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LRCC Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology - Semester 1
N/A
100
Nursing
12/11/2010

Additional Nursing Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Magnesium Hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia)

 

Class?

Definition
Laxative
Term

Milk of Magnesia

 

Action?

Definition

Saline laxative that produces an osmotic effect in the small intestine by drawing water into the intestinal lumen.

Term

Milk of Magnesia

 

Adverse Reactions?

Definition

GI: Abdominal Cramping, Diarrhea, Nausea

 

Metabolic: Fluid and electrolyte disturbances with daily use.

 

Other: Laxative dependence with long-term or excessive use.

 

Term

Milk of Magnesia

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition
  • Before giving drug for constipation, determine whether patient has adequate intake, exercise, and diet.
  • Monitor electrolyte levels during prolonged use. Magnesium may accumulate if patient has renal insufficiency.
  • Drug is recommended for short-term use only.
  • Magnesium sulfate is more potent than other saline laxatives.

 

Term

Psyllium

 

Brand name(s)?

Definition
Metamucil
Term

Metamucil

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Psyllium
Term

Psyllium (Metamucil)

 

Class?

Definition
Laxative (Bulk-Forming)
Term

Psyllium (Metamucil)

 

Action?

Definition

Absorbs liquid in the intestines, swells, and forms a bulky stool, which is easier for the patient to pass.

Term

Psyllium (Metamucil)

 

Adverse Effects?

Definition

Difficulty Breathing, Stomach Pain, Difficulty Swallowing, Skin Rash, Itching, Nausea, and Vomiting.

Term

Psyllium (Metamucil)

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition
  • Do not administer within 3 hours of also administering digoxin (lanoxin), salicylates (aspirin), or nitrofurantoin (macrodantin, furadantin, macrobid).
  • Consider patient's fluid intake.

 

Term

Mineral Oil

 

Class?

Definition
Laxative (Lubricant)
Term

Magnesium Hydroxide

 

Brand Name(s)?

Definition

Concentrated Phillips Milk of Magnesia

 

Ex-Lax Milk of Magnesia

 

Milk of Magnesia

 

Phillips Milk of Magnesia

Term

Milk of Magnesia

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Magnesium Hydroxide
Term

Mineral Oil

 

Action?

Definition

Mineral Oil temporarily coats the intestines, providing a less resistive surface over which stool may pass through the intestines.

Term

Mineral Oil

 

Adverse Effects?

Definition

 

  • Abdominal Cramping, Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhea
  • If aspirated into lungs may cause coughing, shortness of breath, or aspiration pneumonia.
  • Can irritate the eyes, nose, and skin.

 

Term

Mineral Oil

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • Inhibits the body from absorbing fluid and nutrients through the intestinal wall, which can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
  • Monitor Patient for reaction to exposure.

 

Term

Senna

 

Brand Name(s)?

Definition

 

Senna


Senokot

 

Term

Senokot

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Senna
Term

Senna (Senokot)

 

Class?

Definition
Laxative (Stimulant)
Term

Senna (Senokot)

 

Action?

Definition

Increases peristalsis through irritation of the G.I. tract.

Term

Senna (Senokot)

 

Adverse Effects?

Definition

Diarrhea, Nausea, Vomiting, Irritation of the Bowels (Suppositories), and Abdominal Cramping

Term

Senna (Senokot)

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • Monitor Patient for electrolyte imbalances.
  • Monitor fluid intake of patient.

 

Term

Bisacodyl

 

Brand Name?

Definition

Dulcolax

Term

Dulcolax

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Bisacodyl
Term

Bisacodyl (Dulcolax)

 

Class?

Definition

Laxative (Stimulant)

 

 

 

 

 

Term

Bisacodyl (Dulcolax)

 

Action?

Definition

Increases peristalsis by irritating the G.I. Tract.

Term

Bisacodyl

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition
  • Give drug at time that don't interfere with scheduled activities or sleep. Soft, formed stools are usually produced 15 to 60 minutes after rectal use.
  • Before giving for constipation, determine whether patient has adequate fluid intake, exercise, and diet.
  • Tablets and suppositories are used together to clean the colon before and after surgery and before barium enema.
Term

Simethicone

 

Brand Name(s)?

Definition
Mylicon
Term

Mylicon

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Simethicone
Term

Simethicone (Mylicon)

 

Classification?

Definition

Antiflatulent

 

Term

Simethicone (Mylicon)

 

Action?

Definition

Disperses or prevents formation of mucus-surrounded gas pockets in the G.I. tract.

Term

Simethicone (Mylicone)

 

Adverse Reactions?

Definition

G.I.: Belching, Flatus

Term

Simethicone (Mylicon)

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • Drug doesn't prevent gas formation.

 

Term

Sodium Biphosphate

 

Brand Name?

