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Lab 1: Part 2 - Skeletal System 1: The Skull
Pages 8-16
138
Anatomy
09/19/2011

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Term
Cranial Bones, How many?
Definition
8 bones. Frontal, Parietal (2), Occipital, Temporals (2), Sphenoid, Ethmoid.
Term
Frontal bone
Definition
Forehead
Term
Parietal bones
Definition
Posterolateral to the frontal bone.
Term
Occipital bone
Definition
Most posterior bone of cranium, forms floor and back wall
Term
Temporals
Definition
Sides of skull, around ear
Term
Sphenoid bone
Definition
Anterior of temporal lobes, articulates with all other cranial bones
Term
Ethmoid bone
Definition
Forms the roof of the nasal cavity, upper nasal septum, and part of the medial orbit walls.
Term
Calvaria/cranial vault?
Definition
Forming the superior, lateral, and posterior walls of the skull
Term
What is the cranial cavity?
Definition
Contains the brain
Term
Three fossae of the calvaria
Definition
Anterior: Frontal and Ethmoid Bone
Middle: Temporal and Sphenoid Bone
Posterior: Occiptal bone, Parietal bones
Term
Cranial bones anterior to the sphenoid
Definition
Ethomid and frontal
Term
Cranial Bones anterior to the temporals
Definition
Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Frontal
Term
Cranial bones posterior to the sphenoid
Definition
Temporal, Occipital, parietal
Term
Cranial bone wedged between the frontal and the sphenoid
Definition
Ethmoid bone
Term
What bones articulate with the frontal bone?
Definition
Parietal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid
Term
Supraorbital foramina/notches
Definition
Superior to the orbitals. Blood vessels and nerves pass through.
Term
What is a suture?
Definition
Interlocking joints used to join most of the bones in the skull.
Term
Coronal suture
Definition
Frontal bones articulates posteriorly with the parietal bone via this suture
Term
Coronal suture
Definition
Frontal bones articulates posteriorly with the parietal bone via this suture
Term
Saggital suture
Definition
Connects parietal bone superiorly at the cranial midline
Term
Lambdoid suture
Definition
Where the parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly
Term
Squamous sutures
Definition
Where a parietal and temporal bone meet on the lateral aspect of the skull. One on each side of the skull
Term
Occiptal Bone, articulation?
Definition
Articulates with the temporal, parietal, and sphenoid bones
Term
Features of the Occipital Bone: 4
Definition
Foramen magnum, Occipital condyles, external occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line
Term
Foramen magnum
Definition
opening in base of occipital, allows spinal cord to join with brain
Term
Occipital condyles
Definition
Anterior of the foramen magnum on the exterior of the occipital
Term
External occipital protuberance
Definition
posterior to foramen magnum, superior to external occipital crest. Lab atlas pg 49 figure 2.5 number 24
Term
Superior Nuchal Line
Definition
Line superior to external occipital protuberance. Lab atlas pg 49, fig 2.5 pg 20 number 20
Term
What passes through the foramen magnum?
Definition
Spinal cord
Term
What do the occipital condyles articulate with?
Definition
First cervical vertabra , the Atlas vertebra
Term
What function is served by the nuchal lines?
Definition
Point of attachment for various neck muscles
Term
Temporal bones: Articulation
Definition
Articulates with the parietal, occipital, and the sphenoid
Term
Four regions of the Temporal Bones
Definition
Squamos, Tympanic, Mastoid, Petrous
Term
Squamos region: Features
Definition
Zygomatic process, mandibular fossa
Term
Tympanic region: Features
Definition
External acoustic (auditory) meatus, styloid process
Term
Mastoid region: Features
Definition
Mastoid process
Term
Petrous region: Features
Definition
Jugular foramen, internal acoustic meatus
Term
Squamos region: Location
Definition
Flared region of temporal bone, anterior superior portion
Term
Zygomatic process
Definition
Projecting joining the zygomatic (cheek) bone to the temporal bone
Term
Mandibular fossa
Definition
rounded depression on the inferior portion of the zygomatic process, point where the mandible joins the cranium
Term
Tympanic region: Location
Definition
Area of the inner ear.
Term
external acoustic (auditory) meatus
Definition
canal leading to eardrum and middle ear
Term
styloid process
Definition
Posterolateral to mandlible, small stake like projection. Inferior to external acoustic meatus
Term
Mastoid region: Location
Definition
Posterior to tympanic region. Area behind ear
Term
Mastoid Process
Definition
Bump immediately posterior to your ear
Term
Petrous region: Area
Definition
Internal to the skull. Lab atlas page 48 fig 2.4 number 22
Term
Jugular foramen
Definition
between the petrous region of the temporal bone and the occiptal bone. lateral to the foramen magnum
Term
Internal acoustic meatus
Definition
Opening on interior of temporal bone allowing passage of cranial nerves. Superolateral to the jugular foramen
Term
Bones of the zygomatic arch
Definition
Zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of the temporal bone
Term
Bones of the temporomandibular joint
Definition
Mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle of the mandible
Term
Function of the styloid process
Definition
Attachment point for muscles and ligaments of the neck
Term
Mastoid sinuses
Definition
Air cells in the mastoid process. Infections spread from middle ear cavity, high risk area for infections spreading from the throat
Term
Structures located in the petrous region
Definition
Jugular foramen, carotid canal, internal acoustic meatus, foramen lacerum
Term
Carotid Canal
Definition
Anterior to jugular formaen, lateral of sphenoid. lab atlas page 48 fig 2.4 #12
Term
Foramen Lacerum
Definition
Jagged opening between the petrous temporal bone and the sphenoid providing passage for a number of snall nerves and for the internal carotid artery to enter the middle cranial fossa. lab atlas pg 48 fig 2.4 #11
Term
What bones form the margins of the jugular foramina?
