customers, media, competitors, suppliers, governments, unions
Term
Examples of external stakeholders in the general enviroment
Definition
economic forces, technological forces, political-legal forces
Term
Owners
Definition
consist of all those who can claim the organization as their legal property
Term
Board of directors
Definition
members elected by the stockholders to see that the company is being run according to their interests
Term
Example: Amazon.com and the Customer Experience
Definition
Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of Amazon.com is obsessed with customer service
Believes that company’s success is driven by the customer experience
In 2007 profitability was around 6%
Term
Strategic allies
Definition
describes the relationship of two organizations who join forces to achieve advantages neither can perform as well alone
Term
Economic forces
Definition
consist of the general economic conditions and trends – unemployment, inflation, interest rates, economic growth – that may affect an organization’s performance
Term
Economic forces
Definition
consist of the general economic conditions and trends – unemployment, inflation, interest rates, economic growth – that may affect an organization’s performance
Term
Technological forces
Definition
new developments in methods for transforming resources into goods and services
Term
Sociocultural forces
Definition
Influences and trends originating in a country’s, a society’s, or a culture’s human relationships and values that may affect an organization
Term
Demographic forces
Definition
influences on an organization arising from changes in the characteristics of a population, such as age, gender, or ethnic origin
Term
Political-Legal forces
Definition
changes in the way politics shape laws and laws shape the opportunities for and threats to an organization
Term
International forces
Definition
changes in the economic, political, legal, and technological global system that may affect an organization
Term
Ethical dilemma
Definition
situation in which you have to decide whether to pursue a course of action that may benefit you or your organization but that is unethical or even illegal
Term
Ethics
Definition
standards of right and wrong that influence behavior
Term
Values
Definition
relatively permanent and deeply held underlying beliefs and attitudes that help determine a person’s behavior
Term
Four Approaches to deciding ethical dilemmas:
Definition
Utilitarian, Individual, Moral-rights, Justice
Term
Utilitarian approach
Definition
guided by what will result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Term
Individual approach
Definition
guided by what will result in the individual’s best long term interest, which ultimately is in everyone’s self-interest
Term
Moral-rights approach
Definition
guided by respect for the fundamental rights of human beings
Term
Justice approach
Definition
guided by respect for impartial standards of fairness and equity
Term
Three Levels of Moral development
Definition
preconventional, conventional, postconventional
Term
Preconventional
Definition
follows rules
Term
conventional
Definition
follows expectations of others
Term
postconventional
Definition
guided by internal values
Term
How Managers Can Promote Ethics
Definition
Support by top managers of a strong ethical climate
Ethics codes and training programs
Rewarding ethical behavior: protecting whistleblowers
Term
Social responsibility
Definition
manager’s duty to take actions that will benefit the interests of society as well as of the organization
Term
Corporate social responsibility
Definition
notion that corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit
Term
Barriers to Diversity
Definition
Stereotypes and prejudices
Fear of reverse discrimination
Resistance to diversity program priorities
Unsupportive social atmospheres
Lack of support for family demands
Lack of support for career-building steps
Term
Globalization
Definition
the trend of the world economy toward becoming a more interdependent system
Term
Example: Worldwide E-Commerce – Amazon.com
Definition
Jeffrey Bezos left Wall Street in 1994 to launch an online bookstore called Amazon.com
Believed there could be a great deal of interaction
In 2007, growth was 39% with sales of 14.84 billion
Term
Global economy
Definition
the increasing tendency of the economies of the world to interact with one another as one market instead of many national markets
Term
Minifirms operating worldwide
Definition
Small companies can get started more easily
Small companies can maneuver faster
Term
Multinational corporation
Definition
business firm with operations in several countries
Term
Multinational organization
Definition
Multinational organization
Term
Ethnocentric managers
Definition
believe that their native country, culture, language, and behavior are superior to all others
Term
Parochialism
Definition
narrow view in which people see things solely through their own view
Term
Polycentric managers
Definition
take the view that native managers in the foreign offices best understand native personnel and practices, and so the home office should leave them alone
Term
Polycentric managers
Definition
take the view that native managers in the foreign offices best understand native personnel and practices, and so the home office should leave them alone
Term
Polycentric managers
Definition
