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Latin American Political Systems
theory, argentina
71
Political Studies
10/02/2010

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Term
Descriptive words for Corporatism in Latin America
Definition
hierarchical, elitist, authoritarian, bureaucratic, Catholic, patrimonialist,
Term
How do we use the term corporatism in respect to Latin America?
Definition
It is a way to explain the specific customs and history of Latin America, in that it is an underlying structure of organizing society, rather than an ideology or a political platform.
Term
What is the ideological justification for Corporatism?
Definition
If every person sticks to his/her place, than societal harmony can be achieved.
Term
Which historical event in Spain and Portugal contributed greatly to the legacy of corporatism?
Definition
the 700 year war with the Moors called the Reconquista.
Term
What are the general characteristics of a corporatist society?
Definition
Society is divided into bodies or groups based on profession or function. Individuals often have more loyalty to group than to overall nation.
Term
Which political ideology does corporatism embrace?
Definition
Not any particular one. The corporatist structure can underly both left and right political ideologies, and both conservative and liberal societies.
Term
Define patron-client relations.
Definition
The relationship between a powerful person and those below him in which the powerful will provide safety and representation, while the clients provide unswerving loyalty, and can always be counted on. The followers rise and fall with the patron.
Term
Define Bureaucratic Authoritarianism, giving its characteristics.
Definition
A specific kind of authoritarian rule, possible only in wealthier, developing nations. Its main goal is domination, through complete depoliticization,stress on organizations that support order, and political exclusion and economic exclusion. Also a product of ISI, after the growth has stopped; this regime wants to "normalize" the economy and promote growth and stability through economic liberalization.
Term
Define "declining terms of trade"
Definition
The idea that the price of manufactured goods increase faster than those of primary goods.
Term
Define Import Substitution Industrialization
Definition
An economic model that promotes inward-looking growth by stimulating domestic industrialization and manufacturing, closed or limited trade with foreigners in order to break with the import-export model and to provide subordinated economies the chance to grow on their own terms without competition from foreign goods. Put into place between 30's to 80's. NAFTA signaled the end.
Term
What are the main ideas of Modernization theory?
Definition
All countries follow the same path from traditional society to modern society. the main problem that is holding back growth of Latin American countries are traditional values. The point of view of the theorist is a micro-sociological one.
Term
What are the prescriptions for traditional society to become modern, according to Modernization theory?
Definition
1) Challenge traditional values, esp. those that oppose the "time is money" attitude. 2) Modernize industry/technology and diversify economy. 3) Import modern organizational methods. Outside investment is also imperative. 4) Political stability is necessary (regime type is not so important). 5) Promote growth of middle class.
Term
What are the main ideas of Dependency theory?
Definition
Latin American countries have been locked into a subordinate role by the developed nations, which is why they remain poor. The central question for dependency theorists is "where are the products going?" Dependency theorist looks at L.A. countries and their relation to the world economy. Also, it is important to realize that industrialization in Europe and America is the other side of the coin to the underdevelopment of L.A. countries.
Term
What are some criticisms of Modernization?
Definition
It does not take into account that modernization or change of any kind happens in countries because of specific people in specific situations. Also, modern is a relative term, the US being the ideal example. Assumes that all countries want to become like the US. Also, narrowing in on the fact that traditional values are the dominant reason for backwardness ignores other variables.
Term
What are some criticisms of Dependency?
Definition
It is pessimistic.
Term
Define "comprador elite"
Definition
Elites who, because they are wealthy, buy and consume things, but the money they spend is most likely going abroad, and not reinvested into home countries.
Term
What are the prescriptions given by Dependency theorists?
Definition
Monitor contact with foreign nations. This seems to be the only general point of consensus among dependency writers.
Term
Define "arielismo"
Definition
a concern for the transcendental as opposed to material values. This is unsavory to Modernization theorists.
Term
What were the inducements to implement ISI in L.A. countries?
Definition
International trade dried up during the Great Depression.
Term
What were the economic implications of ISI?
