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Mammalian Physiology 534
Study Cards for Lab exam final
151
Biology
05/09/2010

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Term

Arrange muscle structures in order of size

 

Definition

Fiber --> Fibril --> Sarcomere --> Filaments

 

[image][image]

Term
Electrical events conducted along the cell (plasma) membrane that stimulate contraction are called
Definition
action potentials
Term
Actin and myosin comprise the _______ & _______ filaments, respectively
Definition

Actin - thin

Myosin - thick

[image]

Term
What substance couples electrical excitation to muscle contraction?
Definition

Ca2+

 

[image]

[image]

Term
Ca2+ is stored in which intracellular organelle?
Definition

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

 

 

Term
Ca2+ binds to a regulatory protein called 1._______ which is in turn bound to an inhibitory protein called 2._________
Definition

1. Troponin     2. Tropomyosin

 

[image]

Term
The neurotransmitter chemical that stimulates contraction of skeletal muscles:
Definition

Ach or Acetylcholine

 

[image]

Term
Draw a sarcomere and label the parts and the bands. Then describe & illustrate how the structure of a sarcomere changes during muscle contraction.
Definition

[image]

 

The thick and thin filaments slide over each other. The Z lines come closer together, but the A bands size do not change. The H & I bands also get more narrow and may vanish completely.

 

 

 

 

 

Youtube video about sarcomere contraction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2TSaz8-yNQ

Term
Trace the course of events starting from the moment ACh binds to its receptors in the sarcolemma and ending when Ca2+ enters the sarcoplasm.
Definition

Ach binds to receptors in the sarcolemma, which causes action potentials to take place, then this causes the voltage gated Ca2+ channels in the transverse tubules to make the Ca2+ release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which leads to diffusion of Ca2+ into the sarcoplasm. 

[image]

Term
Trace course of events starting from the moment the Ca2+ enters the sarcoplasm and ending when the cross bridges have completed one power stroke
Definition

 

Once the Ca2+ has entered the sarcoplasm, it binds to the troponin, then the tropomyosin shifts its position and reveals the actin binding sites to which the myosin cross bridges attach. Once the crossbridge attaches, it can undergo a power stroke, which consists of the filaments sliding.

 

[image]

Term
Which has a lower threshold for stimulation of muscle contraction?  Direct muscle stimulation or nerve stimulation?  Why?
Definition
Stimulation of the nerve has a lower threshold because the sarcoplasmic reticulum is directly stimulated and releases more Ca2+. A lower electrical current is used to stimulate the nerve. Stimulation of the sciatic nerve had the lower threshold because the nerve is composed of many axons that innervate all muscle fibers of the gastrocnemius. Since each axon branches to innervate hundreds of thousands of fibers, less voltage is required to excite the minimum # of fibers required to initiate a recorded contraction. Stimulation of the muscle directly requires a higher voltage to produce the same response.
Term
What would happen to a beating heart of blood concentration of Ca2+ was abnormally increased?
Definition
If the blood concentration of Ca2+ was increased abnormally, the strength of the contraction in heart muscle beats should increase accordingly. Since Ca2+ ion couples electrical excitation to muscle contraction it follows that an increase in Ca2+ would result in an increase in cardic contractility.
Term
Predict the effects on muscles of a drug that blocks the action of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine. Compare that to effects on muscles of a drug that blocks acetylcholine receptors.
Definition

If action of ACh-ase was blocked, the muscle would constantly contract - spastic paralysis.

 

If the ACh receptors were blocked, this would cause muscle flaccid paralysis.

Term
Twitch, summation, tetanus, fatigue diagram.
Definition

This diagram does not include fatigue.

