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Linguistics Morphology and Syntax
Morphology and Syntax
48
Language - Other
11/15/2009

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Term
Morpheme
Definition
the smallest linguistic unit that has meaning or grammatical function
Term
Free Morpheme
Definition
stands alone as a word
Term
Bound Morpheme
Definition
never exsists as a word in itself, but is always attached to other morphemes
Term
Morphology
Definition

the study of how words are structured and how they are put together to form smaller parts

Term
Derivational Morphemes
Definition

either create a new word or change the part of speech when attaching to words 

Term
Grammatical Morphemes
Definition

(only suffixes in English)

serve a purely grammatical function and never create a new word but only a different form of the same word

Term

Syntax does not require the presence of _________ morphemes.

Definition

Derivational

 

(bc they indicate relations within a word, not without)

Term

Derivational morphemes are not generally very _________.

Definition
productive
Term

________ morphemes are required by syntax.

Definition
Grammatical
Term
lexical morpheme
Definition

has semantic content or independent, identifiable meaning

 

 

Term
grammatical morphemes
Definition

serves a grammatical function by relating words in a sentence to each other

 

 

 

prepostions, conjunctions, articles, and pronouns

Term

A variant of a morpheme is considered an allomorph if it is _______ differently.

Definition
pronounced
Term

The stems with which a given affix may combine normally ____________________.

Definition

belong to the same part of speech

 

(ex. -able attaches only to verbs)

Term
The words formed by the addition of a given affix of some word or morpheme normally belong _________________.
Definition

to the same part of speech.

 

(ex. -able + verb= adjective)

Term

Since words are formed by steps, they are referred to as _________________.

Definition
hierarchical
Term
Semantics
Definition
study of meaning
Term
Sentence
Definition

an expression which can be judged true or false

Term

________ typically occur before the grammatical inflextion.  

Definition
Suffixes (derivational morphemes)
Term
Example of SVO language
Definition

English

 

 

Term
Example of SOV language
Definition
Classical Latin
Term
Example of VSO language
Definition
Somoan
Term
Analytic/Isolating Language
Definition

Build up the meanings of sentences through the use of isolated morphemes

 

1. sequence of free morphemes

2. sytactical relationships are shown  by word order 

 

Ex. Mandarin

Term
Agglutinating
Definition

The affixes can easily be separated from the stems to which they are attached and in which each affix generally conveys one meaning

 

Fixed order

Clearly identifiable and seperable

One meaning

 

ex. Swahili

 

Term
Inflective/Synthetic
Definition

Syntactic relationships are generally shown by bound morphemes (affixes)  which may contain more than one meaning 

 

1. bases and affixes are not always clearly separable

 

2. each affix may carry more than one meaning

 

ex. Classical Latin

 

Term
Polysynthetic
Definition

Show syntactic relationships through highly complex words

 

1. stems and affixes are hard to separate

 

2. Bound morphemes--often don't exist outside of structure

 

ex. Sora

Term
Three most common word order ex.
Definition

SVO (English)

VSO (Irish, Somoan)

SOV (Japanese, Turkish)

Term
Adposition
Definition

can either be a prepostion or a postposition

Term
In SVO...
Definition

Relative clauses and adjectives tend to follow nouns

 

Genetives normally follow nouns

 

Prepostions

Term
In SOV...
Definition

Genetives, adjectives, and relatives normally precede nouns

 

Postpositions

 

 

 

 

Term
Syntax
Definition

process whereby elements are organized and brought together in an orderly way to form phrases and sentences

Term
Constituents
Definition
Meaningful groups of words
Term

How to tell if a groups is syntactically coherent...

Definition

1. If the group coheres syntactically and has meaning

 

2. smallest constituents are individual words

 

3. Must stand alone

 

4. Can be substituted by a proword

 

5. Can be moved around

Term
Noam Chomsky
Definition

wrote Syntactical Structures

 

Said that you learn rules when you acquire a language

 

Use rules to generate sentences:

 

Deep Structure--Basic Idea

 

Surface Structure--Sentence or Form

 

Go from deep structure to basic structure through derivation and apply transformative rules

Term
Generative Grammar
Definition
Chomsky's theory of language
Term
Morphophonemic Change
Definition

Morphological change that is phonologically conditioned

Term
Four Transformational Rules
Definition

1. Deletion

2. Insertion

3. Substitution

4. Movement

Term
Deletion Rule
Definition

Deep Structure--You write your name.

 

Surface Structure--Write your name.

 

ability to interpret certain grammatical strings even though elements of interpretation may not be physically present

Term
Insertion Rule
Definition

is raining--Deep Structure

It is raining--Surface Structure

Term
Substitution Rule
Definition

John behaved John--Deep Structure

 

John behaved himself--Surface Structure

Term
Movement Rule
Definition

Inversion--movement of word

 

Movement of tense

Term
Embedding
Definition
allows a sentence to go on indefinitely
Term
Derivation Process
Definition
Deep structure to surface structure
Term
Phrase structure rules
Definition
ordering elements in a phrase
Term
Haplolgy
Definition

aka--Blending

 

combinations of clipping and compounding which makes new words by putting together fragments of existing words 

 

(smog, brunch)

Term
Clipping
Definition

ex. laboratory--lab

examination--exam

Term
Acronomy
Definition
constructing acronyms
Term
Affixation
Definition
adding affixes
Term
Back Formation
Definition

Make a derivate that changes the form of the word

 

donation--donate

television--televise