take the view that native managers in the foreign offices best understand native personnel and practices, and so the home office should leave them alone
Term
Parochialism
Definition
narrow view in which people see things solely through their own view
Term
Polycentric managers
Definition
take the view that native managers in the foreign offices best understand native personnel and practices, and so the home office should leave them alone
Term
Geocentric managers
Definition
accept that there are differences and similarities between home and foreign personnel and practices and that they should use whatever techniques are most effective
Term
5 reasons why companies expand internationally
Definition
1.Availability of supplies
2.New markets
3.Lower labor costs
4.Access to finance capital
5.Avoidance of tariffs & import quotas
Term
Macquiladoras
Definition
manufacturing plants allowed to operate in Mexico with special privileges in return for employing Mexican citizens
Term
Five Ways of Expanding Internationally in order of lowest risk and investment to highest
Definition
Global outsourcing, importing and exporting and countertrading, licensing and franchising, joint ventures, wholly-owned subsidaries
Term
Global outsourcing
Definition
using suppliers outside the U.S. to provide labor, goods, or services
Term
Countertrading
Definition
bartering goods for goods
Term
Licensing
Definition
a firm allows a foreign company to pay it a fee to make or distribute the firm’s product or service
Term
Franchising
Definition
a firm allows a foreign company to pay it a fee and a share of the profit in return for using the firm’s brand name and a package of materials and services
Term
Joint ventures
Definition
formed with a foreign company to share the risks and rewards of starting a new enterprise together in a foreign country
also known as a strategic alliance
Term
Greenfield venture
Definition
foreign subsidiary that the owning organization has built from scratch
Term
Tariffs
Definition
customs duty, or tax, levied mainly on imports
Term
Import quotas
Definition
limits on the numbers of a product that can be imported
Term
Embargoes
Definition
complete ban on the import or export of certain products
Term
dumping
Definition
the practice of a foreign company’s exporting products abroad at a lower price than the price in the home market – or even below the costs of production – in order to drive down the price of the domestic product
Term
World Bank
Definition
purpose is to provide low-interest loans to developing nations for improving transportation, education, health, and communications
Term
International Money Fund (IMF)
Definition
designed to assist in smoothing the flow of money between nations
Term
Trading bloc
Definition
group of nations within a geographic region that have agreed to remove trade barriers with one another
also known as an economic community
Term
NAFTA
Definition
U.S., Canada, Mexico
Term
European Union
Definition
27 trading partners in Europe
Term
APEC
Definition
group of 21 Pacific Rim countries
Term
Mercosur
Definition
trading bloc in Latin America
Term
CAFTA
Definition
Central America
Term
Culture
Definition
shared set of beliefs, values, knowledge, and patterns of behavior common to a group of people
Term
Low-context culture
Definition
shared meanings are primarily derived from written and spoken words
Term
High-context culture
Definition
people rely heavily on situational cues for meaning when communicating with others
Term
Hofstede’s Model of Four Cultural Dimensions
Definition
individualism vs collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity,
Term
Individualism/collectivism
Definition
how loosely or tightly are people socially bonded
Term
Power distance
Definition
how much do people accept inequality in power
Term
Uncertainty avoidance
Definition
how strongly do people desire certainty
Term
Masculinity/femininity
Definition
how much do people embrace stereotypical male or female traits
Term
Other Cultural Variations
Definition
Language
Interpersonal space
Time orientation
Religion
Term
Monochronic time
Definition
preference for doing one thing at a time
Term
Polychronic time
Definition
preference for doing more than one thing at a time
Term
Viewpoints associated with the historical perspective
Definition
Classical: Scientific and Administrative. Behavioral: Behaviorism, Human Relations, and Behavioral Sciences. Quantitative: Management Science and Operations Research
Term
Major question associated with the Classical viewpoint:
Definition
If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoints teach you?
Term
Major question associated with the Behavioral viewpoint:
Definition
To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can you learn from the behavioral viewpoint?
Term
Major Question associated with the Quantitative viewpoint:
Definition
If the manager’s job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help?
Term
Viewpoints associated with the Contemporary perspective:
Definition
Systems, Contingency, and Quality-Management
Term
Major Question associated with the systems viewpoint
Definition
How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint?
Term
Major question associated with the contingency viewpoint
Definition
the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations?
Term
Major question associated with the quality management viewpoint
Definition
Can the quality-management viewpoints offer guidelines for true managerial success?