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Laboratory Procedure Definitions
Veterinary Assitant
157
Veterinary Medicine
03/21/2011

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Term
In-house laboratory
Definition
Tests are preformed within the veterinary facility
Term
Reference laboratory
Definition
Tests are performed in an off-site, commercial laboratory
Term
Binocular microscope
Definition
Compound light microscope adapted to the use of both eyes
Term
Light Microscope
Definition
Employs visible light to detect small objects
Term
Compound microscope
Definition
A microscope consisting of an objective and and eyepieve at opposite ends of an adjustable tube that utilizes a combination of lenses to produce an image
Term
Objective lenes
Definition
The lens or system of lenses in a telescope or microscope that is nearest the object being viewed
Term
10x setting
Definition
low power lens. used for scanning the slide
Term
40x setting
Definition
high dry lens, used for viewing fungus, parasites, and cells
Term
100x setting
Definition
oil immersion lens, used to differentiate bacteria and cytology and confirm the morphology of cells
Term
4x
Definition
scanning lens
Term
50x
Definition
low oil immersion lens
Term
Morphology
Definition
The form and structure of an organism or one of its parts
Term
Cytology
Definition
the study of the microscopic appearance of cells, esp. for the diagnosis of abnormalities and malignancie
Term
Hematology
Definition
The science of the blood and blood-producing organs
Term
Histology
Definition
the anatomical study of the microscopic structure of animal and plant tissues
Term
Microbiology
Definition
the branch of biology that deals with microoganisms and their effects on other living organisms
Term
Pathology
Definition
The scientific study of the nature of desease and its causees, processes, development, and consequences
Term
Parasitology
Definition
The scientific study of parasitism
Term
Parasitism
Definition
A relation between organisms in which on lives as a parasite on another
Term
Exudate
Definition
A fluid that has exuded out of a tissue or its capillaries due to injury or inflammation
Term
Centrifuge
Definition
An apparatus consisting essentially of a compartment spun about a central axis to separate contained materials of different desities, or to sperate colloidal particles suspended in a liquid
Term
Sediment
Definition
Solid portion of sample
Term
Supernatant liquid
Definition
Fluid portion of sample
Term
Microhematocrit centrifuge
Definition
Holds smaller capillary tubes
Term
Clinical or standard centrifuge
Definition
Can hold various sizes of test tubes
Term
Relative centrifugal force or RCF
Definition
AKA G-force: a force acting ona body as a result of acceleration or gravity, informally described in units of acceleration equal to one g.
Term
Formula for determining RCF
Definition
RCF=1.18 x 10^-5 x r x rpm^2
Term
Refractometer
Definition
AKA the Total Solids Meter, is an optical insturment that utilizes light waves to view the refraction and measure the refractive index of a solution
Term
Refraction
Definition
The turning or bending of any wave, such as light or sound wave, when it passes from on medium into another of different density
Term
Refractive index
Definition
a measure of how much the speed of light is reduced inside the medium; the refractive index of a sample shows tha concentration of solid particles in the sample, thus indicating protein concentrations.
Term
Solute
Definition
A substance dissolved in another substance, usually the component of a solution present in the lesser amount
Term
Aqueous solution
Definition
A solution where the solvent is water
Term
Specific gravity
Definition
ratio of the mass of a solid or liquid to the mass of an equal volume of distilled water at 39F (4C)
Term
Normal canine specific gravity
Definition
1.018 g/ml to 1.045 g/ml
Term
Normal feline specific gravity
Definition
1.020 g/ml to 1.040 g/ml
Term
Total protein or serum protein
Definition
AKA total serum protein and total plasma protein: a biochemical test for measuring the total percentage of protein in blood or plasma or serum; concentrations below the reference rage usually reflect low albumin concentration
Term
Albumin
Definition
The most prevalent blood pretein; responsible for actually keeping water in one's bloodstream. Main protein veterinary patients cannot afford to lose
Term
Chemistry Analyzers
Definition
Measure routine blood chemistries and electrolytes
Term
Hematology analyzers
Definition
Measure blood parameters such as the complete blood count (CBC)
Term
Photometry
Definition
the measurement of the intesity, brightness, or other properties of light; in veterinary science, a photometer is used.
Term
Spectrophotometers
Definition
Measure the amount of light transmittedd through a solution
Term
Electrochemical
Definition
The branch of chemistry that deals with the chemical changes produced by electricity and the production of electricity by chemical changes
Term
Impedance alanyzers
Definition
These are electronic cell counters that operate based on teh passage of electric current that have been adapted from their human form for use with various animal species as blood cell sizes vary between animal species
Term
Laser-based analyzers
Definition
These systems utilize laser beams that are scattered off of cells and their degree of direction of light facilitates the counting of monocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes, and erythrocytes.
