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Lymphatic Sytem
functions, circulation
58
Anatomy
09/30/2008

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Term
What are the functions of the lymphatic system (3)
Definition
drains excess interstitial fluid
transports dietary lipids
carries out immune responses
Term
Where does the lymphatic system transport dietary lipids
Definition
from the small intestines to the blood stream
Term
How does the lymphatic system carry out it's immune response
Definition
via lymphocytes
Term
What are the two main characteristics of lymphatic capillaries
Definition
they are blind ended
they have overlapping endothelial cells
Term
What does the overlapping arrangement of endothelial cells in the lymphatic capillaries allow for
Definition
It allows interstitial fluid to enter lymphatic capillary through spaces between the cells when external pressure is increased
Term
Lymphatic capillaries are widespread except for where
Definition
avascular tissue which is cornea of eye, cartilage, and epidermis
Term
What are lacteals
Definition
specialized lymphatic capillaries found in the small intestine which absorb dietary lipids
Term
Where are valves found in the lymphatic system and why
Definition
valves are found in larger lymphatic vessels and they prevent the backflow of lymph
Term
What do large lymphatic vessels merge into
Definition
lymphatic trunks
Term
What do lymphatic trunks empty into
Definition
lymphatic ducts
Term
What are the two main lymphatic ducts
Definition
right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct
Term
Where does the right lymphatic duct receive lymph from
Definition
the right upper body
Term
What does the right lymphatic duct empty into
Definition
right subclavian vein
Term
Where does the thoracic duct receive lymph from
Definition
the whole body except for the right upper portion
Term
What does the thoracic duct start out as
Definition
cisterna chyli
Term
What is the cisterna chyli
Definition
enlarged inferior end of the thoracic duct
Term
What does the thoracic duct empty into
Definition
left subclavian vein
Term
What is lymph
Definition
interstitial fluid that was not reabsorbed and was picked up by lymphatic capillaries
Term
What is the flow of lymph
Definition
one way flow beginning at lymphatic capillaries then smaller lymphatic vessels then larger lymphatic vessels then lymphatic trunks and then lymphatic ducts
Term
What are the two main classes of cells in the lymphatic system
Definition
lymphocytes and phagocytes
Term
What are the three main lymphocytes found in the lymphatic system
Definition
t-cells, b-cells, natural killer cells
Term
What is the difference between T/B cells and NK cells
Definition
nk cells attack a variety of microbes
t-cells and b-cells only attack specific microbes
Term
What is an autoimmune disease
Definition
A disease in which the t-cells and b-cells of the immune system are unable to differentiate between self and non-self
Term
What is an immunodeficiency disease
Definition
A disease in which the t/b cells fail to recognize foreign things as non-self
Term
Which phagocytes are primarily involved in the lymphatic system
Definition
neutrophils and macrophages
Term
What do phagocytes do
Definition
ingest and destroy microbes, clean up cellular debris
Term
What are the two kinds of lymphatic organs
Definition
primary lymphatic organs and secondary lymphatic organs
Term
What happens at primary lymphatic organs
Definition
lymphocytes become immunocompetent
Term
What is immunocompetency
Definition
the ability to carry out an immune response
Term
What happens at secondary lymphatic organs
Definition
they are where most immune responses occur
Term
What are the primary lymphatic organs
Definition
thymus and red bone marrow
Term
What are the secondary lymphatic organs
Definition
lymphatic nodules(not an organ), spleen, lymph nodes
Term
What is the thymus
Definition
a bilobed organ located in the mediastinum
Term
What happens in the thymus
Definition
lymphocytes learn how to distinguish self from non-self
Term
What does the thymus secrete and what does this secretion do
Definition
thymosin which induces t-cell maturation
Term
At what stage of life is the thymus the largest
Definition
in the early years of life
Term
What is the function of the lymph nodes
Definition
to cleanse the lymph
Term
What types of cells do lymph nodes contain
Definition
lymphocytes and macrophages
Term
What does lymph enter lymph nodes from
Definition
afferent lymphatics
Term
What does lymph exit lymph nodes from
Definition
efferent lymphatics
Term
Where are large clusters of lymph nodes found
Definition
axillary, cervical, and inguinal regions
Term
What are buboes
Definition
swollen, enlarged, infected lymph nodes particularly in the inguinal region that are caused by an infection with the bacillus that causes bubonic plague
Term
What is the largest lymph organ
Definition
spleen
Term
Where is the spleen located
Definition
between the lateral border of the stomach and the diaphragm
Term
What is the spleen rich with
Definition
blood
Term
What do resident t and b cells of the spleen do
Definition
carry out immune responses
Term
What do resident macrophages of the spleen do
Definition
they clean up debris and worn out erythrocytes and thrombocytes
Term
What does the spleen store
Definition
thrombocytes
Term
What is the function of the spleen in the fetus
Definition
it is the site of red blood cell production
Term
What is a lymphatic nodule
Definition
connective tissue that contains a lot of lymphocytes but is not bound by a capsule
Term
What is M.A.L.T
Definition
mucosa associated lymphatic tissue
Term
Where is MALT found
Definition
in the respiratory, urinary, reproductive, and digestive systems
Term
What are two well know MALTs
Definition
appendix and tonsils
Term
Where are tonsils
Definition
they form a ring of lymphatic tissue at the opening of the pharynx
Term
What is the function of the tonsils
Definition
they trap microbes and foreign particles
Term
What are the five tonsils that form this ring
Definition
2 palatine 2 lingual 1 pharyngeal
Term
Which tonsils are the ones you see at the back of your throat
Definition
palatine tonsils
Term
Which tonsils are also called adenoids
Definition
pharyngeal tonsil