Definition
Fleet
Term

Fleet

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Sodium Biphosphate
Term

Sodium Biphosphate (Fleet)

 

Action?

Definition
Laxative
Term

Sodium Biphosphate (Fleet)

 

Adverse Effects

Definition

 

  • CNS: Headache
  • GI: Abdominal Cramping, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Peritanal irritation, bloating, flatulence.
  • Other: Laxative dependence with long-term or excessive use.

 

Term

Sodium Biphosphate (Fleet)

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • Before giving drug for constipation, determine whether patient has adequate fluid intake, exercise, and diet.
  • Alert: Up to 10% of sodium content of drug may be absorbed.
  • Alert: Severe Electrolyte imbalances may occur if recommended dosage is exceeded.

 

Term

Dulcolax Suppositories

 

Class?

Definition
Laxative (Stimulant and Lubricant)
Term

Dulcolax Suppositories

 

Action?

Definition

 

  • Unknown. Stimulant laxative that increases peristalsis, probably by direct effect on smooth muscle of the intestine, by irritating the muscle or stimulating the colonic intramural plexus. Drug also promotes fluid accumulation in colon and small intestine.

 

Term

Dulcolax Suppositories

 

Adverse Reactions?

Definition

 

  • CNS: Dizziness, faintness, muscle weakness with excessive use.
  • G.I.: Abdominal Cramps, Burning Sensation in Rectum with Suppositories, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea with high doses, Laxative Dependence with long-term or excessive use, protein-losing enteropathy with excessive use.
  • Metabolic: Alkalosis, Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance. Hypokalemia.
  • Musculoskeletal: Tetany

 

Term

Dulcolax Suppositories

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • Give drug at times that don't interfere with with scheduled activities or sleep. Soft, formed stools are usually produced 15 to 60 minutes after rectal use.
  • Before giving for constipation, determine whether patient has adequate fluid intake, exercise, and diet.
  • Tablets and suppositories are used together to clean the colon before and after surgery and before barium enema.

 

Term

Glycerin Suppositories

 

Class?

Definition

Laxative (Hyperosmotic)

 

 

Term

Glycerin Suppositories

 

Action?

Definition

Draws water from the tissues into the feces, this stimulating evacuation.

Term

Glycerin Suppositories

 

Adverse Reaction?

Definition

 

  • G.I.: Cramping Pain, Hyperemia of rectal mucosa, and rectal discomfort.

 

Term

Glycerin Suppositories

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • Drug is used mainly to reestablish proper toilet habits in laxative-dependent patients.

 

Term

Docusate Sodium

 

Brand Name?

Definition
Colace
Term

Colace

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Docusate Sodium
Term

Docusate Sodium (Colace)

 

Class?

Definition

Laxative (Stool Softener)

 

Term

Docusate Sodium (Colace)

 

Action?

Definition

 

Stool softener that reduces the surface tension of interfering liquid contents of the bowel. This detergent activity promotes incorporation of additional liquid into stools, thus forming a softer mass.

 

Term

Docusate Sodium (Colace)

 

Adverse Reactions?

Definition

 

  • G.I.: Bitter taste, mild abdominal cramping, diarrhea.
  • Other: Laxative dependence with long-term or excessive use.

 

Term

Docusate Sodium (Colace)

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • Drug isn't used to treat existing constipation but prevents constipation from developing.
  • Before giving drug, determine whether patient has adequate fluid intake, exercise, and diet.
  • Drug is laxative of choice for patients who shouldn't strain during defecation, including patients recovering from MI or rectal surgery, those with rectal or anal disease that makes passage of stools difficult, and those with postpartum constipation.

 

Term

Diphenoxylate Atropine Sulfate

 

Brand Name(s)?

Definition
Lomotil
Term

Diphenoxylate Atropine Sulfate

 

Class?

Definition
Antidiarhheal
Term

Diphenoxylate Atropine Sulfate

 

Action?

Definition

Probably increases smooth muscle tone in G.I. tract, inhibits motility and propulsion, and diminishes secretions.

Term

Diphenoxylate Atropine Sulfate

 

Adverse Reactions?

Definition

CNS: Dizziness, Sedation, Confusion, Depression, Drowsiness, Euphoria, Headache, Lethargy, Malaise, Numbness in Limbs, Restlessness

CV: Tachycardia

EENT: Blurred Vision

G.I.: Dry Mouth, Pancreatitis, Paralytic Ileus, Abdominal Discomfort or Distention, Anorexia, Fluid retention in Bowel or Megacolon, Nausea, swollen Gums, Vomiting

G.U.: Urine Retention

Respiratory: Respiratory Depression

Skin: Dry Skin, Pruritis, Rash

Other: Anaphylaxis, Angioedema, Possible physical Dependence with Long-Term Use.

