Shared Flashcard Set

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Labor Relations
Unions etc.
111
Business
02/10/2009

Additional Business Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
1. One general category of work rules pertains to employees' and employers' job rights.

Definition
TRUE
Term
3. Negotiation of the labor agreement occurs during the second phase of the labor relations process.

Definition
TRUE
Term
5. Regarding the management organization, labor relations managers and representatives are often found at the corporate, divisional, and plant levels.

Definition
TRUE
Term
7. "Employees" need to be viewed as a separate category of participants since they can have loyalties to both the employer and union organizations.

Definition
TRUE
Term
9. Although union leaders are usually elected by the members, members and leaders do not completely agree on bargaining priorities.

Definition
TRUE
Term
10. Mediators, unlike arbitrators, do not have authority to make a final and binding decision concerning labor             
disputes.

Definition
TRUE
Term
13. Public opinion reflects influential individuals and/or organizations as well as cultural values and traditions.

Definition
FALSE
Term
15. Public opinion, while a potentially powerful influence, pertains only to the first phase of the labor relations process, particularly union organizing drives.

Definition
FALSE
Term
17. Union density is one measure of relative union strength or potential influence.

Definition
TRUE
Term
19. Many of today's fastest growing occupations are on opposite ends of the level of education and skills required for effective job performance.

Definition
TRUE
Term
1. The "labor relations process" occurs when:

Definition
b.
management and the exclusive bargaining agent (the union) engage in the joint determination and administration of work rules.
Term
3. The sequence of the labor relations process is:

Definition
cumulative
Term
5. Work rules:

Definition
reflect the dynamic nature of labor management relationships and are sometimes applicable to many occupations.
Term
7. The federal government's role in private sector collective bargaining activities is basically:

Definition
indirect
Term
11. The product market

Definition
e.
is where the company either sells its product or purchases key elements for its manufacture and can make management more vulnerable.
Term
13. Technology is an external variable that influences the development of work rules.  Which of the following represent a dimension of technology?

Definition
a.
• equipment used in operation
b.
• the pace and scheduling of work
c.
• characteristics of the work environment and the tasks to be performed
d.
• information exchange
e.
• all of these
Term
15. The negotiation of compensation for and number of intervals for bus drivers reflects which technological component?

Definition
the pace of work

Term
17. When the North American Free Trade Act (NAFTA) was passed, it:

Definition
was unsuccessfully opposed by organized labor.

Term
19. The mass media:

Definition
often serve as a generator and conduit of community opinion.

Term
2. The leadership of the Knights of Labor was more interested in seeking moral betterment for employees than in seeking higher wage increases.

Definition
TRUE
Term
4. The AFL under Gompers' leadership believed the existing social system should be dramatically changed by any means possible, including revolutionary methods if necessary.

Definition
FALSE
Term
6. The IWW was an unsuccessful labor organization, even though it received very favorable media coverage.

Definition
TRUE
Term
8. Employers actively opposed unions after World War I by implementing the American Plan.

Definition
TRUE
Term
10. The sitdown strike helped the CIO to obtain union membership in the 1930s, although it was soon outlawed by the Supreme Court.

Definition
TRUE
Term
12. Unions received favorable public opinion after World War II because of their strict adherence to the "no strike pledge" during the war and the rather modest wage requests after the war.

Definition
FALSE
Term
14. The trend toward multi-year labor agreements after World War II put pressure on union leaders to safeguard wage increases against the possibility of increases in the inflation rate.

Definition
TRUE
Term
16. Member unions of the Change to Win federation are encouraged to devote 50 percent of their annual operating budget toward union organizing activities, compared to a goal of 30 percent for AFL-CIO affiliated unions.

Definition
TRUE
Term
18. The new Change to Win federation believes that the AFL-CIO should be supportive of the Democratic Party, even when party leaders did not stand with organized labor on key issues, such as opposition to the North American Free Trade Agreement and subsequent proposed trade pacts.

Definition
FALSE
Term
20. The Haymarket Riot, Homestead Incident, and Pullman Strike basically eliminated Samuel Gompers' leadership effectiveness in the AFL.

Definition
FALSE
Term
2. The first signs of employee organizations in the United States occurred among:

Definition
skilled craftspeople such as shoemakers.