 

[image]

Term
What happens when twitch, summation, and tetanus are tested in a human muscle?
Definition
When the muscles were stimulated, it caused the fingers on the hand to move and twitch. When the frequency wass increased, the fingers curled and remained contracted, representing tetanus. By moving the electrode plates around, we were able to cause individual fingers to move.
Term
Twitch
Definition
Rapid contraction followed by relaxation
Term
Summation
Definition
successive twitches "ride piggyback" on preceding twitches
Term
Tetanus
Definition
maintenance of a sustained muscle contraction
Term
Sustained muscular spasm is called 1.__________.  The two most common causes of this are 2.____________ and 3. ____________.
Definition

1. tetany

2. hypocalcemia

3. alkalosis

Term

How we produced summated contractions with the isolated muscle and how we produced a tetanus contraction. Explain how summation of twitches is accomplished in vivo and how a sustained, complete tetanus contraction is produced.

 

Definition

We stimulated the muscle with rapid manual pulses of electricity so that the muscle was quickly contracting and twitching. To produce tetanus, we set the machine to automatically stimulate the muscle, and raised the frequency, until the twitches appeared to vanish and turned into a continuous muscle contraction.

 

Summation in vivo is caused by the fiber twitches of different motor units which occurs rapidly and successively and causes a synchronous activation of multiple fibers. Stronger muscle contraction occurs by the recruitment of more motor units.

 

Tetanus occurs in vivo when succesive motor units twitch rapidly enough that the muscle contraction is sustained and smooth.

Term

How can you increase the strength of the contraction with isolated muscle, and explain how this is accomplished in vivo.

 

Definition

The strength of the contraction could be increased if multiple places on the frogs muscles were stimulated at the same time, so the contractions could combine.

In vivo, this occurs by more motor units being recruited to cause more summated contractions and an overall increase in the strength of the contraction.

Term
How was muscle fatigue demonstrated in the lab & how fatigue occured.
Definition

We kept a continuous stimulation on the frog's muscle until the muscle appeared to become limp and no longer contracted and the physiograph recorder line had a downward curve.

The fatigue is produced by an increase in extracellular K+ , which causes the muscle to depolarize and makes action potentials not occur. Also, the muscle glycogen gets depleted and the sarcoplasmic reticulum does not release Ca2+ , which makes excitation/contraction coupling not occur.

Term

Suppose you had a 10-lb weight in your hand and a constant contraction was kept. you would feel pain and it would get hard to hold the weight up. Why?

 

Suppose your hand starts shaking, why?

Definition

because the muscle is kept in constant tetanus/contraction, after an extended period of time, muscle fatigue will occur pain will be felt because lactic acid is built up.

 

The hand shakes because the muscle is becoming fatigued. Action potentials can't occur, the muscle fibers start to not remain contracted because there is not enough calcium to bind to troponin, so the myosin heads start releasing from the actin.

Term
One hemoglobin molecule contains ___ heme groups; each heme group normally combines with one molecule of __________
Definition

4

Oxygen

Term
The hormone __________ stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells; this hormone is secreted by the ____________
Definition

erythropoietin

kidneys

Term

Old RBC's are destroyed by the _____________ system, which includes these three organs:

(a) ______

(b) ______

(c) ______

Definition

reticuloendothelial

spleen

liver

bone marrow

Term
Heme derived from hemoglobin, minus the iron, is converted into a different pigment, known as ______________; an accumulation of this pigment can cause a yellowing known as __________.
Definition

bilirubin

jaundice

Term
Hematocrit
Definition
ratio of the volume of packed RBC's to total blood volume
Term
the molecule formed by the binding of oxygen to deoxyhemoglobin:
Definition
oxyhemoglobin
Term
A hemoglobin molecule containing oxidized iron (Fe3+) is called ______________
Definition
methemoglobin
Term
A molecule formed from the combo. of hemoglobin and carbon monoxide is
Definition
carboxyhemoglobin
Term
A general term for an abnormally low red blood cell count or hemoglobin concentration:
Definition
anemia
Term
The most common cause of anemia is
Definition
iron defficiency
Term

name the antigens present and absent on the surface of a RBC if the person is:

(a) type A negative(RH) ___________

(b) type O positive(RH) ____________

(c) type AB negative(RH) __________

Definition

(a) Contains type A antigens. Because RH is negative, there are no Rh antigens. Does not contain B antigens either.