Definition
Temporal and occipital
Term
What passes through the internal acoustic meatus?
Definition
Cranial nerves
Term
Sphenoid bone: Features
Definition
Greater wings, lesser wings, body, pterygoid processes, sella turcica, optic canals, superior orbital fissure
Term
Greater wings
Definition
Most lateral portions. Lab atlas pages 49/50 fig 2.6/2.7
Term
Lesser wings
Definition
Bat shaped portions, superior to sella turcica. Lab atlas pages 49/50 fig 2.6/2.7
Term
Sphenoid body
Definition
Central part of sphenoid. Between greater wings, posterior and inferior to lesser wings
Term
Pterygoid processes
Definition
Most inferior "wings" of sphenoid
Term
Sella Turcica
Definition
Frontal "saddle shaped" prominence, houses enclosure for pituitary gland. Lab atlas pages 49/50 fig 2.6/2.7
Term
Optic canals
Definition
Closest holes to lesser wing anteriorly
Term
Superior orbital fissure
Definition
long slit, between greater and lesser wing
Term
Why is the sphenoid bone considered the keystone of the cranium?
Definition
Center wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones
Term
In what part of the bone are the sphenoid sinuses located?
Definition
The body of the sphenoid
Term
What endocrine gland is partially enclosed and protected by the sella turcica?
Definition
Pituitary gland
Term
What is the common name for the sella turcica?
Definition
Turk's Saddle
Term
What is the functional significance of the pterygoid processes?
Definition
Anchor the pterygoid muscles important for chewing
Term
What passes through the optic canal and superior orbital fissures?
Definition
Optic/Cranial nerves. Used to control eye movement
Term
Ethmoid bone: Features
Definition
Cribriform plates, olfactory foramina, crista galli, perpendicular plate, lateral masses, superior and middle nasal conchae, orbital plates
Term
Cribriform plates
Definition
Plates next to the crista galli, helps form roof of the nasal cavities and the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. Lab atlas pg 54
Term
Olfactory foramina
Definition
Holes in the cribiform plates, allow olfactory nerves to pass from the smell receptors in the nasal cavities to the brain. Lab atlas pg 54
Term
Crista Galli
Definition
triangular process. "rhino horn" of ethmoid bone
Term
Perpendicular plate
Definition
Inferior to crista galli, midline bone which divides nasal cavity into left and right halves. Lab atlas pg 54
Term
Lateral masses
Definition
Lateral of perpendicular plate. Lab atlas pg 54
Term
Superior and middle nasal conchae
Definition
Part of the lateral masses. Laterally proximal to the perpendicular plate. Lab atlas pg 54
Term
Orbital Plates
Definition
Most lateral surfaces of the lateral masses. Contribute to the medial walls of the orbits. Lab atlas pg 54
Term
What passes through the small holes in the cribriform plates?
Definition
Olfcatory foramina
Term
What are the olfactory foramina and where are they located?
Definition
Located in the cribriform plates, are holes that allow olfactory nerves to pass from smell receptors in the nasal cavities to the brain
Term
Crista galli, common name and function
Definition
Rooster's comb. Outmost covering of the brain attaches to the crista galli, and helps secure the brain in the cranial cavity
Term
What membrane is anchored to the crista galli?
Definition
Dura mater
Term
What part of the ethmoid bone contains the ethmoid sinuses?
Definition
Lateral mass
Term
What part of the ethmoid bone forms a portion of the nasal septum? What part of the nasal septum?
Definition
Superior part of the Perpendicular plate. Superior parts divides the nasal cavity into right and left halves
Term
Nasal Conchae: Structure and function
Definition
Structure: Coiled bones (turbinates)
Function: TO spin aire in the nose to trap more dust in the mucus membrane of the nose and to warm and moisten air
Term
How many pairs of nasal conchae are present in the nasal cavity? How many are ethmoidal?
Definition
3 pairs. 2 pairs are ethmoidal
Term
Which surfaces of the ethmoid bone contribute to the medial walls of the orbits?
Definition
Lateral surfaces of the lateral masses
Term
Sutural bones. What are they and where found?
Definition
Tiny irregulary shaped bones or bone clusters that appear within sutures most often in the lambdoid suture. Structurally not important, number varies, and not all skulls exhibit them.
Term
Facial bones: How many and what are they?
