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Male Reproductive System
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Anatomy
11/27/2012

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Term
functions of male reproductive system:
Definition
produce sex cells and sex hormones
nourish and transport sex cells
Term
sex cells are called:
in male:
in femal:
Definition
gametes
m- spermatazoa
f- ova
Term
male sex hormones
female-
Definition
androgens (testosterone most prevelant)
estrogens
Term
two classes of sex orgnas:
Definition
gonads
accessory sex organs
Term
gonads in males and females
Definition
m- testes (testis)
f- ovaries
Term
accessory sex organs:
Definition
Glands: secrete fluids and various molecules
Transport tubes for gametes
Term
Testes are contained in the:
Definition
scrotum – skin and superficial fascia surrounding the testes
Term
the scrotum is external to-
and this posistiong provides-
Definition
abdominopelvic cavity at base of penis
an environment 3˚ cooler than body temperature
Term
Why does the penis need a cool environment?
Definition
Internal body temperature too high for sperm development
Term
what elevates the testes
Definition
Cremaster muscle – bands of skeletal muscle surrounding the testes
Term
testes develope from -- in -- region of abdominal cavity in fetus
Definition
intermediate mesoderm
upper posterior
Term
during fetal period the testes descend
Definition
into pelvis
Term
Before birth/shortly after the testes descend into and through:
Definition
into scrotum through inguinal canal (opening through anterior abdominal wall)
Term
tunica albuginea
Definition
fibrous capsule of dense connective tissue surrounds each testis
Term
what extends inward to divide each testis into (#) of -- each containing 1-4 --
Definition
partitions (septa)
250-300 lobules
coiled seminiferous tubules
Term
seminiferous tubules
Definition
site of sperm development= spermatogenesis
Term
Each seminiferous tubule surrounded by:
Definition
loose (areolar) CT
Term
Epithelium of seminferous tubues:
Definition
spermatogenic cells
sertoli cells
Term
Spermatogenic cells
Definition
– sperm-forming cells
Term
sertoli cells (sustentacular cells)
Definition
support cells
Term
epithelium of sertoli cells
Definition
Tall, columnar-shaped
Term
All spermatogenic cells in direct contact with
Definition
sertoli cells
Term
sertoli cells surround:
Definition
spermatogenic cells
Term
sertoli cells extend from
Definition
basal lamina to the lumen of tubule
Term
sertoli cells are required for -- bc they:
secrete-
provide-
secrete-
Definition
sperm development
1)Secrete molecules necessary for sperm maturation
2)Provide nutrients for sperm
3)Secrete fluid to flush sperm into epididymis
Term
what exists between sertoli cells:
Definition
tight junctions
Term
Tight junctions exist between Sertoli cells to form:
Definition
blood-testis barrier
Term
sperm mature at -- after -- therfore it does not--
Definition
Sperm mature (at puberty) after immune system develops; does not recognize mature cells as “self”
Term
what prevents destruction of sperm by immune cells?
Definition
blood-testis barrier
Term
How many sperm/day does spermatogenesis create?
Definition
400 million
Term
During Spermatogenesis:
Definition
Cells differentiate and move from periphery of tubule toward the lumen
Term
stages of spermatogenesis:
Definition
1)Spermatagonia
2)Primary spermatocytes
3)Secondary spermatocytes
4)Spermatids- small
5)Spermatazoa
Term
Spermatogenesis in testes startes from -- and continues to --
Definition
base of tubule to lumen
Term
what are the most immature cells in spermatogenesis?
Definition
spermatogonia
Term
during Spermatogenesis in testes, following cell division-
limited or unlimited supply?
