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LOM-Respiratory
diseases
58
Nursing
07/19/2010

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Term
epistaxis
Definition
nosebleed
Term
croup
Definition
a common acute viral infection in children, characterized by obstruction of the larynx;symptoms include labored breathing; a harsh, barking cough; and stridor
Term
stridor
Definition
high-pitched sound on inspiration produced by the pharynx or larynx.
Term
diphtheria
Definition
an acute, contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that causes a leathery false membrane to form in the pharynx and trachea. The disease also causes production of a systemic toxin that is especially damaging to the tissues of the heart and the central nervous system.
Term
pertussis
Definition
a highly contagious, bacterial upper respiratory infection (URI). Also known as whooping cough; it is characterized by sudden (oxysm/o), or paroxysmal, spasms of coughing, followed by a whooping inspiration
Term
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
Definition
a sudden cessation of breathing during sleep
Term
asphyxia
Definition
lack of pulse
Term
hypercapnia
Definition
excessive carbon dioxide
Term
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Definition
a group of diseases characterized by difficult expiration. The most common of these are asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema
Term
dyspnea
Definition
difficulty breathing
Term
asthma (a type of COPD)
Definition
also called reactive airway disease—is a chronic, intermittent inflammatory disorder in which the bronchi in the lungs become obstructed by swelling (bronchial edema), constriction, and increased mucus production as a result of an overresponsiveness to a host of triggering agents. These triggers can include pollutants, infection, cold temperatures, vigorous exercise, emotional stress, and certain medications
Term
wheezes
Definition
continuous whistling sounds caused by air being forced through narrowed air passages
Term
rhonchi
Definition
coarse, loud rumbling sounds similar to snoring and are caused by congestion and inflammation in the larger bronchi
Term
rales or crackles
Definition
fine crackling sounds heard during inhalation, caused by excess bronchial tube secretions in the alveoli
Term
chronic bronchitis (a type of COPD)
Definition
a respiratory disorder in which inflammatory changes to, and narrowing of, the bronchi cause airflow limitation; distinguished by the excessive production of mucus and a recurrent cough; onset is slow, progressive, and continuous. Development of the disease is associated with cigarette smoking, infection, and inhaled irritants
Term
lung cancer
Definition
leading cause of cancer death in men and women
Term
bronchogenic carcinoma
Definition
Lung cancer arising from the bronchi
Term
small cell lung cancer
Definition
associated with cigarette smoking and the inspiration of cancer-causing agents in the environment. This type of cancer derives from small cells called "oat cells"—hence its name. It tends to spread rapidly through the lymphatic system and the bloodstream and has a poor prognosis. Treatment includes chemotherapy and radiation.
Term
adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma
Definition
two types on non small cell lung cancer
Term
adenocarcinoma
Definition
usually develops in the peripheral lung tissue, is the most common type of lung cancer and is highly metastatic
Term
squamous cell carcinoma
Definition
tends to develop from the lining of the bronchial passages; this type of cancer does not metastasize rapidly and has a better prognosis
Term
cystic fibrosis
Definition
an inherited disorder that affects the mucous membranes of the respiratory system as well as the pancreas and the sweat glands; the mucous glands produce thick, abundant secretions that cause airway obstruction; the disease is usually recognized in infancy or early childhood.