Term
Quantitative buffy coat (QBC) analyzers
Definition
These systems estimate cell numbers instead of providing an accurate reading; thus, they area best used for screening.
Term
Buffy coat
Definition
The layer of material above the packe erythrocytes after centrifugation; consists primarily of leukocytes (WBC) and thrombocytes
Term
Serology
Definition
The science that deals with the properties and reactions of serums, especially blood serum; the characteristics of disease or organism shown by study of blood serums
Term
Stains
Definition
Used to stain the cells of a sample on a slide so they can be viewed under a microscope
Term
Polychromatic
Definition
Haveing exhibiting many colors
Term
Reagent
Definition
Substance used in a chemcial reaction to detect, measure, examine, or produce other substances
Term
Fleas
Definition
Most common skin parasite in both dogs and cats. They are prolific, meaning they produce in large quanitites and at great frequency.
Term
Intermediate host
Definition
Is a life form where a parasite grows but does not reach sexual maturity
Term
Definitive host
Definition
Is a life form where a parasite reaches sexual maturity
Term
Pediculosis
Definition
state of being infested with lice
Term
Three lifes stages of lice
Definition
Nits:initial egg stage
Nymphal stage
Adult stage
Term
Sarcoptes scabiei mites AKA mange mites and Scabies mites
Definition
Produce a condition called sarcoptic mange
Term
Notoedres cati mites
Definition
infest mailny cats but will occasionally infest rabbits as well
Term
Octoectes cynotis mites
Definition
ear mites, commonly seen in dogs, cats, and ferrets
Term
Demodex mange mites
Definition
most commonly found in the hair fillicles of dogs, these mites can also infest humans and felines as well as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and horses
Term
Cheyletiella mites
Definition
Are white and are large enough to be visible to the naked eye unlike other mites
Term
Trombicula mites
Definition
commonly referred to as harvest mites or chiggars, these parasites are usually visible as yellow, orange, or red specks on the faces of dogs and cats
Term
Bloods four major components
Definition
Plasma or serum, Red blood cells, White blood cells, and platelets
Term
Tests that make up the CBC
Definition
Total red blood cell (RBC) count, PCV, Plasma/serum protein concentration in grams per deciliters(g/dL), Total white blood cell (WBC) count, RBC indexes
Term
Mean corpuscular volume
Definition
Average volume or size of red blood cells(RBCs). Obtained by multiplying the packed cell volume (PCV) by 10 and dividing the total number of RBCs by the resulting number
Term
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
Definition
the mean weight of hemoglobin (Hgb) that the average RBC contains. It is calculated by dividing the hemoglobin concentration by the RBC concentration and multiplying by 10
Term
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
Definition
The concentration of hemoglobin in the average RBC. It is calculated by dividing the hemoglobin (hgb) concentration (in grams/deciliters) by the PCV% and multiplying by 100
Term
Anemia/Anemic
Definition
A pathological deficiency in the number, size, and oxygen carrying abilities of RBCs
Term
RBC Morphology:Normocytic
Definition
Normal size
Term
RBC Morphology:Microcytic
Definition
Smaller than normal RBCs (decreased Hgb/anemia)
Term
RBC Morphology:Macrocytic
Definition
Larger than normal RBCs (increased Hgb)
Term
RBC Morphology:Anisocytosis
Definition
All different size RBCs (immature RBCs to adult RBCs circulating at the same time indicating anemia)
Term
RBC Morphology:Poikilocytosis
Definition
Abnormal shape
Term
RBC Morphology:Leptocytes
Definition
RBCs with a paler center (decreased Hgb/anemia)
Term
RBC Morphology:Target cells
Definition
RBCs that look like targets with bulls-eyes. These cells have an abnormal volume to surface membrane area ratio
Term
RBC Morphology:Acanthocytes
Definition
Irregularly shaped RBCs with uneven projections irregularly distributed over cell (cancerous tumors, liver disease, or coagulation disorders)
Term
RBC Morphology:Schistocytes
Definition
fragment RBCs that are smaller than normal RBCs (resulting from trauma, heartworms, coagulation disorders, disease of the liver or spleen)
Term
RBC Morphology:Spereocytes
Definition
RBCs that are abnormally round and unable to hold discoid shape (indicative of immune hemolytic anemias)
Term
RBC Morphology:Crenation
Definition
Irregularly shaped RBCs with even projections cause by "technician error"
Term
RBC Morphology:Polychromasia
Definition
Varying degrees of color of the RBCs (normal or abnormal)
Term
RBC Morphology:Central pallor or paleness
Definition
Normal color for mature RBC
Term
RBC Morphology:Hypochromasia
Definition
