Shared Flashcard Set

Details

LIfespan- Piaget
Chp 6 2010 LSD
52
Psychology
10/13/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Knowledge construction is...P
Definition
a dynamic process of active engagement with the environment
Term
Knowledge construction occurs...P
Definition
through exploration of objects and ideas in the environment
Term
Schema
Definition
Organized action and mental connections, a framework
Term
What are the invariants essential for knowledge construction? P
Definition
Organization
Adaptation
Equilibrium
Horizontal Decalage
Vertical Decalage
Term
Organization (P)
Definition
internal component of knowledge. Proceeds through bio structures and bio based functions.
Term
Knowledge construction processes v. mental organization of knowledge (P)
Definition
knowledge construction processes (functions) are the same throughout life but the mental organization of knowledge (structural) changes over time
Term
Adaptation (P)
Definition
change in bx that makes evident the organization has occurred.
Assimilation
Accommodation
Term
Assimilation (P)
Definition
occurs when a new object is incorporated into an existing schema
Term
Accommodation (P)
Definition
occurs when an existing schema cannot incorporate the new object and must be changed to accommodate the new. r(reorganized or a new one)
Term
Equilibrium (P)
Definition
interplay btwn assimilation and accommodation which drives adaptation. Results in balance btwn cog. structures and envr. exp.
Term
Horizontal Decalage (P)
Definition
occurs because equilibrium may not be reached across all knowledge domains at the same time. disparity in levels of logical reasoning for different tasks)
Term
Vertical decalage (P)
Definition
(thinking processes from lower stages that reoccur at higher stages) is evidence of invariant aspects of knowledge construction.
Term
Knowledge is constructed from three sources: (P)
Definition
1. Interaction with the physical world (physical)
2. Comparisons of relationships among objects/ideas (logicomathematical)
3. Transmission by others (social arbitrary)
Term
Source of knowledge of physical knowledge (P)
Definition
Source of knowledge is the objects themselves and arises from interaction.
Term
Source of knoowledge of logicomathematical knowledge (P)
Definition
Source of knowledge is in the individuals categorizing and comparing the characteristics of objects (ideas), using numeration, series, and classification.
Term
Source of knowledge of social arbitrary knowledge (P)
Definition
It must be transmitted directly from others
Term
What are Piaget's four stages and their age ranges?
Definition
1. Sensorimotor (birth -2)
2. Preoperational (2-7)
3. Concrete operational (7-11)
4. Formal operational (12-adult)
Term
Describe Sensorimotor stage.
Definition
Knowledge of the world based on senses and motor skills. By the end of this period infant uses mental representations
Term
What are the six stages during the sensorimotor stage?
Definition
1. reflexive actions
2. Primary circular reactions
3. secondary circular reactions
4. coordination of secondary schemes
5. Teritiary Circular Reactions
6. Invention of new means by mental combinations.
Term
Reflexive actions (P) sensorimotor
Definition
reflexive actions (sucking) used to interact with the environment. Used indiscriminately.
Term
Primary Circular Reactions (P) Sensorimotor
Definition
(1-4 or 5 months) reflexive actions that infants repeat over and over. (thumb sucking)
Term
Secondary Circular Reactions (P) Sensorimotor
Definition
(4-10 months) infants act on objects in the environment to get a response. (ball-noise) Actions still used indiscriminately.
Term
Coordination of Secondary Schemes (P) Sensorimotor
Definition
: (8-12 months) Infants can coordinate a number of schemes to reach a goal. Use a means to and end. They begin to anticipate events and have object permanence. ‘hold it in mind’
Term
Terirary Circular Reactions (P) Sensorimotor
Definition
(12-18 months) Act on objects to get a response and continue to elaborate the action to get different responses. Effects of trial and error.
Term
Invention of new means by menat combinations (P) sensorimotor
Definition
: (18 – 24 months) can symbolize mentally, using language, pretend play, deferred imitation and mental combinations to solve problems. (Opening a door to drive a toy car). The appearance of language and pretend play are strong indicators of the ability to engage in symbolic thought.
Term
Describe Preoperational stage
Definition
Child learns how to use symbols such as words and numbers to represent aspect of the world, but realates only through own's perspective.
