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Later Language Acquisition
notes on David Carroll's "Psychology of Language" ch 11
53
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04/02/2007

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Term
why do kids learn things in the order they do?
Definition
maybe influenced by data frequency, brown says its based on complexity and underlying notions (like number and person)
Term
stages of negation
Definition
negation of sentence, negation of predicate (contraction forms occur there too)
Term
Klima and Bellugi's reason's for why children mess up sentences like "WHy you can't sit down"?
Definition
they say that children's processing capacity is too limited at this point in development to control all three operations at once (wh- preoposing, inversion, negation)
Term
difference between conceptual complexity and formal complexity
Definition
different languages can have differences in the formal difficulty of a concept even if conceptual is the same.
Term
metalinguistic awareness
Definition
knowledge of what's right, etc.
Term
what are five phonological awareness tasks?
Definition
supply rhyme (give me a word that rhymes) strip initial consonant, identify idfferent initial consonant, identify different final consonant, supply initial consonant
Term
the types of adult-child discourse
Definition
nonadjacent(not after a previous adult utterance) or adjacent(either oncontingent, imitative or continguent)
Term
can children modify their speech to conditions?
Definition
yes, 4 year olds can code-switch to the language of 2 year olds
Term
can children use cohesive devices to connect sentences?
Definition
young children (2yrs) use all of Hallidays cohesive types (references, elliphsis, substitution, conjunction and lexical conjesion
Term
parental influence upon narrative structure
Definition
parents who asked open-ended and clarifying questions produced children with fuller narratives; parental topic switching made for shorter tales
Term
what's special about classroom discourse?
Definition
classroom discourse is decontextualized; also, there aren't markers distinguishing personal fact from opinion; also, teachers can't pay attention to everyone at the same time
Term
what did Michaels find about differences in poor blacks and bougie white narrative styles?
Definition
bougie whites used a singlue central topic, while poor blacks used a topic-associateng sytle
Term
what are the skills specific to reading?
Definition
eye movements to scan letters, extracting the letters and words themselves, relating the printed material to written language.
Term
who corrects mispelled words more often?
Definition
poor readers use context clues more, while better readers have the excess processing power to notice spelling problems
Term
simultaneous bilingualism
Definition
learning two languages simultaneiously
Term
sequential bilingualist
Definition
acquiring a second language after having already gotten a native one
Term
how is simultaneous bilingualism studied?
Definition
often with case studies of parents recording in a diary
Term
is there any delay caused by bilingualism?
Definition
some say no, not in vocab; some signs that they lag behind in syntactic measures though. they lag behind in the mass noun/count noun distinction, lags behind in gender (when one lang is gendered)
Term
Bilingualism needs constant input too; what percentage did Pearson etc. say is needed?
Definition
at least 25% of each language
Term
what method helps reduce language mixing?
Definition
'one person, one language' (one per parent)
Term
language transfer
Definition
idea that the each of getting the first language influences the acquisition of the second
Term
does bilingualism effect metalinguistics awareness?
Definition
some say yes. leopold: "the most striking effect of bilingualism was a noticeable looseness of the link between the phonetic word and its meaning"
Term
what is adult language aquisition?
Definition
acquisition after age 12
Term
what is the difference in input between L1 and L2 learners?
Definition
L2 learns generally learn in school (as opposed to natural)
Term
whats the 'context of acquisition'
Definition
natrualistic vs. instructed setting, or both
Term
what's mode of acquisition'?
Definition
oral or visual; children general start by hearing, while L2 is ofter visual as well
Term
what are Interlanguage Grammars (IG)?
Definition
interim grammars that L2 learners build during the L2 acquistiion process; IG1 (initial state).....IG2.....IG3....IGn (final state)
Term
what are developmental errors?
Definition
errors of development ; overegulatization etc.
Term
what are transfer rerrors?
Definition
interference from L1 onto your learning; imposing structural properites of L1 onto L2. speakers of different L1s have different errors
Term
the younger the age of acquisition fo an L2...
Definition
the more likely the learner will attain a high level of profieiency (almost native) in the target language.
Term
What does Bley-Vroman(1990) posit?
Definition
it claims that Universal Grammar constrains thhe acquisition of an L1
Term
Bley-Vroman's characteristics of foreign laguage learning
Definition
* lack of success * general failure * variaiton in success, course, and strategy * variation in goals * correlation ofo age and profieciency * fossilization * indeterminate intuitions * importance of instruction * negative evidence * role of affective factors
Term
fossilization
Definition
when one makes no more langauge gains ; doesn't happen in L1
Term
how does the context of acquisition change the occurence of negative evidence?
Definition
instructional settings and quizzzes use more negative vidence, and older learners pay it more attention
Term
Bley -Vroman's L1 process go?
Definition
input of PLD goes through the UG,, and creates grammar states until hit a steady state (L1)
Term
Bley-Vroman L2?
Definition
input ges through L1, instead of UG, to make new temporary L2Gstages
Term
what's then the Fundamental Differnces Hypothesis
Definition
UG is there to consturct L1 but then is gone. only UG principles established in the L1 are carried over
Term
Te critical period hypothesis?
Definition
due to progressize laterialization and loss of plasitcity of cerebral functions, one loses abilities to learn or distinguish things (happens differently for each lang. component)
Term
how did they find Genie?
Definition
age 13 with the linguistic abilities of a 2 year old
Term
after training, what did Genie attain?
Definition
genie learned new words but retained the syntactic and phonological aspects of a 2 year old.
Term
what did they notice about genie's brain wave patterns?
Definition
they notices an abnormal number of 'sleep spindles', which might indicate that she had been mentally retarded before the isolation.
Term
in comparison to genie, what happened to isabelle?
Definition
discovered at age 6 without language (daughter of deaf-mte) but by 8, standard langauge ability
Term
what happened to Chelsea
Definition
found at age 30; no language whatsoever
Term
what do we know of Delay of Acquisition in the Deaf?
Definition
congenitally deaf children of hearing parents have varies L1 exposure (varied realizations of when the child is deaf).
Term
What does Newport nad Supalla(1990)'s deaf L1 study show?
Definition
30 congenially deaf; native learners, early learners, late learners. all had a minimum of 30 ears daily exposure to sign language.
Term
what was newport and supalla's methodology?
Definition
video description and picture identification task (describing visual stimuli)
Term
newport and supalla's conclusions?
Definition
syntax was fine, but the later teh critical period, the more morphology declined
Term
what's the difference between a creole and a pidgin?
Definition
a creole is a pidgin (comination of two languages) which has native speakers, whom generally have fleshed out the language
Term
what was the object of Johnson and Newport(1989)
Definition
to see thether the same constraints effected L1 acquisition and L2 acquisition
Term
johnson and newports methodology?
Definition
grammaticality judgement task
Term
johnson anad newports conclusions?
Definition
before puberty, correlation between age of arrival and performance; after puberty, none.

lanugae learners who get is earl learn it much befre than those who get it after puberty
Term
two posibilities of what changes during maturation?
Definition
innate language faculty (LAD) udnergoes decay as maturaltion continues. OR language learning abilities decrease precisely because cognitive abilities increase. children are good language learners because they ahve limiinations on the amount of informaiton they are able to process. (less is more hypothesis)
Term
other reasons (other than bio or less-is more) for L2 learning changes over lifespan
Definition
conginitve changes across the lifespan * age related difference in input * that there are Multiple Ciritcal periods *