RBCs with varying degrees of lack of central pallor. Since they lack color, they lack Hgb and the cell's ability to carry oxygen
Term
RBC Morphology:Stomatocytes
Definition
RBCs that have an elongated (mouth-like) area of the central pallor; this type of cell might be seen in regenerative anemias, liver disease, and lead poisoning. Stomatocytes can also be an artifact in a blood smear that is too thick
Term
RBC Morphology:Heinz Bodies
Definition
Portions fo denatured Hgb in RBCs; in veterinary medicine Heinz bodies are associated with the consumption of onions by cats, dogs, and various primates, and a symptom of acetaminphen poisoning in cats
Term
RBC Morphology:Howell-Jolly bodies
Definition
Basophilic nuclear fragments (clusters of DNZ) in RBCs that are nomally removed by the spleen; Howell-Jolly bodies appear as dar, round, purple staining spots (when stained with Wright's stain)
Term
RBC Morphology:Rouleaux
Definition
Is a situatioin where the RBCs are stacked together in a pattern like a deck of cards laid out, due to high protein levels in the liquid portion of the blood
Term
6 types of mature white blood cells
Definition
Neutrophilis or segmented, Basophilic, Eosinophilic, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, Macrophages
Term
Neutrophils
Definition
Deal with defense against bacterial or fungal infection and other very small inflammatory processes and are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and death in large numbers forms pus
Term
Basophils
Definition
Chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing inflammation. The nucleus can be bi-lobed or tri-lobed. They are characterized by their large blue granules
Term
Eosinophils
Definition
Usually seen in higher amounts in the circulating blood when the body is experiencing an allergic reaction lika a reaction to a bee sting, or allergic reaction to food.Eosinophils are also seen with parasitic infections. Eosinophils are easily identified since they have granules in their cytoplasm that pick up the eosinophil stain and appear as a neutrophil with pink dots
Term
Monocytes
Definition
Are the largest of teh mature WBCs and their main function of phagocytosis; they engulf dead cell debris, microorganisms and pathogens in the blood system via food vacuoles in the cytoplasm. They can recognize a pathogen and initiate and antibody response from the bone marrow
Term
Lymphocytes
Definition
Are seen in circulating blood but are mostly found in the lymph nodes or lymphatic system. Lymphocytes are identified by a large, dense nucleus which stains dark purple, and have a small amount of cytoplasm. These cells have a memory system that allow them to remember the pathogen, or microorganism and help to create immunity to them
Term
Macrophages
Definition
Once monocytes move fromthe bloodstream out into the body tissues, they undergo changes (differentiate) allowing phagocytosis and are then known as macrophages. They are the largest of teh WBCs and contain many vacuoles in their cytoplasm that engulf debris of waste from other cell tissues
Term
Vacuoles
Definition
A small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, boung by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste
Term
Phagocytosis
Definition
Cellular process of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane to form an internal phagosome, or "food vacuole"
Term
Platelets AKA thrombocytes
Definition
Very important in clotting or hemostasis. They also produced by the bone marrow. They are very tiny and their cytoplasm stains purple.
Term
Nuclei of cells color when stained with Wright's Stain
Definition
Blue or purple
Term
Acidic structures of cells color when stained with Wright's Stain
Definition
blue or purple
Term
Basic structures (e.g. hemoglobin) color when stained with Wright's Stain
Definition
Orange
Term
Red blood cells (RBC) color when stained with Wright's Stain
Definition
Pink or salmon
Term
White blood cells (WBC) color when stained with Wright's Stain
Definition
Dark blue or purple nuclei
Term
Platelets color when stained with Wright's Stain
Definition
violet to purple
Term
Cytoplasm and cytoplasmic granules color when stained with Wright's Stain
Definition
pink to purple (depending on pH)
Term
Packed cell volume (PCV), AKA hematocrit
Definition
Percentage of whole blood that is made up of erythrocytes (red blood cells)
Term
Whole blood
Definition
Comprised of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma (liquid portion)
Term
Microhematocrit tubes, AKA crit tubes
Definition
Very small, thin tube usually made of glass that has openings on both ends. One end will need to be plugges and sealed with clay after the lubes are filled but before centrifuged
Term
Microhematocrit centrifuge
Definition
Specially-made for Crit tubes.