Term
6. The Haymarket Riot:

Definition
represented a protest for the eight-hour day.

Term
8. "Pure and Simple Unionism," was most identified with the:

Definition
American Federation of Labor.

Term
10. The Pullman Strike:

Definition
largely resulted in the elimination of an AFL rival, namely, the American Railway
Union (ARU).
Term
12. The Knights of Labor (KOL) differed from the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in that the KOL:

Definition
a.
wanted to change the existing wage and profit system.
b
assumed employees and employers had similar interests.
c.
spoke out against the effects on the employee of the existing manufacturing system.
d.
allowed most employees to join their organization without much regard to occupation.
e.
all of these are differences between the KOL and the IWW
Term
14. _____ was a counteraction by employers against unionization.

Definition
a.
Employee Representation Plans
b.
The American Plan
c.
Blacklisting
d.
The Mohawk Valley Formula
e.
all of these
Term
16. The Congress of Industrial Organization's tremendous success in organizing employees after its formation in 1935 was not due in part to:

Definition
active cooperation with the American Federation of Labor.

Term
18. John L. Lewis was:

Definition
a publicized leader of the CIO.

Term
20. The North American Free Trade Act (NAFTA):

Definition
was passed over organized labor's strong opposition.

Term
1. Employment-at-will doctrine means that an employee has a right to a job.

Definition
FALSE
Term
5. The yellow-dog contract was the main tool used by companies to force employees to join company unions.

Definition
FALSE
Term
6. Samuel Gompers, AFL president, proclaimed the Clayton Act to be the Magna Charta of U.S. labor; however, the legislation did not prove to help labor organizers.

Definition
TRUE
Term
9. Two major deficiencies of the Norris LaGuardia Act were: (1) the act did not establish an administrative agency and (2) there were no specific employer unfair labor practices.

Definition
TRUE
Term
11. Because the National Labor Relations Act prohibited interference with labor unions in 1935, companies were allowed to establish company unions to assure the integrity of unions.

Definition
FALSE
Term
13. NLRB initiates investigation of a company when it suspects that the company has committed an unfair labor practice.

Definition
TRUE
Term
15. Employee rights are guaranteed by the National Labor Relations Act; thus, the National Labor Relations Board investigates companies on its own to assure that the rights are protected.

Definition
FALSE
Term
17. NLRB decisions are subject to court review, and most cases filed with the NLRB are appealed.

Definition
TRUE
Term
18. Employees are protected in pursuing their mutual working condition concerns, even if they do not belong to a labor organization.

Definition
TRUE
Term
19. An employee alleging unlawful discharge is under no affirmative duty to seek comparable employment to mitigate the respondent employer's potential back-pay liability while awaiting a final determination of the merit of the ULP charge.

Definition
FALSE
Term
21. The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) forbids anyone involved in racketeering from investing in or controlling through racketeering activity any enterprise (business or labor union) engaged in interstate commerce.

Definition
TRUE
Term
1. Labor relations law has been derived from which of the following?

Definition
a.
statutes
b.
judicial decisions and interpretations
c.
legislative branch
d.
executive orders
e.
all of these
Term
1. Labor relations law has been derived from which of the following?

Definition
a.
statutes
b.
judicial decisions and interpretations
c.
legislative branch
d.
executive orders
e.
all of these
Term
3. Under the Railway Labor Act, the federal agency responsible for resolving differences between the parties when negotiating and agreement is the:

Definition
National Mediation Board.

Term
4. The main reason the Clayton Act did not prove to be organized labor's Magna Charta was that:

Definition
it made it easier for employers to seek injunctions against unions.

Term
5. In reaction to passage of the National Industrial Recovery Act, which was intended to stabilize economic activity, employers:

Definition
formed associations among themselves to draw up codes of competition.

Term
7. Which one of the following was not a weakness in the Norris-LaGuardia Act?

Definition
a.
It did not establish unfair labor practices of employers.
b
It did not set up an administrative agency.
c.
It did not recognize employee rights in labor relations.
d
It did not prevent unions from certain activities that adversely affected commerce.
e.
all of these were weaknesses in the Norris-LaGuardia Act
Term
8. The major deficiencies of the Norris-La Guardia Act, which were corrected by passage of the Wagner Act in 1935, were:

Definition
e.
an administrative agency was included and employer unfair labor practices were included.
Term
9. In what year did the Supreme Court declare the Wagner Act constitutional?