Definition
Selling domestically made goods to a domestic market worked at first, but as pent up demand for products dissipated, growth and output also slowed. In order to actually have a domestic market for the goods, borrowing was accelerated to pay for the goods. Also, imposing national sovereignty on MNCs, such as having minimum percentages of nationals in management roles, and the amount of profit that could be sent back to MNC home country, often deterred MNC from setting up in the first place.
Term
What is the ECLA?
Definition
Economic Commission for Latin America
Term
Define "neocolonialism"
Definition
control of colonies by economic means (using foreign currency, establishing economic spheres of influence)
Term
What was the primary goal of ISI?
Definition
To reduce the negative effects of the terms of trade.
Term
Who was Juan Manuel de Rosas?
Definition
He was governor of Buenos Aires, who took over as dictator, breaking the stalemate between the Federalists and the Unitarians. He was a Federalist. He pushed for expansion. Overthrown in 1852, thought unable to produce the economic and political changes thought necessary by some elites.
Term
What percentage of the Argentine population was foreign born by 1900?
Definition
One third.
Term
What prompted the sitting Argentinean elites to implement universal suffrage and political liberalization? (between 1892 and 1912)
Definition
Growing pressure from the middle-class opposition, emergence of militant labor and leftist groups. Also, they saw that the Radical party would not alter the existing economic and social structures.
Term
When was universal suffrage instituted?
Definition
1912
Term
What characterized the period 1916-1930?
Definition
Democratic political stability characterized by the predominance of the UCR party.
Term
Which social organization began to rise in importance at the start of the 20th century?
Definition
Labor unions. Immigrants brought socialist and radical ideas with them.
Term
Who was Argentina's first democratically elected president?
Definition
Hipolito Yrigoyen. 1916-1922,1928-1930
Term
What effect did the Great Depression have on politics?
Definition
Yrigoyen was overthrown by military coup supported by the traditional oligarchs. Conservative regimes that limited participatory democracy and banned UCR.
Term
Who was the coup on Yrigoyen led by?
Definition
General Jose F. Uriburu
Term
How did Peron concentrate so much power to himself during his comrade's presidency (Farrel, 44-46)?
Definition
He took the roles of vice president, minister of war, secretary of labor and social welfare. From this he organized a supporting coalition and a state-controlled labor movement. He essentially created his own political base.
Term
What were Peron and Evita's main concerns?
Definition
The labor class and unions
Term
When was independence declared in Argentina?
Definition
1816
Term
What term describes the relationship between Peron and his followers?
Definition
patron-client
Term
What political era started with the inauguration of Peron?
Definition
The Era of Populism
Term
What practices described Peron's regime?
Definition
Semi-authoritarian. restricted freedom of expression, assembly, strike; controlling judiciary, manipulating mass media, harassing adversaries.
Term
What were Peron's economics?
Definition
Income redistribution, strong state intervention, nationalization of public utilities.
Term
What occurred in 1947?
Definition
Women got the vote, Evita head of Women's branch of Peronist Party.
Term
What were Peron's troubles after his reelection in 1952?
Definition
Growing inflation, balance of payments deficits, trend toward authoritarianism and confrontation with Catholic Church which weakened his regime.
Term
What were the events surrounding Peron's overthrow?
Definition
A military faction supported by the opposition and the church overthrew him (1955).
Term
Describe political situation between 1955 and 1966
Definition
Unstable; succession of military regimes and limited democratic governments. Failed to fix economic and social situations.
Term
Who won the 1973 election?
Definition
Peron with his wife Isabella as VP.
Term
What happened after Peron died in 1974 to Isabella?
Definition
She succeeded him as president, unable to control inflation and socioeconomic tensions. Overthrown by military 1976.
Term
Who made up the Unitarians?
Definition
The Buenos Aires elites who advocated strong centralized power in B.A. and free market policies.
Term
Who made up the Federalists?
Definition
The provincial elites who wanted to retain power in their hands; they also advocated economic protectionism on goods.
