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labor and delivery
Labor and delivery
132
Nursing
10/02/2012

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Term
acme
Definition
highest point of a contraction
Term
acromion
Definition
projection of the spine of the scapula (forming the point of the shoulder)';used to explain the presentation of the fetus
Term
afibrinogenemia
Definition
absence or disease of fibrinogen in the blood such that the blood will not coagulate.  In obstectrics, this condition occurs from complications of abruptio placentae or retention of a dead fetus
Term
afterbirth
Definition
lay term for the placenta and membranes expelled after the birth or delivery of a child
Term
amnioinfusion
Definition
infusion of warmed isotonic saline into the uterine cavity; to reduce umbilical cord compression; also done to flush meconium out of the cavity, reducing risk of fetus aspirating meconium
Term
amnionitis
Definition
inflammation of the amnion, occurring most frequently after early rupture of membranes
Term
amniotomy
Definition
artificial rupture of the fetal membranes (AROM)
Term
analgesic
Definition
any drug or agent that will relieve pain
Term
atony
Definition
absence of muscle tone
Term
attitude, fetal
Definition
relation of fetal parts to each other in the uterus (all parts flexed, all parts flexed except neck is extended, etc)
Term
bag of waters
Definition
lay term for the sac containing amniotic fluid and fetus
Term
bandl's ring
Definition
abnormally thickened ridge of uterine musculature between the upper and lower segments that follows a mechanically obstructed labor, with the segment thinning abnormally
Term
bimanual palpation
Definition
examination of a woman's pelvic organs, done by placing one hand on the abdomen and one or two fingers of the other hand in the vagina
Term
birthing center
Definition
a unit devoted entirely to and specializing in the birth of baby and the care of the mother
Term
bishop score
Definition
a rating system used to determine if induction of labor can be performed
Term
bloody show
Definition
vaginal discharge that originates in the cervix and consists of blood and mucus; increases as cervix dialates during labor
Term
breech presentation
Definition
presentation in which buttocks and/or feet are nearest the cervical opening and are born first; occurs in app 3%of all deliveries
Term
breech presentation complete
Definition
simultaneous presentation of buttocks, legs, and feet
Term
breech presentation, footling (incomplete)
Definition
presentation of one or both feet
Term
breech presentation, Frank
Definition
presentation of buttocks with hips flexed so that thighs are against abdoment
Term
caul
Definition
hood of fetal membranes covering fetal head during delivery
Term
caul
Definition
hood of fetal membranes covering fetal head during delivery
Term
cesarean delivery
Definition
birth of a fetus by an incision throug the abdominal wall and uterus
Term
chorioamnionitis
Definition
inflammation of the membranes that cover the fetus; chorion/amnion
Term
chignon
Definition
newborn scalp edema created by vacuum extractor
Term
cotyledon
Definition
one of the 15-28 visible segments of the placenta on the maternal surface, each made up of fetal vessels, chorionic villi, and an intervillous space
Term
couvade
Definition
custom where the husband goes thru mock labor while his wife is giving birth
Term
credes method
Definition
obsolete method by which the placenta is expelled by downward manual pressure on the uterus through the abdominal wall.  The thumb is placed on the posterior surface of the fundus of the uterus and the flat of the hand on the anterior surface.  Pressure is applied in the direction of the birth canal.
Term
crowning
Definition
stage of delivery when the top of the fetal head can be seen at the vaginal orifice
Term
curettage
Definition
scraping of the endometrium lining of the uterus with a curet to remove the contents of the uterus (as is done after an inevitable or incomplete abortion) or to obtain specimens for diagnostic purposes
Term
deceleration
Definition
decrease in fetal heart rate
Term
delivery
Definition
expulsion of the infant with placenta and membranes by the mother or their exraction by the obstetric practioner
Term
dick-read method
Definition
an approach to childbirth based upon the premise that fear of pain produces muscular tension, producing pain and greater fear.  The method includes teaching physiologic processes of labor, exercise to improve muscle tone, and techniques to assist in relaxation and prevent the fear-tension mechanism
Term
dilate
Definition
dilation of the cervix:  stretching the cervical canal to size of opening large enough to allow the passing of the infant
Term
disseminated intravasular coagulation (DIC)
Definition
coagulation disorder in which clotting factors are consumed and maternal blood does not clot
Term
"normal" labor occurs...