Definition
1937
Term
10. Employee rights under the National Labor Relations Act include:

Definition
.
the right to form unions and the right to bargain collectively through agents of their own choosing.
Term
13. To ensure the constitutionality of the NLRA, Congress provided that unfair labor practice decisions of the NLRB could be appealed for review by:

Definition
a federal Circuit Court of Appeals.

Term
15. Which of the following actions are possible after the NLRB investigates an unfair labor practice charge?

Definition
a.
charge may be withdrawn
b.
charge may be dismissed
c.
charge may be settled
d.
a formal complaint may be issued
e.
all of these
Term
16. Which of the following powers does the NLRB possess?

Definition
power to effectively reinstate unfairly discharged employees

Term
17. The _____ applies to labor relations in the airline industry.

Definition
Railway Labor Act.

Term
19. The ____ specifies the conditions under which employers are required to give advance notice of a plant closing or mass layoff.

Definition
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Act

Term
3. The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations now includes all of the major U.S. labor unions.

Definition
FALSE
Term
4. In larger companies, at the operations or plant level, the plant manager and plant labor relations manager play the key roles in certain labor relations activities, such as contract administration, grievance handling, and monitoring labor relations activities.

Definition
TRUE
Term
5. Unions as organizations are fundamentally different from business organizations.

Definition
TRUE
Term
8. The business agent is a key position in a craft union and provides many of the same services of a local union president in a large industrial union.

Definition
TRUE
Term
9. Attendance at local union meetings often varies between five and ten percent of the membership.

Definition
TRUE
Term
12. The supreme governing body for the international union is its convention.

Definition
TRUE
Term
13. The convention makes use of the delegate system, in which the number of delegates allowed depends on the number of members in the local.

Definition
TRUE
Term
14. Most union presidents have unrestricted authority to appoint their staff, regulate locals, and direct the activities of the national union.

Definition
TRUE
Term
18. If you are a member of an AFL-CIO affiliated union, then you are a member of the AFL-CIO.

Definition
TRUE
Term
19. While corruption within unions receives much media coverage, the facts indicate that unions compare favorably with other segments of society in complying with the laws.

Definition
TRUE
Term
20. Congress, through the Landrum-Griffin Act, has attempted to strengthen the union democratic process by giving power to union members to protect themselves against irresponsible leaders.

Definition
TRUE
Term
21. The AFL-CIO established the Ethical Practices Committee in its efforts to control corrupt practices and racketeering of its member unions.

Definition
TRUE
Term
3. If a company desires to develop a program of positive human resources management, which of the following practices would the company utilize?

Definition
have the human resources manager report directly to top management

Term
4. Elements of a positive human resources management program include which of the following?

Definition
a.
absence of symbols of rank and status
b.
overall corporate strength
c.
promotion from within
d.
competitive pay and benefits
e.
all of these
Term
5. A feature that distinguishes the business agent of a craft union from the president of an industrial union is that he/she:

Definition
administers the union hiring hall.

Term
6. The position in a craft union in which the holder is the chief administrator of the union hiring hall is the:

Definition
business agent.

Term
7. The craft unions and the industrial unions differ in a number of areas. Which of the following is not one of those areas?

Definition
a.
attendance at and participation in meetings
b.
scope of the labor agreement
c.
job characteristics
d.
leadership roles
e.
all of these

Term
10. The reason(s) local meetings is/are poorly attended include:

Definition
a.
material presented at meetings (reports of treasurer, project leaders, and committee chairs) is not interesting to the typical member.
b.
meetings start late and last too long.
c.
individuals frustrate the group by tying up meetings with personal grievances.
d.
all of these
Term
11. Union participation in local union activities is higher:

Definition
a.
during negotiations.
b.
before a strike.
c.
when taking a strike vote.
d.
for officer elections.
e.
all of these
Term
12. The supreme governing body of an international union is the:

Definition
convention
Term
13. Representatives (number of delegates) for the AFI-CIO convention are chosen in the following manner:

Definition
a.
direct proportion to size of union local.
b.
every union local gets only one vote.
c.
in relation to size of the union local but not in direct proportion.
d.
seniority within the union.
e.
none of these
 
Term
14. An international union representative:

Definition
a.
assists in grievance administration at local union levels.
b.
assists in local union negotiations.
c.
assists in arbitration at local union levels.
d.
is employed by the international union.
e.
all of these
Term
17. The term(s) used to describe the merging together of two or more unions is/are:

Definition
amalgamation.

