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Juvenile Delinquency Final
Final Examination for Juvenile Delinquency
93
Criminal Justice
12/14/2011

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Cards

Term
Participating in illegal behavior by a minor who falls under a statutory age limit is called
Definition
Juvenile Delinquency
Term
The power of the state to act on the behalf of the child and provide care and protection equivalent to that of a parent is called
Definition
Parens Patriae
Term
_______ is a Part I offense.
Definition
Homicide
Term
The tendency for youth to reduce the frequency of their offending behavior as they age is called
Definition
Aging-out process
Term
Youths that have been arrested four or more times would be considered a
Definition
Chronic Juvenile Offender
Term
The view that youths engage in delinquent behavior or criminal behavior due physical and physiological attributes is found in what theory
Definition
Trait theory
Term
____ is the idea that delinquents manifest physical anomalies that make them biologically and physiologically similar to our primitive ancestors, savage throwbacks to an earlier stage of human evolution
Definition
Criminal Atavism
Term
Behaviorists believe that learning and social experiences, coupled with values and expectations, determine behavior. The theory is known as the
Definition
Social learning
Term
Condition that exists where the wealthy and poor live in close proximity to each other is called
Definition
Relative Deprivation
Term
____ is formed when youths develop a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for.
Definition
Ego identity
Term
According to Erik Erikson, role diffusion occurs when youths:
Definition
Develop a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for
Term
A family style wherin the father is the final authority on all family matters and exercises complete control over his wife and children is:
Definition
Paternalistic
Term
These allowed for the appointment of overseers to place destitute or neglected children as servants in the homes of the affluent, where they were trained in agricultural, trade, or domestic services.
Definition
Poor Laws
Term
Under the ____ movement, children were placed in the care of adults who trained them in specific skills.
Definition
Appreticeship
Term
The _____ Act of the early 19th Century limited the hours children were permitted to work and the age at which they could behind to work.
Definition
Factory
Term
Which of the following statements best describes the child savers?
Definition
They lobbied for separate legal status for children
Term
"________" minors is the original early designation of youths who violate the law because of their minority status.
Definition
Wayward
Term
Parents may be held civilly responsible for the conduct of their minor children, under the concept of:
Definition
Vicarious Liability
Term
Which of the following is a Part I offense?
Definition
Arson
Term
A major problem about the National Crime Victimization Survery (NCVS) is...
Definition
Underreporting of crime
Term
In 2008, juveniles were responsible for about ___ percent of all arrests for violent crimes.
Definition
33
Term
For which of the following acts are females more likely than males to be taken into custody?
Definition
Running away
Term
Which of the following has b een linked with high-rate persistent offending in variety of cultures, time periods and offender types?
Definition
Age of onset
Term
Early and repeated delinquency is the best predictor of:
Definition
Adult criminality
Term
Wolfgang reported that the ______ were responsible for 52 percent of all offenses.
Definition
Late bloomers
Term
According to choice theorists, offenders:
Definition
Are rational actors who choose to crime because they believe their actions will be beneficial
Term
According to ____ theory, delinquency is a function of personal predispositions usch as temperament, personality, hormones, of genetics.
Definition
Trait
Term
_____ philosophers Beccaria and Bentham are identified as the core theorists of classical criminology.
Definition
Utilitarian
Term
____ theory views crime as a "normal" function modern living
Definition
Routine activities
Term
The volume and distribution of predatory crimes in a particular area and at a particular time is influenced by the interaction of three variables. Which of the following is not one of these variables?
Definition
The absence of law enforcement
Term
Which of the following statements about situational crime prevention is ture?
Definition
They are based on the fear of the severity, swiftness, and certainty of punishments
Term
A geographic location that is known to be the scene of repeated delinquent activity is called a:
Definition
Hot spot
Term
Research which links antisocial behavior to a person's diet draws from which theoretical perspective?
Definition
Biosocial theories
Term
Which of the following is not a symptom of ADHD?
Definition
The individual has difficulty regulating emotions
Term
____ hold that children will model their behavior according to the reactions they receive from others.
Definition
Psychodynamic theorists
Term
People commit crimes when they model their behavior after others they see being rewarded for the same acts; behavior is reinforced by rewards and extinguished by punishment. Which of the following theories does this best illustrate?
Definition
Behavioral
Term
Which of the following is not one of the critical social factors believed to affect delinquent behaviors presented in the text?
Definition
Gender disparity
Term
____ is the process of passing on deviant traditions and delinquent values from one from one generation to the next
Definition
Cultural transmission
Term
The concept of social disorganization was first recognized by sociologists:
Definition
Shaw and McKay
Term
According to Robert Merton, individuals without acceptable means for obtaining success experience:
Definition
Anomie
Term
"Delinquency is a result of youths' desire to conform to lower-class neighborhood values that conflict with those of the large society." This statement most closely reflects:
Definition
Cultural deviance theory
Term
what theory assumes that all people have the potential to commit crimes but are kept in check by their attachments to society?
Definition
Social Control
Term
What is restorative justice?
Definition
A non-punitive strategy based on healing, is concerned with the offender taking responsibility for his actions, seeks to return the offender to the community as a full productive member
Term
Which of the following choices best describes the over pathway?
Definition
Escalates to aggressive acts beginning with aggression, leading to physical fighting and then to violence
Term
Which of the following identified as the two critical turning points according Sampson and Laub?
Definition
Marriage and career
Term
The ____ holds that commitment and attachment to conventional institutions, activities, and beliefs insulate youths from the delinquency-producing influences in their environment; children who cannot form prosocial bonds in their family are at risk for being exposed to deviant attitudes and behaviors.