Term
Bronchiectasis
Definition
a respiratory disorder characterized by chronic, abnormal dilation of the bronchi; This condition is typically caused by bacterial infection in the lower lobes of the lungs. The infection weakens the walls of the bronchi and eventually can destroy them. Pus-filled, or purulent, material—bacteria and mucus—then collects within pockets of the damaged bronchial walls; may also be caused by an obstruction, below which the bronchial walls become distended or dilated
Term
exudates
Definition
are substances that filter from cells or capillaries into lesions or areas of inflammation
Term
pleural rub/friction rub
Definition
a scratchy sound produced by the pleural surfaces rubbing against each other—a painful condition indeed; This usually occurs when the pleura have been thickened and roughened by inflammation or scarring or, in some cases, neoplastic cells
Term
pneumonia
Definition
an acute inflammation of the alveoli, which fill with pus or other wastes in response to infective agents, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Smoking, the presence of pollutants, and a compromised immune system are among the predisposing factors for development of this; by high fever, chills, headache, coughing, and chest pain
Term
infiltrate
Definition
a fluid-filled area within the lungs often seen in pneumonia
Term
lobar pneumonia
Definition
fluid, blood cells, and other debris consolidate, or solidify, within the alveoli of one or more lobes
Term
bronchopneumonia
Definition
consolidation occurs primarily in the terminal bronchioles, affecting a smaller area and resulting in milder symptoms
Term
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
Definition
seen in patients with immunosuppressive disorders like AIDS
Term
tuberculosis (TB)
Definition
. It is an infectious disease caused by inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis—rod-shaped bacteria, or bacilli (sing., bacillus), that invade the lungs
Term
pulmonary fibrosis
Definition
scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs
Term
Pulmonary abscess
Definition
pus-filled lesion in the lung, usually caused by aspiration of bacteria. In addition to producing infection, the aspirated organisms cause death, or necrosis, of lung tissue. When the necrotic tissue is coughed up, an air-filled cavity remains in the lung; usually accompanied by high fever, chills, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, and foul-smelling, purulent sputum
Term
emphysema (a type of COPD)
Definition
the alveolar walls lose their elasticity, become hyperinflated, and eventually rupture. The disorder is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and is often preceded by chronic bronchitis
Term
Dyspnea on exertion (DOE)
Definition
an early symptom of emphysema; As the disease progresses and more alveoli become distended, trapped air in the lungs results in development of the characteristic "barrel chest."
Term
cor pulmonale
Definition
failure of the right side of the heart to pump sufficiently to the lungs, causing enlargement of the right ventricle
Term
Atelectasis
Definition
sometimes referred to as collapsed lung, is characterized by incomplete expansion (often because of pain on inspiration) or collapse of the alveoli; a condition of being without a complete dilation or widening of a structure—or, in other words, the loss of ability of the lung to expand
Term
-ectasis
Definition
dilation or widening
Term
tel/o
Definition
complete
Term
sarcoidosis
Definition
is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown origin. It involves the development of inflammatory lesions and the proliferation of lymphatic tissue. Common sites for the formation of lesions include the lungs, spleen, liver, skin, and mucous membranes
Term
pulmonary sarcoidosis
Definition
a type of restrictive lung disease. It is a benign, self-limiting disorder that may resolve without treatment. When treatment is required, steroids are often used to relieve symptoms and to manage the inflammation.
Term
pneumoconiosis
Definition
a group of occupational-related restrictive lung diseases characterized by inflammation, infection, and bronchitis. These conditions are the result of inhaling substances found in the workplace (coni/o means dust)
Term
asbestosis
Definition
Types of pneumoconiosis caused by the inspiration and accumulation of asbestos particles
Term
silicosis
Definition
Types of pneumoconiosis which develops from the accumulation of silica or glass dust in the lungs
Term
anthracosis
Definition
Type of pneumoconiosis; black lung disease caused by the inspiration and accumulation of coal dust in the lungs
Term
pulmonary edema
Definition
occurs when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the alveoli, bronchioles, and interstitial spaces of the lungs
Term
pulmonary embolism
Definition
a pulmonary artery clot (thrombus) (Fig. A) arising from a peripheral vein to lodge in the pulmonary vasculature; Common symptoms include sudden dyspnea, chest pain, and cyanosis
Term
pulmonary infarction
Definition
the death (necrosis) of lung tissue caused by an interrupted blood supply
Term
pleura
Definition
a membrane that enfolds both lungs and lines the chest wall
Term
pleurisy/pleuritis
Definition
an inflammation of the pleura. Common causes include bacterial or viral infections such as pneumonia or tuberculosis
Term
pleural friction rub
Definition
a grating sound that occurs as one layer of the pleural membrane slides over the other during breathing
Term
pleural effusion
Definition
Excessive fluid can accumulate in the pleural space as a consequence of infection, malignancy, or trauma. This condition results in fever, progressive dyspnea, and nonproductive cough
Term
hydrothorax
Definition
fluid accumulates between the lung and chest wall
Term
pneumothorax
Definition
gas or air collect in the pleural space or chest cavity; accompanied by chest pain, rapid breathing, a weak pulse, dizziness, and a cough
Term
Hemothorax
Definition
a condition of blood in the chest or pleural cavity
Term
hemoptysis
Definition
a spitting of blood or blood-stained sputum from the lungs
Term
-ptysis
Definition
spitting
Term
mesothelioma
Definition
a rare malignant tumor that is derived from mesothelial tissue—a flat layer of cells that covers the surface of the pleural membrane. Development of the tumor is associated with exposure to asbestos; a fatal condition