Definition
37-42 weeks
Term
duncan's mechanism:  delivery of placenta with the maternal surface presenting, rather than the shiny fetal surface
Definition
Term
dystocia
Definition
prolonged, painful or otherwise difficult delivery or birth because of mechanical factors produced by either the fetus, the pelvis of the mother, or because of inadequate uterine and other muscular activity
Term
early deceleration
Definition
periodic change in fetal heart rate pattern caused by head compression; deceleration has a uniform appearance and early onset in relation to the maternal contraction
Term
eclampsia
Definition
severe complication of pregnancy of unknown cause and occurring most often in primagravida; characterized by tonic and clonic convulsions, coma, high blood pressure, albuminuria, and oliguria occuring during pregnancy or shortly after delivery
Term
effacement
Definition
thinning and shortening or obliteration of the cervix that occurs during late pregnancy, labor or both
Term
effleurage
Definition
gentle stroking movement of the fingertips over the abdomen during labor
Term
electronic fetal monitoring (EFM)
Definition
electronic tracing of fetal heart rate by external and internal methods
Term
endometritis
Definition
infection of the endometrium
Term
endorphins
Definition
endogenous opiods (morphine-like substance) secreted by the pituitary gland that act of the central and peripheral nervous system to reduce pain
Term
engagement
Definition
the descent of the fetal presenting part to at least a zero station (the level of the ischial spines in the maternal pelvis)
Term
epidural block
Definition
injection of local anesthetic into the epidural space of the spinal column
Term
epidural narcotic
Definition
narcotic placed in the epidural space for the relief of pain
Term
episiotomy
Definition
surgical ncision of the perineum at the end of the second stage of labor to facilitate delivery and to avoid laceration of the perineum
Term
ergotrate
Definition
medication used for prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhade casued by uterine atony (limited use today)
Term
expulsion
Definition
pushing out or expelling
Term
false labor
Definition
uterine contactions that do not result in cervical dilation, are irregular, are felt more in front, often do not last more than 20 seconds, and do not become longer or stronger
Term
fetal heart rate (FHR)
Definition
rate of fetal heartbeats per minute; normal FHR is 120-160
Term
fetal heart rate fluctuations
Definition
tachycardia, bradycardia, accerlations, decelerations, or changes in FHR variability
Term
fetal lie
Definition
the relationship existing between the long axis of the fetus and the long axis of the mother.  In a longitudinal lie, the fetus is lying lengthwise or vertically, wheras in a transverse lie the fetus is lying crosswise or horizontally in the mother's uterus
Term
fetal position
Definition
relationship of an arbitrarily chosen fetal reference point, such as the occiput, sacral, chin or scapula on the presenting part of the fetus to its location in the front, back, or sides of the maternal pelvis
Term
fetal presentation
Definition
the part of the fetus which first enters the pelvis and lies over the inlet; may be the head, face, breech or shoulder
Term
flaccid
Definition
having relaxed, flabby or absent muscle tone
Term
flexion
Definition
normal bending forward of the fetal head in the uterus and utering canal
Term
friedman's curve
Definition
labor curve, pattern of descent of presenting part of dilation cervix; partogram
Term
fundus
Definition
dome-shaped upper portion of the uterus between the points of insertion of the fallopian tubes
Term
gate control theory
Definition
theory explains the neurophysical mechanism underlying the perception of pain
Term
hypofibrinogenemia
Definition
deficient level of a blood clotting factor, fibrinogen, in the blood; in obstetrics, it occurs following complications of abruptio placentae or retention of a dead fetus
Term
induction
Definition
artificial stimulation or augmentation of labor
Term
inertia
Definition
sluggishness or inactivity; in obstetrics, refers to the absence or weakness of uterine contractions during labor
Term
intrapartum
Definition
the time from the onset of true labor until the birth of the infant and delivery of the placenta
Term
L/S Ratio
Definition
the ratio of the phospholipids lecithin and sphingomyelin produced by the fetal lungs; useful when assessing fetal lung maturity
Term
Labor
Definition
series of physiological processes by which the fetus is expelled from the uterus.  Divided into four stages
Term
laceration
Definition
irregular tear of wound tissue; in obstetrics, it usually refers to a tear in the perineum, vagina, or cervix caused by childbirth
Term
lamaze method
Definition
method of psychophysical preparation for childbirth developed in the 1950's by a French obstetricia.  It requires classes, practice at home, and coaching during labor and delivery
Term
LDR
Definition
labor, delivery, recovery
Term
LDRP
Definition
labor, delivery, recovery, postpartum
Term
Mentum
Definition
chin, a fetal reference point designatiing the chin as the presenting part of the fetus during labor.  (Left mentum anterior- LMA meaning that the fetal chin/face is presenting in the left anterior quadrant of the maternal pelvis)
Term
midwife
Definition
one who practices the art of helping and aiding a woman to give birth
Term
molding
Definition
overlapping of the cranial bones or shaping of the fetal head to accommodate and conform to the body and soft parts of the mother's birth canal during labor
Term
natal
Definition
relating or pertaining to birth
Term
nuchal cord
Definition
term used to describe the umbilical cod when it is wrapped around the fetal neck
Term
nurse practitioner
Definition
registered nursewho has additional education to practice nursing in expanded role
Term
operculum
Definition
plug of mucus that fills the cervical canal during pregnancy
Term
oxytocics
Definition
drugs that stimulate uterine contractions, thus accelerating childbirth and preventing post delivery hemorrhade
Term
parturition
Definition
process or act of giving birth
Term
pelvimetry
Definition
measurement of dimensions and proportions of the pelvis to determine its capacity and ability to allow the passage of the fetus through the birth canal
Term
perinatal
Definition
period from the 28th week of gestation through the 28th day of life
Term
perineorrhaphy
Definition
suture of operation used in repairing a laceration of the perineum, usually following labor and birth
Term
perineotomy
Definition
surgical incision into the perineum (also known as episiotomy)
Term
placenta accreta
Definition
invasion of the uterine muscle by the placenta, thus making seperation from the muscle difficult if not mpossible
Term
placental bruit
Definition
a purring or blowing noise originating in the pregnant uterus due to fetal circulation of blood.  It is synchronous with the maternal pulse.
