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Maccionies BOOK
Book quiz questions
135
Sociology
04/22/2010

Additional Sociology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Despite never having had titled nobility, the United States has a _____.
Definition
highly stratified society
Term
During recent decades, income equality in the United States has increased, due in part to the fact that _____ now receive a much larger share of all income.
Definition
the very richest people
Term
Most of the better paying white-collar jobs require _____.
Definition
a college degree
Term
Nothing affects social standing in the United States as much as _____.
Definition
being born into a particular family
Term
Which of the following occupations has higher social prestige than a bookkeeper?
Definition
librarian
Term
The "new rich" in America often can be recognized by their _____.
Definition
conspicuous consumption
Term
Social mobility is most pronounced in the _____ class.
Definition
middle
Term
Members of the "upper-upper class" are also referred to as _____.
Definition
blue boots
Term
Most upper class people fall into the _____ class.
Definition

 

lower-upper

Term
About _____ of the U.S. population belongs to the working class.
Definition

 

one-third

Term
Which people are most likely to vote and join political organizations?
Definition
higher-income people
Term
Poor people in America, on average, live _____ fewer years than rich people.
Definition
5
Term
The economic downturn that hit hard in 2008 and 2009 changed the direction of structural social mobility to a(n) _____ direction.
Definition
downward
Term
Overall, the real income of _____ has changed very little in three decades.
Definition
African Americans
Term
Within a single generation, social mobility is usually _____.
Definition
small
Term
Evidence shows that people who _____ accumulate about twice as much wealth as others.
Definition
marry and stay married
Term
The expectation of _____ is deeply rooted in U.S. culture.
Definition
upward social mobility
Term
Underlying the shifts in U.S. class structure is _____.
Definition
: industrial production moving overseas
Term
Since 1970, the poverty rate in America has _____.
Definition
remained about the same
Term
Of all poor people over the age of 18, most are _____.
Definition
women
Term
When work disappears, the result is _____.
Definition
poverty
Term
he weight of sociological evidence points to _____ as the primary cause of poverty in the United States.
Definition
society
Term
The typical person receiving welfare in the United States is a(n) _____.
Definition
white child
Term
The wealth of the rich in America mostly comes from _____.
Definition
stocks and other income-producing investments
Term
Karl Marx divides society into _____ major classes.
Definition
two
Term
One researcher found that _____ friendships typically serve as sources of material assistance.
Definition
working class
Term
_____ social mobility is a change in social position occurring during a person's lifetime.
Definition
intragenerational
Term
Social class has a great deal to do with _____.
Definition
self-concept
Term
income
Definition
earning from work or other investments
Term
wealth
Definition
total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts
Term
_____ is among the world's poorest countries.
Definition
Ethiopia
Term
The high-income areas of the world include all of the following EXCEPT _____.
Definition
Brazil
Term
Low-income countries are mostly _____.
Definition
agrarian
Term
In 2008, the U.N. Development Programme rated _____ as having the highest "quality of life" index.
Definition
Norway
Term
Population growth is highest in _____.
Definition
poor countries
Term
___ is the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations.
Definition
Colonialism
Term
Until a few centuries ago, the entire world was _____.
Definition
poor
Term
Historically, industrialization has brought _____ along with it.
Definition
affluence
Term
Poverty in India is not marked by _____.
Definition
violence
Term
When the world's most developed countries use themselves as the standard for judging the rest of the world, it reveals a(n) _____ bias.
Definition
ethnocentric
Term
As colonialism spread, _____ emerged.
Definition
the international slave trade
Term
Low-income countries represent the _____ of the world economy.
Definition
periphery
Term
In the past 25 or 30 years, the greatest reduction in poverty occurred in _____.
Definition
Asia
Term
Dubai's recent building boom has been accomplished largely by the labor of _____.
Definition
guest workers
Term
Most countries are identified as _____ countries.
Definition
middle-income
Term
Owing to the power of _____, the Netherlands is more productive than the continent of Africa south of the Sahara.
Definition
industrial and computer technology
Term
The term _____ refers to some 1,800 mainly Hispanic settlements in southern Texas where people live in poverty.
Definition
las colonias
Term
In middle-income countries, the poorest people live in _____.
Definition
rural areas
Term
The percentage of births attended by skilled health staff is highest in _____.
Definition
Canada
Term
The _____ theory is a model of social and economic development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations.
Definition
social conflict
Term
According to modernization theory, one of the roles that high-income countries play in global economic development is _____.
Definition
increasing food production
Term
One criticism of the _____ theory is that it is just a defense of capitalism.
Definition
modernization
Term
_____ theory asserts that people living in poor countries were better off economically in the past than their descendents are today.
Definition
Dependency
Term
According to the _____ theory, rich countries are part of the solution to global poverty, not part of the problem.
Definition
modernization
Term
The text asserts that the biggest problem we may face in the 21st century is _____.
Definition
the huge economic inequality that exists between countries
Term
The term _____ refers to the patterns of social inequality in the world.
Definition
global stratification
Term
_____ has recently joined the ranks of other middle-income countries.
Definition
China
Term
It is likely that about 70% of the world's 1.4 billion people living near absolute poverty are _____.
Definition
women
Term
The _____ form of slavery involves the moving of men, women, and children from one place to another for the purpose of performing forced labor.
Definition
human trafficking
Term
The term _____ refers to a form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations.
Definition
neocolonialism
Term
Modernization theory follows the _____ approach.
Definition
structural-functional
Term
Reflecting the interests of the United States in the 1950s when his writing was done, Rostow uses an analogy between a(n) _____ and his stages of modernization to explain his ideas.
Definition
airplane
Term
Traditional people in India believe in _____, a Hindu concept of duty and destiny that teaches people to accept their fate, whatever it may be.
Definition
dharma
Term
The dependency theory follows the _____ approach.
Definition
social-conflict
Term
Proponents of the dependency theory assert that since the Industrial Revolution, rich nations have _____ poor nations.
Definition
underdeveloped
Term
the process by which some nations enrich themselves by political and economic control of other nations
Definition
colonialism
Term
a model
explains that global inequality comes from historically rich nations exploiting poor nations
Definition
dependency theory
Term
- a model
-global inequality is because of technical and cultural differences between nations
Definition