Term
Hallmarks of the preoperational stage
Definition
1. Uni-dimensional (centration)
2. Perceptual Orientation
3. Irreversibility
4. Animism
5. Egocentrism
Term
Unidimensional (centration) (P) Preop.
Definition
children will focus on one characteristic but not take into account related characteristics. (look at height not width)
Term
Perceptual Organization (P) Preop
Definition
more likely to accept what they see than using logical thought.
Term
Irreversibility (P) Preop
Definition
can’t mentally ‘undo’ an action
Term
Animism (P) Preop
Definition
difficulty distinguishing between living and nonliving. (if moving it might be judged to be alive, clouds)
Term
Egocentrism (P) Preop
Definition
not able to see another’s visual perspective. Egocentric speech is prominent.
Term
Describe Concrete Operational Stage
Definition
Child understands and applies logical operations to experiences. Focused on the here and now.
Black or white.
Concrete situations only, not abstract
Term
Characteristics of the Concrete Operational Stage
Definition
1. Decentration
2. Conservation
3. Reversibility
4. Seriation
5. Classifications
Term
Decentration (P) F. Op
Definition
they can consider more than one characteristic of an object of event when making decisions.
Term
Conservation (P) F. Op
Definition
quantity remains the same even if its appearance changes.
Term
Reversibility (P) F. Op
Definition
logical actions may be reversed. This is necessary for mathematical thinking.
Term
Seriation (P) F. Op
Definition
can order object according to length, with and other dimensions
Term
Classification (P) F. Op
Definition
they can categorize according to more than one dimension. Begin hierarchiacal classification or class inclusion.
Term
Describe Formal Operations stage
Definition
Logical mental operations can be applied to abstract problems.
Term
Formal Operational stage is characterized by what?
Definition
Hypothetical reasoning
Propositional reasoning
Reflective thinking
Complex planning
Term
Role of play in knowledge construction (P)
Definition
constructs knowledge of world by relating new experiences to existing schemas
Occurs in three stages
is an assimilation process
Term
Piaget's three stages of play:
Definition
1. Practice play
2. Pretense play
3. Games with rules
Term
Practice play (P)
Definition
(6 months -3 years)- repeating similar play actions on toys to master their use, with gradual elaboration of these actions. not routine repetition
Term
Pretense Play (P)
Definition
(4-7 years) begins with adult facilitation but it extends into elaborate social pretense with peers (fantasy play). Children create worlds that make sense to them that include language narration, perspective and role taking.
Term
Games with rules (P)
Definition
(evident at some toddler play but predominant in concrete operational phase) Rule games (social turn taking)time is spent in discussion of the rules, changing them to be fair, and adapting rules to make the game more fun. Sports not included.
Term
Where does moral dev. begin? (P)
Definition
In games with rules. Children discuss and decide issues of justice
Term
Role of language in knowledge construction (P)
Definition
Language doesn’t drive thought but assists thought to be more elaborate and complex.
Parallels dev. of play
Parallesl dev. of logical thought
Early lang is egocentric but transistions.
Term
Piaget's Influence
Definition
1. emphasis on the nature of childrens thinking being different from adults
2. Comprehensive methodology (clinical interviews)
3. Theory is testable, generates wealth of research
4. Discussion of play
Term
Piaget's influence in Education
Definition
1.Children must be active participants in their knowledge construction
2.Stage thinking should be assessed not assumed. Levels of reasoning are evident in ‘mistakes.’
3.Equilibration can be initiated by educators
4.Teacher’s role is to provide cognitive conflict to facilitate knowledge construction.
Term
Piaget's influence in Education
Definition
1.Children must be active participants in their knowledge construction
2.Stage thinking should be assessed not assumed. Levels of reasoning are evident in ‘mistakes.’
3.Equilibration can be initiated by educators
4.Teacher’s role is to provide cognitive conflict to facilitate knowledge construction.
Term
Piaget's Critique
Definition
1. stages not as clear cut
2. little focus on socio-emotional issues
3. no clear cut definition of mechanisms that affected transisitions of stages
4. lack of emphasis on relationshio of cognition to performance
5. Object permanence could happen earlier