Term
Capillary action
Definition
the movement of fluids through a very narrow tube, blood will rise into the tube
Term
Fibrinogen values
Definition
the precursor of fibrin, one of the factors essential in clot formation and is removed during the clotting process
Term
Dehydrated
Definition
The patient will have a relatively elevated total protein concentration (hyperproteinemia)
Term
Overly-hydrated
Definition
The patient will have a relatively decreased total protein concentration (hypoproteinemia)
Term
Ascites
Definition
An abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity
Term
Hepatic
Definition
liver disease
Term
Renal
Definition
kidney disease
Term
Chemistry panels
Definition
Analyzers of serum characteristics facilitate both single tests and group tests. These panels can lend vital information on a patient's organ function
Term
Glucose
Definition
GLU
Term
Lactate dehydrogenase
Definition
LDH
Term
Creatine phospokinase
Definition
CPK
Term
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Definition
BUN
Term
Creatinine
Definition
CREAT
Term
Sodium
Definition
Na
Term
Potassium
Definition
K
Term
Chloride
Definition
Cl
Term
Calcium
Definition
CA
Term
Phosphorus
Definition
PHOS
Term
Alkaline phosphatase
Definition
ALP
Term
Albumin
Definition
ALB
Term
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase
Definition
GGT
Term
Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase
Definition
SGPT
Term
Total Protein
Definition
TP
Term
Cholesterol
Definition
CHOL
Term
Globulin
Definition
GLOB
Term
Totla Bilirubin
Definition
TBILI
Term
Triiodothyronine
Definition
T3
Term
Thyroxine
Definition
T4
Term
Amylase
Definition
AMY
Term
Lipase
Definition
LIP
Term
Normal blood chemistry values in canines
Definition
GLU: 67-125 mg.dL
ALT (alanine aminotransferase):15-84 U/L
TBILI:0.0-0.4mg/dL
TP:5.2-7.8mg/dL
BUN:9-27mg/dL
PHOS:2.6-6.8mg/dL
Na:140-153mmol/L
Cl:106-118mmol/L
LDH:10-273U/L
Magnesium:1.5-2.7mg/dL
LIP:200-700U/L
T4:1.0-4.7ug/dL
Term
Normal blood chemistry values in felines
Definition
GLU:70-160mg/dL
ALT:10-80U/L
TBILI:0.0-0.2mg/dL
TP:5.6-7.7mg/dL
BUN:20-30mg/dL
PHOS:2.7-7.6mg/dL
Na:145-155mmol/L
Cl:117-124mmol/L
LDH:79-380U/L
Magnesium:1.7-2.9mg/dL
LIP:40-200U/L
T4:2.0-5.5ug/dL
Term
Cystocentesis
Definition
Puncture of the bladder for the purpose of obtaining an uncontaminated urine sample. Also called vesicopuncture
Term
Urinalysis
Definition
The examination of urine
Term
Pollakiuria
Definition
Frequent urination
Term
Polyuria
Definition
Increased urine production
Term
Oliguria
Definition
Abnormally small production of urine
Term
Colors of urine and what they could indicate
Definition
Yellow to amber-normal urine
pale yellow-low specific gravity, low concentration of urine
darker yellow-high specific gravity, high urine concentration
brown/green:bile pigment
red/brown:hematuria, which is the presence of blood in the urine
orange:presence of drugs such as tetracycline
brown:may contain myoglobin which is excreted during strenuous conditions that casue muscle cell lysis
Term
Myoglobin
Definition
An iron-containing proteitn found in muscle fibers, consisting of heme connected to a single peptide chain that resembles one of the subunits of hemoglobin.
Term
Lysis
Definition
The gradual recession of a disease
Term
Turbid or flocculent urine
Definition
Can be caused by contaminates fromthe sample container or contamination with feces
Term
Turbid
Definition
having sediment or foreign particles stirred up or suspended; muddy; cloudy
Term
Flocculent
Definition
Containing numerous shreds or fluffly particles of grayish or white mucus or other material; used of a fluid such as urine
Term
Bile
Definition
A yellowish-green liquid secreted by the liver
Term
Polydipsia
Definition
Excessive or abnormal thirst
Term
Pyometra
Definition
An accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity
Term
Psychogenic polydipsia
Definition
excessive thirst caused by a mental disorder
Term
Urinometer
Definition
a hydrometer for measuring the specific gravity of urine; contains two parts-a free-standing vessel similar to a test tube with a base and a float containting a specific gravity scale.
Term
Assay
Definition
To examine or analyze
Term
Bilirubin
Definition
A red bile pigment derived fromthe degradation of hemoglobin during the normal and abnormal destruction of red blood cells
Term
Urobilinogen
Definition
The precursor of urobilin and a product of the reduction of bilirubin