 

(b) No type A or B antigens. Has Rh antigens because it is positive.

 

(c) Has both A & B antigens, but no Rh antigens.

 

Term
If a person has blood type A, the possible genotypes that the person may have are ___ & ____
Definition
AO and AA
Term
The six possible genotypes of blood
Definition

AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, OO

Phenotypes are antigen A, antigen B, or no antigen (O).

Lack of an antigen is a recessive trait, so an individual with type O blood must have genotype OO. There is no dominance between A & B.

Term
If a person with blood type O marries a person with blood type A, what are the possible blood types their children could have?
Definition
A or O
Term
Universal blood donor type
Definition
type O, Rh(-)
Term
Rarest blood type
Definition
AB
Term
Most common Rh type
Definition
positive
Term
The person most in danger of having a child who develops erythroblastosis fetalis is a woman who has the blood type ________ when her husband has the blood type _________.
Definition
Rh negative and Rh positive
Term
What are the dangers of giving a person a transfusion when the blood types don't match?
Definition
Because the blood can agglutinate and block small blood vessels. This is caused by the binding of antigens to antibodies. For example, if type B blood was given to a type A blood, the Anti-B bodies in the type A blood could attack the type B blood.
Term
Explain how hemolytic disease of the newborn is produced and how the disease can be prevented.
Definition
It can occur when a woman who is Rh negative marries a man who is Rh positive and the fetus is Rh positive. When the baby is born, some of it's Rh+ antigens may cross the torn placenta and enter the mother's immune system. Then, her immune system could create antibodies that would destroy her future babies RBC's while they were in the womb, if the babies were Rh+. To prevent this, Rho(D) immunoglobin (RhoGAM) can be given to the mother within 72 hrs after birth, and this prevents the Rh positive cells from the fetus from stimulating an immune response.
Term
Can blood types be used in paternity cases to prove or disprove possible fatherhood? Give examples to support your answer.
Definition
You can't prove, but you can disprove. For example, suppose the mother was Type A and the child was type B, but the father was type O. This could not be his child because he would only have O antigens and the mother would only have A antigens or O antigens, so the child would have had to get B antigens from a different father.
Term
Suppose a person who has type A blood recieves  large amounts of whole blood from a person who is type O, Rh-, will it be safe?
Definition
Safety depends on amount of donor plasma. The donor blood type O will have RBC's with no antigens, so no agglutination will occur, but the donated plasma will contain antibodies against the A antigens on the RBC's of the recipient. If some donor plasma is given, some agglutination of the recipient RBC's w/ anti-A bodies from the donated plasma will occur. Donated blood is usually centrifuged and the packed cells separated from the plasma so that when needed in an emergency, only packed cells are given in a transfusion.
Term
Calculate the hemoglobin conc. in an unknown blood sample if the unknown absorbance is 0.32 and the standard (12g/dL) had an absorbance of 0.24.
Definition

 