Term

Diphenoxylate Atropine Sulfate

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • Alert: Monitor fluid and electrolyte balance. Correct fluid and electrolyte disturbances before stating drug. Dehydration, especially in young children, may increase risk of delayed toxicity. Fluid retention in bowel or megacolon may occur with drug use and may mask depletion of extracellular fluid and electrolytes, especially in children treated for acute gastroenteritis.
  • Stop treatment immediately and notify prescriber if abdominal distention or other signs or symptoms of toxic megacolon develop.
  • Don't use for antibiotic-induced diarrhea.
  • Drug is unlikely to be effective if no response occurs within 48 hours.

 

Term

Bismuth Subsalicylate

 

Brand Name?

Definition

Kaopectate

Kaolin / Pectin

Term

Kaopectate

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Bismuth Subsalicylate
Term

Bismuth Subsalicylate (Kaopectate)

 

Class?

 

Definition
Antidiarrheal
Term

Bismuth Subsalicylate (Kaopectate)

 

Action?

Definition

May have antisecretory, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects against bacterial and viral enteropathogens.

Term

Bismuth Subsalicylate

 

Adverse Reactions?

Definition

G.I.: Temporary darkening of tongue and stools.

Other: Salicylism with high doses.

Term

Bismuth Subsalicylate

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • Avoid use before G.I. radiologic procedures because drug is radiopaque and may interfere with X-Rays.

 

Term

Loperamide

 

Brand Name?

Definition
Imodium
Term

Imodium

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Loperamide
Term

Loperamide (Imodium)

 

Class?

Definition
Antidiarrheal
Term

Loperamide (Imodium)

 

Action?

Definition

Inhibits peristalsis

Term

Loperamide (Imodium)

 

Adverse Reaction?

Definition

 

  • CNS: Dizziness, Drowsiness, Fatigue
  • G.I.: Constipation, Abdominal Pain, Distention or Discomfort, Dry Mouth, Nausea, Vomiting
  • Skin: Hypersensitivity reactions, Rash. 

 

Term

Loperamide (Imodium)

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • If symptoms don't improve within 48 hours, stop therapy and consider another drug.
  • Drug produces anti-diarrheal action similar to that of Diphenoxylate but without as many adverse CNS effects.
  • Alert: Monitor children closely for CNS effects, children may be more sensitive to these effects than adults.

 

Term

Albuterol Sulfate

 

Brand Name?

Definition
Ventolin
Term

Ventolin

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Albuterol Sulfate
Term

Albuterol Sulfate (Ventolin)

 

Class?

Definition
Bronchodilator
Term

Albuterol Sulfate (Ventolin)

 

Action?

Definition

Relaxes bronchial, uterine, and vascular smooth muscle by stimulating beta2 receptors.

Term

Albuterol Sulfate (Ventolin)

 

Adverse Reactions?

Definition

  • CNS: Tremor, Nervousness, Headache, Hyperactivity, Insomnia, Dizziness, Weakness, CNS Stimulation, Malaise.
  • CV: Tachycardia, Palpitations, Hypertension
  • EENT: Dry and irritated nose and throat with inhaled form, nasal congestion, epistaxis, hoarseness, conjunctivitis.
  • GI: Nausea, Vomiting, Heartburn, Anorexia, Altered taste, Increased Appetite.
  • Metabolic: Hypokalemia
  • Musculoskeletal: Muscle Cramps
  • Respiratory: Bronchospasm, Cough, Wheezing, Dyspnea, Bronchitis, Increased Sputum.
  • Other: Hypersensitivity reactions.

Term

Albuterol Sulfate (Ventolin)

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

 

  • Drug may decrease sensitivity of spirometry used for diagnosis of asthma.
  • Syrup contains no alcohol or sugar and may be taken by children as young as age 2.
  • In children, syrup may rarely cause erythema multiforme or Steven-Johnson syndrome.
  • The HFA form uses the propellant hydrofluroalkane (HFA) instead of chloroflurocarbons.
  • Alert: Patient may use tablets and aerosol together. Monitor these patients closely for signs and symptoms of toxicity.

 

Term

Ipratropium Bromide

 

Brand Name?

Definition
Atrovent
Term

Atrovent

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Ipratropium Bromide
Term

Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent)

 

Class?

Definition
Bronchodilator
Term

Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent)

 

Action?

Definition

Inhibits vagally mediated reflexes by antagonizing acetycholine at muscarinic receptors on bronchial smooth muscle.

Term

Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent)

 

Adverse Reaction?

Definition

  • CNS: Dizziness, Pain, Headache
  • CV: Palpitations, Chest Pain
  • EENT: Blurred Vision, Rhinitis, Pharyngitis, Sinusitis, Epistaxis
  • GI: Nausea, GI Distress, Dry Mouth
  • Musculoskeletal: Back Pain
  • Respiratory: Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, Bronchitis, Bronchospasm, Cough, Dyspnea, Increased Sputum
  • Skin: Rash
  • Other: Flu-like symptoms, Hypersensitivity reactions.