 

-its modern now days to search for ones culture (hippies/skatter/labels)

Term
a large business that operates in many countries
Definition
multinational corporations
Term
-global power
-no direct control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
Definition
neocolonialism
Term
In _____, women come closest to social equality with men.
Definition
norway
Term
Great Britain and Australia have adopted _____ policies, but such policies have not found much acceptance in the United States.
Definition
comparatable worth
Term
At the heart of the public debate about women's role in the military is the view of women as _____.
Definition
nurtures
Term
To those who defend _____ as promoting "morality," critics respond that it is violence against women.
Definition
female genital mutilation
Term
The _____ approach to explaining the role of gender in society has lost much of its standing today.
Definition

structural-functional

 

-bc the structure (institutions) are doing SHIT

Term
The _____ approach takes a micro-level look at gender in everyday life.
Definition

symbolic- interaction

 

 

-about the individual= micro

Term
During the past 100 years, changes regarding gender and the U.S. society have been _____.
Definition
remarkable
Term
analysis of the interplay of races, class, and gender, often resulting of multiple dimensions of disadvantage
Definition

intersection theory

 

(MANY sections involved and MANY dimensions of disadvantages)

Term
Which state listed below has the lowest percentage of racial and ethnic minority populations?
Definition
Maine
Term
One measure of _____ is how closely people are willing to interact with members of some category.
Definition
predujice
Term
Discrimination is a matter of _____.
Definition
action
Term
In the Dred Scott case of 1857, the U.S. Supreme Court addressed which question?
Definition
are slaves citizens?
Term
Which of the following groups of Hispanic Americans has the highest median family income?
Definition
cuban americans
Term
Another, more modern term for Mongoloid is _____.
Definition
Asian
Term
Which racial/ethnic category represents the highest percentage of the U.S. minority population?
Definition
those of Hispanic descent
Term
One important characteristic of U.S. minorities is _____.
Definition
they share a distinctive identity
Term
Theodor Adorno and his colleagues proposed the _____ theory to explain the existence of prejudice.
Definition

authoritarian personality

 

(Adorno...a=athority, dont say NO to authority)

Term
The _____ theory proposes that prejudice is used as a tool by the powerful to oppress others.
Definition
conflict
Term
_____ refers to a state in which all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing.
Definition

pluralism

 