Conc. unknown = (12g/dL x 0.32)/0.24 = 16 g/dL

Term

Calculate mean corpuscular volume (MCV) given the following

Hematocrit = 52, rbc count = 4.6 million

Definition
MCV = (52x10)/4.6 = 113.04 µm3
Term

Calculate MCVconcentration

hematocrit = 52, hemoglobin conc. = 13 g/dL

Definition
MCHC = (13g/dL x 100)/52 = 25%
Term
Causes & danger anemia
Definition
Anemia can be caused by iron deficiency, bone marrow disease, hemolytic disease, infections, vitamin B12 and folic acid difficiencies. Anemia can be dangerous because it can cause an insufficient amount of oxygen to be delivered throughout the body. Also, it can be a sign of other problems, such as blood loss or illness.
Term
Relationship between newborn babies with rapid rate of RBC desctruction and jaundice.
Definition
Jaundice occurs when an excess of bilirubin is produced. this occurs when rbc's are being destroyed and their heme groups are changed to bilirubin. Also, babies livers are still developing, so the liver may not remove the excess bilirubin in bile secretions. Also, some of the bilirubin may be reabsorbed by the intestines before it can go out in the stools.
Term
Could a person have  a low hematocrit, yet still have a normal RBC count?
Definition
If you drink more fluid, the plasma volume increases, so the hematocrit appears low. The red blood cell count could be normal. 
Term
How are carbon monoxide p. and anemia similar.
Definition
Because they both cause a lack of oxygen to be delivered throughout the body. In the case of anemia, this would caused by several factors such as iron def, etc. In CO poisoning, hemoglobin bonds to CO and cannot transport Oxygen, so the body also lacks oxygen like anemia causes.
Term
People at high altitudes have polycythemia (high RBC count). Is this beneficial or harmful?
Definition
The reason this occurs is because erythropoietin is secreted in higher amounts when there is a lack of O so that bone marrow will produce more RBC's. In high altitudes, there is less O for breathing, so polycythemia occurs. This could be beneficial because of the extra oxygen which could be used for the body, but harmful because the body has to work harder to produce RBC's
Term
When blood pressure measurements are taken, the first sound of Korotkoff occurs when the cuff pressure equals the ________ pressure
Definition
Systolic
Term
Last sound of Korotkoff when cuff pressure = __________ pressure.
Definition
diastolic
Term
Sounds of Korotkoff
Definition
Turbulence of the blood caused by compression of artery walls.
Term

BP = 168/112

 

Systolic =

Diastolic =

Definition

168

112

Term

 ------Systolic --------Diastolic

Normal Under 120mmHg    Under 80mmHg

Prehypertension      120-139            80-89

Stage 1Hypertension 140-159             90-99

State 2 Hypertension  160 or greater  100 or greater

Definition
Term
Arterial BP is directly proportional to 2 factors: the ___________________ and the ___________________.
Definition
cardiac output and peripheral resistance
Term
scientific name for device used to measure blood pressure
Definition
sphygmomanometer
Term
Laminar flow and turbulent flow.
Definition

Laminar flow is when blood flows smoothly and in same direction, blood in central axial stream flows faster than blood close to artery wall.

Turbulent flow is when some of the blood moves in circumferential and radial directions and causes vibrations.

Term

Pulse pressure calculation and how value relates to pulse.

Mean arterial pressure calculation and significance.

Definition

Pulse pressure is the difference b/t systolic and diastolic pressure. The value pulse p is when hydrostatic pressure against the artery wall expands and is the pressure head that drives blood through the arterial tree.

Mean arterial pressure is calculated as dia. + 1/3 p pressure. mean arterial p. is combined systolic and diastolic pressure head which forces blood from arterial tree into blood capillaries.

 

Hint: Pulse p. =tree

Hint: Mean art. p. = art tree --> blood cap.

Term
Blood pressure in sitting, reclining, standing
Definition
Blood pressure varied in each pos., with sitting position being the lowest.  Gravity causes pressure to change, and arm position can too.
Term
B.P., p pressure, and mean art. p during exercise
Definition
All of them would increase because oxygen needs to be distributed around the body faster. Also, because of faster moving blood, more would be forced through vessels, thus causing the pressure to increase.
Term
Calculate pulse p. if BP = 142/92
Definition
142-92=50mmHg
Term
Calculate mean art. p. if BP = 142/92
Definition
92 + (50/3) = 108.67 mmHg
Term
As a person gets older, the max cardiac rate ________
Definition
decreases
Term
If a person has athlete's bradycardia, the resting heart rate is _______ than the average.
Definition
slower
Term
Bradycardia is caused by _____________________________________________________________
Definition
higher levels of inhibitory activity by the vagus nerve innervation to the SA node
Term
Aerobic capacity
Definition
max rate of oxygen consumption by the body
Term
lactate threshold
Definition
blood levels of lactic acid(lactate) rise significantly when exercise is performed at 50-70% of aerobic capacity
Term
Primary cause of the higher aerobic cap. of endurance trained athletes is ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Definition
their higher max cardiac outputs, and thus their higher rates of oxygen delivery to the muscles.
Term
Cardiovascular adaptions with endurance training
Definition
The cardiac output is increased because the ventricles contract more strongly and cause an increase in blood volume. This causes athletes to have a higher aerobic cap. and higher rates of oxy. delivery to muscles. Because the muscles have a higher amount of oxy, the athlete can perform better.
Term
How increase in bp and pulse rate after exercise, and the return of these values to baseline following exercise, compare in people who are and who are not physic. fit.
Definition

For people who are not phys. fit, their bp and pr will increase more than phys. fit person, and it will take longer time for their values to return to baseline.