Definition
Differential social control theory
Term
In Laub and Sampson's follow up of the Glueck study, when participants in their 60s and 70s were asked what the most important element for going straight was, they replied:
Definition
The "knifing off" of individuals from their immediate environment
Term
According to ______, women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to men.
Definition
The masculinity hypothesis
Term
Which of the following best describes Lombroso's view of female criminality?
Definition
In appearance, delinquent females appeared close to men than to other women
Term
Freud contends that females suffer from _____, which produces an inferiority complex in girls, forcing them to compensate for their "defect."
Definition
Penis Envy
Term
Girls who reach puberty at an earlier age were viewed as being at a higher risk for delinquency because:
Definition
They had more contact with older boys
Term
According to the _____ feminist view, male exploitation acts as a trigger for female delinquent behavior
Definition
Critical
Term
Which of the following is least likely to live in a two-parent household?
Definition
A White non-hispanic child
Term
About 90 percent of day care providers:
Definition
Operate "underground"
Term
Which of the following best describes a blended family?
Definition
Nuclear families that are the produce of divorce and remarriage.
Term
Large families may suffer from ___ when resources are spread too thin.
Definition
Resource dilation
Term
____ is manifested by constant criticism and rejection of the child by the parents
Definition
Emotional abuse
Term
A _____ is a lawyer appointed by the court to look after the interests of those who do not have the capacity to assert their own rights.
Definition
Guardian ad litem
Term
A clique is defined as:
Definition
Small groups of friends who share activities and confidences
Term
Co-offending is defined as:
Definition
The tendency to commit delinquent acts in small groups rather than alone
Term
According to ____ theory, deliqnuents are as detached from their peers as they are from other elements of society.
Definition
Control
Term
In some instances, a peer group provides the social and emotional basis for antisocial activity. When this happens:
Definition
A clique is transformed into a gang
Term
Previously impoverished inner-city districts of major cities such as New York and Chicage are now quite fashionable and expensive, devoted to finance, retail stores, high-priced condos, and entertainment. Which of the following statements best describes an aspect of this development that inhibits urban gang formation?
Definition
There are few residential areas and thus few adolescent recruits
Term
Today, more than 90 percent of school-aged children attend school, compared to only ____ percent in 1890.
Definition
7
Term
Which of the following groups is reported have the highest percentage of dropouts in 2007?
Definition
Hispanics
Term
Over time the overall drop out rate is:
Definition
Decreasing
Term
In Marvin Wolfgang's Philadelphia cohort study, those who were more likely to become involved in chronic delinquency:
Definition
Had few disciplinary actions compared to nonoffenders
Term
Cohen contends that delinquency among lower class youths is a result of their poor preparation and socialization to function is schools. According to Cohen they essntially failed to live up to:
Definition
Middle-class measuring rods
Term
Which of the following is the most powerful stimulant?
Definition
Cocaine
Term
The main active ingredient in marijuana is:
Definition
Tetrahydrocannabinol
Term
Crack is manufactured by using ______ to remove hydrochlorides to create crystaline form of cocaine that can be smoked.
Definition
Sodium Bicarbonate
Term
The most widely used drug amongst teenagers is:
Definition
Marijuana
Term
Deprived from opium, ___ is the most used narcotic in the United States
Definition
Heroin
Term
Which state was the first to develop probation as a disposition of the court?
Definition
Massachusetts
Term
Prior to the creation of the juvenile court, how were juveniles who violated the law treated?
Definition
They were treated as an adult
Term
In 1817 prominent New Yorkers formed the ___, which viewed the moral training of youths from the dangerous classes as inadequate
Definition
Society for the Prevention of Pauperism
Term
The most prominent of the care facilities developed by the child savers was the _____, which opened in 1825.
Definition
House of Refuge
Term
The doctrine of _____ allowed justice officials to place youths restrictive settings, for the youth's own good, and without the legal protections afforded by the adult criminal justice system.
Definition
Parents Patriae
Term
Handling juvenile offenders can produce major ____ for policel they may experience a tension between their desire to perform what they consider their primary duty, law enforcement, and the need to aid in the rehabilitation of youthful offenders.
Definition
Role conflicts
Term
It is estimated that __ percent of al ljuvenile arrests are handled informally within the police department or referred to a community service agency.
Definition
22
Term
Which of the following statements about police informants is true?
Definition
They share information with police in exchange for money or special treatment
Term
Which of the following is the legal standard that allows the police to make an arrest for felonies they did not witness?
Definition
Probable cause
Term
Crimes such as murder, rape, and ___ are felonies.
Definition
Robbery
Term
According to the text, ___ percent of all juvenile court population was made up of African American youth.
Definition
33
Term
In 1989, the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 was amended to prohibit:
Definition
The placement of juveniles in adult lockups and jails
Term
The most damaging criticism has been that diversion programs are involving children in the juvenile justice system who previously would have been released without official notice. This is referred to as:
Definition
Net Widening
Term
A ___ is the report made by the polcie or some other agency to the court to initiate the intake process
Definition
Complaint
Term
Once the agency makes a decision that judicial disposition is required, a ____ is filed
Definition
Petition
Term
Murray and Cox report there is a _____, a reduction in the number of arrests per year, following release from a secure treatment facility.
Definition
Suppression effect
Term
_____ is the primary form of correctional treatment used by the juvenile justice system.
Definition
Probation
Term
In 2005, formal probation accounted for about ___ of all juvenile dispositions
Definition
Two-thirds
Term
______ is a contract between the court and the juvenile
Definition
Probation
Term
______ are rules mandating that a juvenile on probation behave in a particular way, and can include restitution, counseling, and educational and vocational programs
Definition
Conditions of probation