(MANY races)

Term
_____ is a deadly form of racism and ethnocentricity that violates nearly every recognized moral standard, but it still occurs time and again in human history.
Definition
genocide
Term
The term "Native American" refers to _____.
Definition
hundreds of societies
Term
By about the 1950s in the United States, _____ power and wealth had peaked, as indicated by the 1960 election of John Kennedy.
Definition
WASP
Term
The heaviest concentration of Arab American communities can be found _____.
Definition
upper midwest
Term
assimilation=
Definition
process in which minorities ADOPT patterns of the dominant culture
Term
a shared cultural heritage
Definition
ethnicity
Term
genocide
Definition
the systemic killing of one catchegory of people by another
Term
biological reproduction by partners of different races
Definition

miscgenation

 

(SOUNDS LIKE mixed-genes)

Term
pluralism
Definition
races and ethnicities are different but have equal standings
Term
ppl who share biological transmitted traits
Definition
race
Term
a simplified description given to the same ppl in a category
Definition
sterotype
Term
The term baby boomers refers to _____
Definition
people born between 1946 and 1964
Term
Gerontology
Definition
_____ is the study of aging and the elderly.
Term
The film Gran Torino, starring Clint Eastwood, is about _____.
Definition
the challenges of growing old in a modern society
Term
According to the _____ analysis, older people are pushed out of their jobs and replaced by younger workers to ensure that society proceeds in an orderly way.
Definition

structural-functional

 

 

(CANT be symbolic interaction bc not micro, concerns all of society..structure?)

Term
the idea that high level of activity increases personal satisfaction in old age
Definition
activity theory
Term
disengagement theory
Definition
removing older people from positions of responcibility as they get older
Term
-social organization in which the elderly have the most wealth, power, and prestige
Definition

genocracy

 

Term
the study of the aging society =
Definition
gerontology
Term
Agriculture, raising animals, fishing, foresting, and mining all part of the _____ sector.
Definition
primary
Term
Secretarial and clerical positions are part of the _____ sector.
Definition
tertiary
Term
An ideal _____ economy has collective ownership of property, pursuit of collective goals, and government control of the economy.
Definition

socialist

 

(collective, NOT as radical as communism)

Term
An ideal _____ economy offers social equality to all of society's members.
Definition

communist

 

 

(equality to ALL= most radical = communism)

Term
welfare capitalists
Definition

 the government owns some of the largest industries, such as transportation and health care, but most industries are privately owned.

 

(GOV owns SOME of the large)

Term
state capitalists
Definition

companies are privately owned, but they cooperate closely with the government.

 

(GOV owns less, infact GOV owns none..just works closely)

Term
_____ is one of many countries that have recently begun to move toward more socialist governments.
Definition
bolivia
Term
The _____ labor market offers jobs that provide minimal benefits to workers.
Definition

secondary

 

(worse the clerks...who are tertiary)

Term
A _____ is a giant corporation composed of many smaller corporations.
Definition
conglomerate
Term
-hypothetical
-all members a socially equal in government
Definition
communism
Term
conglomerate
Definition
a giant corporation made up of smaller corporations
Term
-organization with legal existance, seperate from it's members
Definition
coroperation
Term
organizes a society's productions, distribution, and consumption
Definition
economy
Term
postindustrial
Definition
-based on service work and high technology
Term
primary job market
Definition
extensive benifits to workers
Term
primary sector
Definition
-draws natural raw materail from the environment
Term
secondary labor market
Definition
minimal benifit to workers
Term
secondary sector
Definition

raw materials to manufactered goods

 

(manufacture the RAW MATERIAL from primary sector)

Term
tertiary system
Definition

involves service rather than goods

 

(goods are all made at this point)

Term
political system that denies people participation
Definition
authoritareianism
Term
government
Definition
formal organization that directs political society
Term
Marxist-political economy model
Definition
politics in term of the OPERATION of economic system
Term
Military Industrial Complex
Definition
close association of the federal government and the military
Term
sees powers as spread among many other competing groups
Definition
pluralist model
Term
Political Action Committee
Definition
raise money in support of political goals
Term
power legalized by making more rules and regulations
Definition

rational legal authority

 

(aka buercratic society)

Term
Definition