A phys. fit person will increase their levels some, but will quickly return to baseline levels after.

Term
Athletes have higher max. oxygen uptake and exercise at a higher % of this max. before reaching lactate threshold.
Definition
For athletes, their lactate threshold is not reached until they are at 80% of their max oxy uptake. The higher max oxy uptake is higher in an athlete. Also, in athletes, their is a change in respiratory enzymes in the trained muscles which causes a higher % in lactate threshold.
Term
Changes in aerobic cap. and lactate thres. with age.
Definition
They decrease with age. As people age, they become more sedentary, parts of the body don't work as well such as heart. This can be prevented by exercise, healthy diet, etc.
Term
What is myocardial ischemia?
Definition
Myocardial ischemia is inadequate blood flow to the heart. Exercise could provoke this because not enough blood would flow to heart, so muscles would not get enough oxy., so the person would quickly tire, or have problems if they kept on exercising. With regular exercise, blood flow, stroke volume, and greater cardiac output throughout life, this could be prevented.
Term
In lungs, normal hemoglobin w/out oxy, or ____________________ binds to oxy to become _______________________
Definition
deoxyhemoglobin & oxyhemoglobin
Term
Type of hemoglobin bound to CO _______________
Definition
carboxyhemoglobin
Term
Type of hemoglobin where heme iron is oxidized to Fe2+ state:
Definition
methemoglobin
Term
What is the normal % of oxyhemoglobin saturation of arterial blood?
Definition
97%
Term
Graph of absorbance of light as function of wavelength is called
Definition
absorption spectrum
Term
different forms of hemoglobin can be distinguished visually because they have different _______________________________________
Definition
colors, which absorb different amounts of light at each wavelength.
Term
Blood measurment would be abnormally increased in person with CO poisoning? What is danger?
Definition

Carboxyhemoglobin would be increased, and oxyhemoglobin would be lower.

Danger is because oxyhemoglobin concentration decreases, not enough oxygen gets delivered to body and person can die.

Term
How CO poison and anemia are different.
Definition
Both CO poison and anemia cause a lack of oxygen in body. Difference is in anemia, there is a lack of RBC's, whereas with CO poison, there are plenty of RBC's, but CO prevents Oxygen from binding.
Term
Person's % oxyhemoglobin sat. in venous blood was 75% at rest, but decreased to 35% during mod. exercise. (a) explain why venous % oxyhemoglobin sat. decreased. (b) how arterial oxyhemoglobin sat. might change?
Definition

(a) reason for this is because muscles use up oxygen that arteries carry and by time it reaches veins to go back to heart, oxygen has been used up.

(b) arterial % oxyhemoglobin would be high first coming out of the heart, then, as it moved through body, it would decrease as muscles used it up.

Term
% oxyhemoglobin sat. in babies and respiratory distress syndrome & in patients under general anesthesia.
Definition

In babies with resp. distr. syndrome, the measurements allow medical proff. to determine of babies lungs are working prop. and taking in enough oxy. Even if babies have plenty of blood flowing, enough oxy may not be delivered.

In patients under general anesthesia, body functions are shut down, so they are artificially respirated. By monitoring, medical prof. knows how much oxygen to deliver.