Term

Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent)

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

  • If patient uses a face mask for a nebulizer, take care to prevent leakage around the mask because of eye pain or temporary blurring of vision may occur.
  • Safety and effectiveness of use beyond 4 days in patient with a common cold haven't been established.

Term

Guaifenesin

 

Brand Name?

Definition
Robitussin
Term

Robitussin

 

Generic Name?

Definition
Guaifensin
Term

Guaifensin (Robitussin)

 

Class?

Definition

Miscellaneous Respiratory Drug

Expectorant

Term

Guaifensin (Robitussin)

 

Action?

Definition

Increases production of respiratory tract fluids to help liquify and reduce the viscosity of tenacious secretions.

Term

Guaifensin (Robitussin)

 

Adverse Reaction?

Definition

  • CNS: Dizziness, Headache
  • GI: Vomiting, Nausea
  • Skin: Rash

Term

Guaifensin (Robitussin)

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

  • Some liquid formulations contain alcohol.
  • Drug is used to liquefy thick, tenacious sputum. Evidence suggests that Guaifensin is effective as an expectorant, but no evidence exists to support its role as an antitussive.
  • Monitor cough type and frequency.
  • Stop use 48 hours before 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and vanillylmandelic tests.

Term

Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

 

Class?

Definition

Miscellaneous Respiratory Drugs

Antitussives

Term

Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

 

Action?

Definition

Suppresses the cough reflex by direct action on the cough center in the medulla.

Term

Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

 

Adverse Reaction?

Definition

  • CNS: Drowsiness, Dizziness
  • GI: Nausea, Vomiting, Stomach Pain

Term

Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

  • Don't use dextromethorphan when cough is a valuable diagnostic sign or is beneficial (such as after thoracic surgery).
  • Dextromethorphan 15 to 30 mg is equivalent to codeine 8 to 15 mg as an antitussive.
  • Drug produces no analgesia or addiction and little or no CNS depression.
  • Use drug with chest percussion and vibration.
  • Monitor cough type and frequency.

Term

Codeine Phosphate

 

Class?

Definition
Opiod Analgesics
Term

Codeine Phosphate

 

Action?

Definition

May bind with opioid receptors in the CNS, altering perception of and emotional response to pain. Also suppresses the cough reflex by direct action on the cough center in the medulla.

Term

Codeine Phosphate

 

Adverse Reaction?

Definition

  • CNS: Clouded sensorium, sedation, dizziness, euphoria, light-headedness, physical dependence.
  • CV: Bradycardia, Flushing, Hypotension.
  • GI: Constipation, Dry Mouth, Ileus, Nausea, Vomiting.
  • GU: Urine Retention
  • Respiratory: Respiratory Depression
  • Skin: Diaphoresis, Pruritis

Term

Codeine Phosphate

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

  • Reassess patient's level of pain at least 15 and 30 minutes after use.
  • Codeine and aspirin or acetaminophen are commonly prescribed together to provide enhanced pain relief.
  • For full analgesic effect, give drug before patient has intense pain.
  • Drug is an antitussive and shouldn't be used when cough is a valuable diagnostic sign or is beneficial (as after thoracic surgery)
  • Monitor Cough Type and Frequency
  • Monitor Respiratory and Circulatory Status
  • Opioids may delay gastric emptying, increase biliary tract pressure from contraction of the sphincter if Oddi, and interfere with hepatobiliary imaging studies.

Term

Calcium Lactate

 

Class?

Definition
Electrolyte Balancing Drugs
Term

Calcium Lactate

 

Action?

Definition

Replaces calcium and maintains calcium level.

Term

Calcium Lactate

 

Adverse Reaction?

Definition

  • CNS: Tingling Sensations, Sense of Oppression or Heat Waves with IV use, Syncope with Rapid IV use.
  • CV: Bradycardia, Arrhythmias, Cardiac Arrest with Rapid IV use, Mild Drop in Blood Pressure, Vasodilation.
  • GI: Constipation, Irritation, Chalky Taste, Hemorrhage, Nausea, Vomiting, Thirst, Abdominal Pain
  • GU: Polyuria, Renal Calculi
  • Metabolic: Hypercalcemia
  • Skin: Local Reactions, including burning, necrosis, tissue sloughing cellulitis, soft-tissue calcification with IM use.

Term

Calcium Lactate

 

Nursing Considerations?

Definition

  • Use all calcium products with extreme caution in digitalized patients and patients with sarcoidosis and renal or cardiac disease. Use calcium chloride cautiously in patients with cor pulmonale, respiratory acidosis, or respiratory failure.
  • Monitor calcium levels frequently.

Term
Definition