Definition
one spermatogonia stays to produce more
unlimited suppy
Term
Head of sperm
Definition
chromosomes +
acrosome( enzymes for fertilization)
Term
Midpiece of sperm
Definition
mitochondria
Term
tail of sperm
Definition
whiplike movements propel sperm
Term
leydig cells
Definition
other cells of testes, aka interstitial cells
Term
leydig cells secrete
Definition
testosterone
Term
leydig cells are located
Definition
in between seminiferous tubules
Term
rete testis
Definition
Spermatazoa flushed from seminiferous tubules into interconnecting network of ducts
Term
after rete testis
Definition
Then flushed from rete testis into duct of epididymis
Term
length of epididymus when uncoiled
Definition
6m
Term
epididymus is located
Definition
within scrotum
Term
epithelium of epidymus is
Definition
dominated by pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Term
tufts of sterocilia
Definition
immotile long microvilli
in tufts along epithelium in epididymus
Term
sperm sit
Definition
atop sterocilia
Term
how long is the sperm's journey to move thru epididymus
Definition
20 days
Term
in the epididymus the sperm:
Definition
gain ability to swim and fertilize egg
Term
ductus deferens
Definition
aka vas deferens
transport sperm
Term
vasectomy:
Definition
surgically cut portion of ductus deferens located in scrotum
Term
ductus deferens has a layer of
Definition
Thick muscularis layer; smooth muscle
–Contractions help move sperm
Term
ductus deferens loops over
Definition
urinary bladder
Term
ductus deferens joins -- via --
Definition
prostatic urethra via ejaculatory duct
Term
ductus deferens epithelium
Definition
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia
–Same as epididymis
Term
ductus deferens leaves scrotum through:
Definition
spermatic cords, tubes of thick fascia
Term
each spermatic chord contains:
Definition
1)Ductus deferens
2)Testicular artery
3)Plexus of small veins = pampiniform veins; help cool testes
4)Lymph vessels and nerves
Term
accessory glands of male reproductive system:
Definition
seminal vesicles
prostrate gland
bulbourethral glands
Term
where are the seminal vesicles
Definition
lie on posterior surface of urinary bladder
Term
seminal vesicles secrete
Definition
most (60%) of volume of semen
Term
what is semen?
Definition
spermatazoa + fluid
Term
fluid of semen contains?
Definition
–Fructose to nourish sperm
–Secrete prostaglandins – molecules that induce contractions in female reproductive tract
–Clotting factors for semen: clotted semen more likely to remain in female reproductive tract
Term
seminal vesicles drain
Definition
into ejaculatory duct
Term
prostrate gland is located:
Definition
encircles prostatis urethra
Term
prostrate gland consists of
Definition
20-30 compound tubuloalveolar glands embedded in dense connective tissue; 3 types
Term
3 types of compound tubuloalveloar glands?
Definition
1)Mucosal
2)Submucosal glands
3)Main glands
Term
where are benign/malignant tumors in the glands?
Definition
mucosal benign
submucosal and main glands malignant
Term
prostrate gland secretes:
Definition
Secretes about 25-30% of seminal fluid
Term
Fluid that the prostrate gland secretes contains:
Definition
substances that dissolve clotted semen; releases sperm
Prostate-specific antigen
Term
Prostate-specific antigen=
Definition
PSA (test for cancer)
Term
where is the Bulbourethral glands
Definition
Pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate gland
Term
Bulbourethral glands produce:
Definition
mucus
Term
Bulbourethral glands mucus enters-- prior to-- to -- which--
Definition
spongy (penile) urethra prior to ejaculation to Cleans and lubricates urethra which
Enhances pH for optimal survival of sperm
Term
Penis consists mostly of
Definition
three erectile bodies
Term
what are erectile bodies?
Definition
Thick tubes of erectile tissue surrounded by connective tissue; run length of penis
Term
erectile bodies have
Definition
Large blood sinuses that can fill with blood with appropriate stimulation = cavernous spaces
Term
what dilate arteries/compresses veins in penis? What does this do?
Definition
Parasympathetic input
Blood rushes into cavernous spaces – penis erect
Term
# of dorsal erectile bodies-
Definition
2= corpora cavernosa- most of the mass of penis
Term
# of ventral erectile bodies-
Definition
1= corpus spongiosum- surround penile urethra, expands into glands of penis