Term
"buffers stabilize pH of sln's
Definition
yes, the pH of distilled water was 7.5, when HCl was added, this quickly became more acidic. When buffer was added to this, the sln did not get as acidic.
Term
Effect of exercise on rate of CO2 produc.
Definition
After exercising and breathing through straws into sln, it worked faster because more CO2 was being expelled.
Term
Breathing rate after hyperventilation
Definition
reason for decreased rate of breathing after hyperventilation is because the body has expelled most of the CO2 out of it, so body takes slower and larger breathes in, so more oxygen can be taken in and as much CO2 isn't expelled.
Term
a solution with a H+ concentration of 10-9 molar has a pH of ___.
Definition
9
Term
Hypoventilation produces a condition called respiratory ____________; hyperventilation produces a condition called respiratory ______________.
Definition
acidosis & alkalosis
Term
Acid
Definition
molecule that can donate a free H+
Term
base
Definition
molecule that can accept a free H+
Term
acidosis
Definition
blood pH falls below 7.35
Term
alkalosis
Definition
blood pH rises above 7.45
Term
What is the normal measurement of arterial carbon dioxide levels?
Definition
40 mmHg
Term
The free bicarbonate in the plasma serves as the major _______ of the blood
Definition
buffer
Term
The enzyme in red blood cells that catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid is _______________
Definition
carbonic anhydrase
Term
Study exercise 8.4 diagrams of questions 7 & 8 about hyperventilation and buffers.
Definition
Term
Why paper bags are used to breathe to help hyperventilation.
Definition

Theory is that C02 will be exhaled into bag and reinhaled.

Because paper bags are not air tight, fresh O2 will also be inhaled.  Also, the bag opening and closing has a psychological effect.

Term

Why bicarbonate helps patients with acidosis. What would happen if too much were given.

 

Definition
Bicarbonate acts as buffer and decreases acidity. If too much HCO-3 was given, the patient could experience respiratory alkalosis. Continued use of NaHCO3 could cause patient to have too much sodium, which could cause problems.
Term
Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus of the brain are stimulated by an _________ in the plasma osmotic pressure.
Definition
increase
Term
As a result of stimulation, the osmoreceptors stimulate the secretion of ________ from the _________ _________ gland.
Definition
ADH & posterior pituitary
Term
ADH stimulates the kidneys to ____________
Definition
reabsorb water.
Term
The hormone that stimulates the reabsorption of Na+ from the nephron tubules, and also stimulates the secretion of K+ into the tubules, is ____________
Definition
aldosterone.
Term
Substance that stimulates vasoconstriction and also stimulates the secretion of aldosterone
Definition
Angiotensin II
Term
The measurement that is 1.000 for pure water and that increases in proportion to the general solute conc. of a sln:
Definition
specific gravity
Term
Why specific gravity changes as more water is drunk.
Definition
The sg lowered from 1.015 to 1.005 atm. The reason being that as more water is drunk, less solutes are present in the urine, so it gets closer to the sg of water. Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus sense increased water conc. and reduce the release of ADH from the post. pituitary.  With less circulating ADH, the kidneys do not retain as much water, resulting in release of excess water in urine and lowering of urine specific gravity.
Term
Describe how ADH secretion and action in the kidneys help to maintain homeostasis of blood volume and concentration.
Definition
The release of ADH by the post. pit. is reg. by osmor's in the hypo. These receptors are stimulated by an increase in osmotic pressure of the blood, as might occur in dehydration. Released ADH promotes water reabsorption from the renal tubules, resulting in water retention, which decreases plasma osmotic pressure, and the excretion of a smaller volume of highly concentrated urine. In this way, ADH opposes dehydration by retaining water from the kidney tubular filtrate to restore blood volume and by lowering the plasma osmolality.
Term
Identify the sites of action of aldersterone in the renal nephrons, and relate these to actions of aldosterone on the kidney. Explain how these actions help to maintain the homeostasis of (a) blood sodium conc. and volume and (b) blood potassium conc.
Definition
The sites of action of aldosterone in the renal nephrons are the distal tubules and cortical collecting ducts of the kidney. The aldosterone causes the kidneys to reabsorb ions and water. (a) Na+ is conserved and concentration increases. (b) K+ is secreted and conc. decreases.
Term
Desert prospector vs. champagne-quaffing partygoer.
Definition

Prospector, decreased urine volume and Na+ and Cl- content. Increased specfic gravity.