Definition
14 bones. 6 paired 2 unpaired. 6 paired: maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, inferior nasal conchae. unpaired: manidble and vomer
Term
Mandible
Definition
Lower jaw
Term
Maxillae
Definition
Articulates with all other facial bones except mandible, forms the floor and medial portion of the rim of the orbit, walls of the nasal cavity, and anterior roof of the mouth
Term
Zygomatics
Definition
Cheek bones, Forms zygomatic arch
Term
Nasals
Definition
Forming the bridge of the nose midway between orbits
Term
Lacrimals
Definition
Approx eyeglass nosepad size. Posterior to where nose pads on glasses rest in orbitals.
Term
Palatines
Definition
Back portion of the hard palate
Term
Vomer
Definition
Bone above upper lip. Posterior to nasal holes
Term
Inferior nasal conchae
Definition
Largest conchae, lies laterally to the tip of the vomer
Term
Mandible: Features
Definition
Body, ramus, coronoid process, mandibular condyle, alveolar margin, mandibular foramina, mental foramina
Term
Body of the Mandible
Definition
lower part of lower jaw and chin
Term
Ramus
Definition
angled parts of the jaw
Term
coronoid process
Definition
anterior process of upper lower jaw
Term
mandibular condyle
Definition
posterior process of upper mandible
Term
alveolar margin
Definition
where teeth socket into skull (gum line)
Term
mandibular foramina
Definition
one on the medial surface of each ramus (inside of the lower jaw)
Term
mental foramina
Definition
below the alveolar margin of the lower set of teeth anteriorly
Term
What part of the mandible forms the chin?
Definition
Body
Term
What function is served by the coronoid process?
Definition
Attachment point for the muscles that elevate the lower jaw
Term
What does the mandibular condyle articulate with?
Definition
The mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
Term
What structures or parts of the face are innervated by the nerves that pass through the mandibular foramina?
Definition
The teeth sensation in the lower jaw (nerves)
Term
What structures or parts of the face are innervated by nerves that pass through the mental foramina?
Definition
Blood vessels and nerves to pass to the skin of the chin and lower lip
Term
Maxillary: Features
Definition
Alveolar margin, Palatine process, Frontal process, maxillary sinus, zygomatic process, infraorbital foramen
Term
palatine process
Definition
anterior portion of the hard palate
Term
frontal process
Definition
bridge of the nose
Term
maxillary sinus
Definition
regions that flank the nasal cavity laterally
Term
zygomatic process
Definition
attaches maxillae to zygomatic bones
Term
infraorbital foramen
Definition
anterior to zygomatic process, allows infraorbital nerve t(a continuation of the maxillary nerve) and artery to reach the face
Term
Bones posterior to the palatine processes of the maxillae?
Definition
Palatine bones
Term
What bones articulate with the nasal bones?
Definition
Frontal bone superiorly, maxillary bones laterally, perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone posteriorly
Term
In a living person, what is the inferior surface of the nasal bones attached to?
Definition
The cartilages that form most of the skeleton of the extended nose
Term
What structure is housed in the lacrimal fossa?
Definition
Lacrimal sac, part of the passageway that allows tears to drain from the eye surface into the nasal cavity
Term
What bones articulate with the lacrimal bones?
Definition
Frontal bone superiorly, ethomid bone posteriorly, maxillae anteriorly
Term
What part of the palatines forms part of the hard palate?
Definition
Horizontal plates
Term
What part of the nasal septum is formed by the vomer?
Definition
the bony portion inferiorly
Term
The stylohoid ligaments connect the hyoid bone to the _____ processes of the ____ bones of the skull
Definition
styloid, temporal
Term
What are the orbits?
Definition
Bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encased and cushioned by fatty tissue
Term
What bones form the orbits?
Definition
Frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid bone
Term
What bones/parts form the roof of the nasal cavity?
Definition
Cribiform plate of the ethmoid
Term
What bones/parts form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
Definition
superior and middle conchae of the ethmoid bone, perpendicular plates of the palatines bones, and inferior nasal conchae
Term
What bones/parts for the floor of the nasal cavity?
Definition
Palatine processes of the maxillae and palatine bones
Term
What bones/parts form the nasal septum of the nasal cavity?
Definition
Vomer interiorly, perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
Term
What are paranasal sinuses?
Definition
Cluster of sinuses around the nasal cavity
Term
What functions are served by the paranasal sinuses?
Definition
Lighten the skull and increase resonance of the voice. Moisten and cleanse air. Much formed in sinus drains into nasal cavity
Term
Fontanelles
Definition
Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes that complete infant skull bones
Term
Are the fontanelles permanent structures?
Definition
The fontanelles are replaced by bone
Term
How do the fontanelles facilitate the birth process and growth of the brain in the fetus and infant?
Definition
Compressing of the skull during birth. Expansion as the brain grows in the infant
Term
How do the fontanelles facilitate the birth process and growth of the brain in the fetus and infant?
Definition
Compressing of the skull during birth. Expansion as the brain grows in the infant
Term
On a fetal skull there is a suture between the right and left halves of the frontal bone, is this suture visible on adult skulls?
Definition
No