Term
postnatal
Definition
happening or occuring after birth
Term
precipate delivery
Definition
rapid or sudden labor of less than 3 hours duration beginning from onset of cervial changes to completed birth of neonate
Term
presenting part
Definition
the part of teh fetus, which lies closest to the internal os of the cervix
Term
prolapsed cord
Definition
protrusion of the umbilical cord in advance of the presenting part
Term
psychoprophylaxis
Definition
in obstetrics, a method of physical and mental preparation for natural childbirth.  Also known as Lamaze technique.
Term
pudendal block
Definition
anesthesia injected around the pudendal nerve for pain relief
Term
BPP
Definition
biophysical profile
Term
puerperium
Definition
period of time following the third stage of labor and lasting until involution of the uterus takes place, usually about 3 to 6 weeks
Term
retained placenta
Definition
rentention of all or part of the placena in the uterus after delivery
Term
ritgen maneuver
Definition
procedure used to control the delivery of the head
Term
rotation
Definition
in obstetrics, the turning of the fetal head as it follows the curves of the birth canal downward
Term
schultze's mechanism
Definition
delivery of the placenta iwth the fetal surfaces (shiny in appearance) presenting (archaic).
Term
secundines
Definition
fetal membranes and placenta expelled after childbirth, afterbirth
Term
singleton
Definition
in pregnancy, a single fetus
Term
spinal block
Definition
injection of a local anesthitic agent directly into the spinal fluid in the spinal canal.  Used in vaginal and cesarean births
Term
SROM
Definition
spontaneous rupture of membranes
Term
station
Definition
relationship of the presenting fetal part to an imaginary line drawn between the ischial spines of the pelvis
Term
stillborn
Definition
born dead
Term
suture
Definition
junction of the cranial bones
Term
tetany, uterine
Definition
extremely prolonged uterine contractions
Term
tocolytic agent
Definition
drug that inhibits uterine contractions.  Commonly used with labors involving preterm infants
Term
tocotransducer
Definition
electronic device used for measuring uterine contractions
Term
transition
Definition
the last phase of active labor, from 8 to 10 cm cervical dilation, which is usually characterized by intense maternal discomfort
Term
uterine contraction
Definition
the drawing up and thickening of the uterine muscle in preparation to expel the fetus from the uterus.  Observed for frequency, duration, intensity during the labor process.
Term
variability
Definition
normal irregularity of fetal cardia rhythm; short-term beat to beat changes; long-term rhythmic changes or waves from the baseline (usually 5-5 bpm).
Term
version
Definition
a turning of the position of the fetus in the uterus before birth.  Can be spontaneous or manually induced
Term
4 pelvic types
Definition
Gynecoid
Android
Anthropoid
Platypoid
Term
Signs preceding labor
Definition
lightening
return of urinary frequency
backache
stronger braxton hicks
bloody show
cervical ripening
possible rupture of membranes
surge of energy
Term
Maternal physiologic changes during labor:
Cardiac output
Definition
increases 10-15% in first stage; 30-50% in the second stage
Term
Maternal physiologic changes during labor:
Heart rate
Definition
heart rate increases slightly in first and second stage
Term
Maternal physiologic changes during labor:
systolic blood pressure
Definition
increases during uterine contractions
Term
Maternal physiologic changes during labor:
White Blood Cell count
Definition
increases
Term
Maternal physiologic changes during labor:
Respiratory Rate
Definition
increases
Term
Maternal physiologic changes during labor:
temperature
Definition
elevated
Term
Maternal physiologic changes during labor:
blood glucose
Definition
blood glucose level decreases
Term
Maternal physiologic changes during labor:
Proteinuria
Definition
+1 may occur
Term
5 P'S
Definition
Passenger
passageway
powers
position of the woman
psychologic response
Term
Stages of Labor:
1st stage
Definition
lasts from the time dilation begins to the time when the cervix is fully dilated
Term
Stages of Labor:
2nd stage
Definition
lasts from time of full dialation to the birth of the infant
Term
Stages of Labor:
3rd stage
Definition
lasts from the infant's birth to the expulsion of the placenta
Term
Stages of Labor:
4th stage
Definition
is the first 2 hours after birth
Term
What are the 8 cardinal movements of the mechanism of labor?
Definition
engagement, descent, flexion, internal rotation, extension, restitution, external rotation, expulsion of infant
Term
Types of pain experienced during labor
Definition
visceral and somatic
Term
Supine Hypotension
Definition
assist mother on to left side - lying down
Term
VBAC
Definition
vaginal birth after cesarean