Partygoer, increased urine volume and Na+ and Cl- content. Decreased specific gravity.

 

Why?

Desert prosp. has a higher secretion of ADH that the partygoer because he is dehydrated. The pg has become overly hydrated and alcohol also inhibits ADH secretion. The pg would excrete larger volume of diluted urine. The more dilute urine would have a lower specific gravity.

Since the prosp. is dehydrated and has smaller circulating blood volume, he would have  higher secretion of aldosterone that the partygoer. In this case, aldosterone would stimulate increased reabsorption of Na and Cl, so that less of these ions is secreted in urine.

Term

Study diagram 9.1 Q 11

Many diuretic drugs inhibit Na+ reabsorption in the loop of henle. Predict effect of drugs on urinary excretion of Cl and K.

Definition
Because Na is not being reabsorbed, this will cause Na to be released in the urine. In effect, this will also cause Cl and K to be excreted. In essence, diuretics cause body to urinate and lose ions.
Term

Calculate mEq/L of Ca2+ in the plasma (weight Ca is 40)

Ca= 0.1g/L

 

Definition

(0.1g/L) x (1mol/40g) = (2.5 ^-3mol/L) x (1000mM/M) = 2.5 mM

 

2.5 mM x 2 = mEq/L

Term
Study 9.1 Q 13 for equation for Cl conc. yellow to amber.
Definition
Term
Molecule in plasma that is filtered, but neither reabsorbed nor secreted.
Definition
inulin
Term
filtered and partially reabsorbed
Definition
urea
Term
filtered and completely secreted
Definition
PAH
Term
not filtered to a significant degree
Definition
protein, and too big molecules
Term
Clearance, greater than zero but less than the GFR for
Definition
urea
Term
equal to the GFR for
Definition
inulin
Term
onyl slightly greater than the GFR for
Definition
creatinine
Term
equal to the total plasma flow rate to the kidneys for
Definition
para-amino hippuric acid(PAH)
Term
What is renal plasma clearance and how is it measured.
Definition
It is the volume of plasma cleared of a specific compound per unit of time. This is measured as a test of kidney function. It can be measured by using an equation to calculate the value. The equation consists of urine conc. & urine flow over the plasma concentration.
Term
study lab report 9.1, has calculations and diagrams.
Definition
Term

Identify cells of the gastric mucosa that secrete:

(a) HCl _________

(b) pepsinogen ___________

(c) histamine _____________

Definition

(a) parietal cells

(b) chief cells

(c) entero chromaffin-like cells. (ECL's)

Term
3 components of mucosa layer of digestive tract are the ____________, ________________, & _______________.
Definition
inner epithelium, lamina propria, & muscularis mucosa.
Term
Microscopic fingerlike projections of mucosa in the small intestine are called
Definition
villi
Term
Foldings of the plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells that produce the "brush border" are called
Definition
microvilli
Term
Blood is transported from the intestine to the liver in a large vessel known as the
Definition
hepatic portal vein
Term
Once blood has reached the liver, it travels through large cappillaries called
Definition
sinusoids
Term
The microscopic exocrine units of the pancreas are called _______; the endocrine structures are known as the ___________________________________.
Definition
acini,   pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhorns
Term
The glands in the duodenum that secrete an alkaline mucous:
Definition
Brunner's glands
Term
Small intestine surface area and rate of digestion.
Definition

Surface area is increased by :  plicae circulares --> villi --> microvilli.

 

Rate is increased because of these structures and brust border enzymes in the microvilli.

Term
Composition of pancreatic juice, and explain its functions.
Definition
composed of H20, bicarbonate buffer, and digestive enzymes such as Trypsin --> protein, Lipase --> Fat, & amylase --> carbohydrates. Function of pan. juice is to produce exocrine secretion by the acini and endocrine secretion of glucagon & insulin.
Term
anatomy of the liver and explain how structure (a) allows the liver to modify the chemical compo. of the blood and (b) keeps blood separate from bile.
Definition

Consists of hepatic sinusoids, a central vein, bile ductules, branch of the hepatic artery.