Term
18. Between conventions, the governing body of the AFL-CIO is the:

Definition
Executive Council.

Term
19. The AFL-CIO is very active in the political arena. However, which of the following are not actions of the AFL-CIO?

Definition
proclaims ties to a national political labor party

Term
1. Alienation theory is a driving force behind unionization in the U.S. today as a result of mechanization.

Definition
TRUE
Term
4. Union instrumentality is a concept meaning employees perceive the union as instrumental in attaining desired outcomes, such as higher wages.

Definition
TRUE
Term
5. The union organizer typically creates job dissatisfaction in the work force before the campaign begins.

Definition
FALSE
Term
6. Illegal discharge of employees who are union advocates often successfully frustrates unionization proceedings.

Definition
TRUE
Term
11. For a union to win an election, it must receive favorable votes from a simple majority of all employees in the bargaining unit.

Definition
TRUE
Term
15. The NLRB prohibits the showing of films to discourage employees from joining a union.

Definition
FALSE
Term
16. The company may actively assist employees who are interested in launching a decertification campaign.

Definition
FALSE
Term
17. In the last decade, decertification elections have nearly doubled.

Definition
FALSE
Term
20. If employees choose to decertify their union, there cannot be another representation election for twelve months.

Definition
TRUE
Term
1. The person who developed the "Scarcity Consciousness" theory is:

Definition
Selig Perlman

Term
3. Unions are improving their organizing capabilities through the training of union organizers at the ___________:

Definition
George Meany Center.

Term
4. Under the law, which of the following advantages does the employer have to counter unionization efforts?

Definition
a.
instant and prolonged access to the employees
b.
ability to inform employees of the possibility of improvement without cost and without the creation of a new bureaucracy
c.
use of the fact that most people find the thought of substantial change in their lives frightening
d
all of these
e.
instant and prolonged access to the employees and ability to inform employees of the possibility of improvement without cost and without the creation of a new bureaucracy
 
Term
8. What percent is needed for a petitioning union to show that substantial interest in the union exists?

Definition
30%

Term
9. A grouping of jobs or positions in which two or more employees share common employment and conditions is designated by the NLRB as a/an:

Definition
appropriate bargaining unit.

Term
11. Which of the following groups are not considered "employees" covered under the NLRA?

Definition
supervisors
Term
12. When the NLRB establishes an appropriate bargaining unit, it constitutes the "community of interests." Which of the following factor(s) does the NLRB consider?

Definition
a.
commonality of wages, working conditions, training, and skill
b.
history of bargaining
c.
physical proximity of the world locations
d.
transfers between facilities
e.
all of these
Term
14. After the NLRB regional director has approved a consent election, the employer has to file a list of names and addresses of all eligible voters.

Definition
7 days
Term
15. The contract bar doctrine can extend the statutory limitation on representational elections to how many years?

Definition
3
Term
16. NLRB data show that about ____ percent of the eligible voters usually participate in NLRB elections.

Definition
90
Term
18. When employees are required to attend a meeting to hear a presentation by the employer during a pre-election union campaign, the meeting is called:

Definition
captive audience
Term
19. The "Twenty-Four Hour" Rule means that:

Definition
a.
there can be no handbilling before 24 hours of the election.
b.
the NLRB will, as a rule, investigate an election petition within 24 hours after
receipt.
c.
the employer cannot make a "captive audience" speech within 24 hours of the
election.
d.
the election must take place within a 24-hour period to assure that everyone has an
opportunity to vote.
e.
all of these
Term
2. In labor negotiations, it is possible for both union and management negotiators to perceive they have been successful after completing contract negotiations.

Definition
TRUE
Term
18. Unionized firms provide more hours of formal training to employees than nonunion firms.
Definition
TRUE