Term
What kind of economics did the military regime of '76 implement and why?
Definition
Neoliberalist policies; they thought that all that had gone wrong with the country was due to the state interventionist and ISI models. They believed that the free market would solve the economic decline, social strife, and political instability.
Term
What term could be used to describe the type of military regime of '76?
Definition
Bureaucratic Authoritarian.
Term
What did the regime do in a last bid for national support and respect?
Definition
Started a war with the British over the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands, hoping it would have a unifying effect.
Term
Describe political and economic atmosphere during 1930-1943.
Definition
Conservative authoritarian government. Return to export oriented economy. However, this economic model unrealisitc because of dried up trade during Depression. ISI becomes the economic model.
Term
Who wins the 1983 election?
Definition
Raul Alfonsin
Term
How did the brutal military coup change Argentina?
Definition
It decreased the power of the labor unions, weakened the middle class, created conditions for growth of large, diversified economic groups, reduced state role in protecting low and middle groups.
Term
What were Alfonsin's political stances, and the highlights of his time in office?
Definition
UCR leader. Respected democratic liberties. Implemented some liberal econ. policies, and also social welfare increased. He attempted to bring "dirty war" criminals to trial, the the military was overlooking his shoulder and blocked his way on this point. Hyperinflation occurred towards the end of his term, actually ending it prematurely.
Term
Who was elected president in 1989 and of what party was he?
Definition
Carlos Menem, the Peronist candidate.
Term
What characterized Menem's time as president?
Definition
As a Peronist party member, he was surprisingly neoliberal in his economics. He implemented deregulation ad removal of some deregulatory bureaus. All state enterprises were privatized. There were massive dismissals of public employees. New currency: peso, on a 1 for 1 parity exchange with the U.S. dollar. Tariff removals, subsidy removals. He changed the constitution to allow for presidential reelection.
Term
What were some antidemocratic practices of Menem?
Definition
He gave legal recognition only to those unions that were pro Menem. Labor also needed permission to strike. He packed the Supreme Court with supporters, increasing the total jurors from 5 to 9.Also posted supporters in leading positions in gov.
Term
What was the large criticism of Menem?
Definition
That he pardoned the former military rulers of past regimes, including those of the dirty war.
Term
Who won the election in 1995?
Definition
Menem
Term
Which political organization arose out of dislike for Menem's practices?
Definition
FrePaSo. It was composed of Peronist dissidents, leftist groups and provincial orgs.
Term
What issues did Menem face during his second term?
Definition
Rising unemployment, decline in economic growth. Accusations of corruption.
Term
Who were the candidates for the '99 election, and what parties did they belong to?
Definition
Peronist: Edward Duhalde
FrePaSo: Fernando de la Rua
Carlos Alvarez VP
Term
Who won '99 election?
Definition
de la Rua.
Term
What became clear after de la Rua was elected?
Definition
That the new president would not greatly alter the neoliberal course or address anticorruption concerns.
Term
What weakened de la Rua and the alliance (FrePaSo)?
Definition
Alvarez resigned as a result of de la Rua's ineffectual presidency.
Term
What did da la Rua face?
Definition
recession, unemployment.
Term
What was de la Rua's big mistake?
Definition
He froze bank withdrawals, infuriating the middle class and causing riots, street demonstrations, and violent confrontations. "Que se vayan todos!"
Term
What happened after de la Rua resigned?
Definition
political instability. 3 new presidents came and left.
Term
Who stepped in for a short time in 2003?
Definition
Eduardo Duhalde. He improved the situation a bit, increased unemployment benefits, restructured debt, increased spending on education, health and housing. Did not put himself up for election in 2003.
Term
What is Kirchner's background and what are the basics of the 2003 election?
Definition
Nominated by the Peronist party. 1 of 3 candidates, Menem ran too. Second round of elections, Menem vs. Kirchner, Menem dropped out.
Term
What are Kirchner's political stances?
Definition
Redistributive income, progressive social measures, human rites initiatives (punish war criminals, establish memorials).