(a) blood drains from the cappillaries of the intestine through the hepatic portal vein. This blood travels through the sinusoids in the liver tissue before returning to the heart. Also, blood from the hepatic artery mixes with blood in the sinusoids of the liver and this modifies the composition.

 

(b) The blood is kept separate from the bile because bile never enters the sinusoids, but instead, hepatocytes secrete bile into bile canaliculi and the bile is drained into bile ducts within the liver.

Term
location of digestive enzymes produced by the small intestine, and explain how these cooperate with pancreatic juice enzymes.
Definition
the pan juice is excreted into the small intestine via a duct. The pan. juice reacts with enzymes from the small intestine called brust b enzymes.  Together the ezymes cause hydrolysis rxns of food molecules to speed up and increase absorption.
Term
grind up pancreas, could you isolate insulin.
Definition
No, because when a homogenate is prepared, no cell structure left. Also, pancreatic juice would digest insulin molecules into smaller molecules.
Term
Starch is partially digested into maltose by the action of
Definition
salivary amylase (ptyalin)
Term
The enzyme in gastric juice that partially digests proteins is _____;this enzyme has a pH optimum of _________
Definition
pepsin & less than 2
Term
Which food group ---carbs, lipids, or proteins - is not digested significantly until it reaches the small intestine?
Definition
lipid
Term
Bile is produced by the ______ and stored in the ______________.
Definition
liver & gallbladder
Term
What is the function of bile salts?
Definition
to lower surface tension of fat droplets, act like detergents(emulsification)
Term
The particles consisting of a combo. of triglycerides and protein, secreted by intestinal epithelial cells into the central lacteals of the villi, are called __________
Definition
chylomicrons
Term
Which tube contained most starch, which most maltose(reducing sugars).
Definition

Tube with H2O, because starch was not digested by saliva.

Tube with warm saliva caused amylase to work faster and dissolved more starch, thus leaving more maltose.

Term
Which digested most egg albumin?
Definition
The tube where HCl and 37 celcius.
Term
Compare HCl/protein digest.  vs. amylase/starch.
Definition

For pepsin, HCl actually helps digest the protein because optimal is pH below 2.

 

For starch, HCl makes it to acidic. A pH of 6.7 is optimum for amylase.

Term
Digestion of bread
Definition
Amylase begins working in mouth. breaks down slightly through digestive system, then reaches small intestine and is broken down the rest of the way because of pancreatic amylase and fixed brush border enzymes.
Term
Person with gallstones may have jaundice and an abnormally long clotting time. Explain the possible relationship b/t gallstones, jaundice, and blood clotting.
Definition
A gallstone is formed by cholesterol blocking the bild duct. Then, this can cause obstructive jaundice to occur because bile duct is blocked, so pigment bilirubin builds up. Also, gallstone fat soluble vitamins will be not be taken up, this can cause blood to take an excessive amount of time to clot because K is required for clotting.
Term
How does digestion & absorp. of fat differ from digestion & absorp. of glucose and amino acids. 
Definition

Glucose and amino acids are digested by amylase and are absorbed as monomers.

 

Fat is digested in small intestine by pancreatic lipase when bile salts are present. Then, fatty acids form micelles and are absorbed by the intestinal epi.  Then these are formed into triglycerides which attach to carrier proteins and form chylomicrons which secrete into the lacteals, and onto the lymph in veins.

Term
Why stomach does not digest itself? Why gastric juice does not digest duodenum?
Definition

Because there is a lining of stable gel of mucous which contains alkaline bicarbonate buffer. This also protects against damage that could be caused by pepsin.

 

Because the duodenum is covered in an adherent layer of mucous on its epi. The cells of the duod.secrete bicarbonate in this mucus. Also, brunners glands secrete bicarbonate. The acidic chyme is neutralized by the alkaline pancreatic juice, so this doesn't harm duodenum.