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Journey into the Deaf World
Chapters 5 - 6
186
Other
05/02/2011

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Cards

Term

What are the bonds that hold Deaf

 people together?

Definition

Collectively they are called Deaf Culture.

They are also bonded by a common

 language as well as common

mores and values.

Term

What are two additional bonding

 forces in Deaf culture?

Definition

1) Its athletic, social and

political organisations

2) Its artistic expression

Term

Is there a specific locale

that is the DEAF-WORLD?

Definition
No
Term
Who is Olaf Hanson?
Definition

1) architect - designed and built one

building at Gallaudet and several at

the Pennsylvania School of the Deaf

where he made it completely Deaf accessible

2) President of NAD from 1910 - 1913

3) Said that the "land of the Deaf" is found

 in the network of the residential schools

Designed the Charles Thompson Memorial Hall

 in St. Paul, Minn. - a Deaf club

Term

The search for a place apart

 from the residential schools

 led to the formation of what?

Definition

Deaf clubs

It was a place where Deaf people govern,

 socialize and communicate fluently in ASL.

There was also strong links to the

 residential schools and Deaf sports

Term

What was the National Deaf - Mute College

 in Washington D.C.?

Definition
Gallaudet University
Term

Was Gallaudet considered the Mecca of

the DEAF-WORLD?

Why or why not?

Definition

Most Deaf people did NOT consider that

Gallaudet truly belonged to the

DEAF-WORLD for two reasons:

1)It was controlled by hearing people

2) It promoted a hearing agenda which

sometimes overlapped a deaf agenda

Term

What event happened in

March 1988 that shook

the DEAF-WORLD?

Definition

The Gallaudet Revolution.

The university was selecting a new president.

Two of the three final candidates were Deaf.

The board chose the hearing candidate.

The decision was met with shock and anger.

The board defended the decision because

 "Deaf people are incapable of functioning in a hearing world"

The university was forced to close down.

Term

What four demands did the

students issue to the board?

Definition

1) The board must annul the decision

and appoint a Deaf president

2) The chairman of the board must resign

3) The Deaf membership of the board must

 increase to more than half

4) There must be no reprisals against protesters

Term

What movement came out

of the Gallaudet Revolution?

Definition

DPN

Deaf President Now

Term

Name some of the positive

things that were a result of

 the Gallaudet Revolution

Definition

1)Gallaudet had the first Deaf president - I King Jordan

2)The board now had a Deaf majority

3)More Deaf personnel at all levels

4) new Deaf Studies major

5)Greater tolerance of ASL

6)Reaffirmation of Deaf culture

7)Creation of The Deaf Way

8)The chairman of the board resigned

Term

What makes sports one of the

powerful bonding forces in

the DEAF-WORLD?

Definition

It is a vehicle of acculturation

 for the Deaf child, a shared experience,

 source of Deaf pride and an avenue

for understanding customs and

values in the DEAF-WORLD.

It is nurtured in the residential schools

Term

Deaf clubs are involved in

many sports but the level above them

is the regional leagues.

These are grouped into a national

organisation - what is it?

Definition

The American Athletic Association

 of the Deaf AAAD

Term

Where and When was the afore

 mentioned athletic organisation

formed and Why?

Definition

Akron, Ohio at the Akron Club of the Deaf.

April 13,1945

During the world wars, Deaf men and

 women weren't permitted to serve in the

military so they joined the war industries

 work force instead. The great rubber

companies based in Akron hired large numbers

 of Deaf workers and so the Deaf culture flourished

Term

What happened in

Paris, France in 1924?

Definition

Six national federations

 of the Deaf sent people to

 the first World Games for the Deaf

Term

What organisation was formed

 during the games?

Definition

During the games, the International Committee

 for Silent Sports -Comite International

des Sports des Sourds,

CISS, was foundedto forge a union

among all Deaf sports federations

The IOC gave formal recognition to CISS in 1955

Term
Who is Eugene Hairston?
Definition

Eugene (ernest) Hairston was a boxer

in the 1940's - very popular. His boxing career

 stopped when he received a severe gash

above his eyebrow in 1952. He is credited

with the flashing corner lights that along with

 the bell indicate the end of the round and to

return to their corner.

He later worked for the Dept of Education

where he stayed for 25 years.

Term
Who is "Dummy" Hoy
Definition

He was an outfielder for the

 Cincinnati Reds. He is credited with

inventing the hand signals

used by major league umpires

Term

Where and by whom was

the football huddle created

Definition

The huddle was created at

 Gallaudet by Paul Hubbard

Term

What organisation was created

to promote activities such as

 camping, excursions, tourism

 and ski days etc.

Definition
World Recreation Association of the Deaf
Term
Why are Deaf clubs dwindling?
Definition

1) The mainstreaming of

 children in local schools

2) captioning is available at home

3) technology in communication

4) Some say the membership is down

in the cities but up in the suburbs.

Term

Around the turn of the century,

Deaf people had trouble obtaining

insurance of all kinds. What was

formed to help people obtain insurance?

Definition

National Fraternal Society of the Deaf

It was conceived by some students

at the Michigan School for the Deaf

around the turn of the century

Term

Why was religious organisations

important in the Deaf community?

Definition

1) Thomas Gallaudet was a clergyman as

were several of the founders of Deaf education

2)Gallaudet and Clerc raised money for the

first charitable institution in the USA -

The American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb

3)Thomas's eldest son-Thomas- started the

 first congregation of Deaf worshippers.

Rev. Henry Style - first Deaf ordained

 priest - led an Episcopal congregation

Term

What is the purpose of NAD

 and when was it formed?

Definition

The first meeting in Cincinnati was

called the Nat'l Convention of Deaf-Mutes.

The leader was Geo Veditz

(renamed)NAD began in 1880 as a result of the

 Milan Congress.

It is an advocate for signed language and

the rights of Deaf people' /It hosts Miss Deaf America

Backs a Jr. NAD

Runs Leadership camps

publishes The Deaf American - a monograph

publishes a newspaper - The Broadcaster

Term

Name two reasons that the

 arts flourish in the DEAF-WORLD

Definition

The Deaf are a visual people so

it is no surprise that there

are many Deaf artists

ASL is an unwritten language,

 so literature such as storyteling

 and humour carry much cultural information

Term

What is Spectrum: Focus on Deaf Artists?

When was it started and by whom?

Definition

Spectrum was started by some

 hearing artists in Austin, Texas in 1975.

In 1977 was officially launched and

22 Deaf artists, dancers and painters and actors

came together to collaborate. These

 included Betty Miller, a painter

Term

What part of Spectrum did

Betty Miller establish?

Definition
THe Spectrum Visual Arts Institute
Term

What other groups came

out of Spectrum?

Definition

The American Deaf Dance Company,

The Spectrum Deaf Theatre

which was directed by

Charlie McKinney(a performing

artist and president of

Spectrum)

 

Term
What is DeVIA?
Definition

Deaf Visual Image Art

Usually depicts Deaf issues and

focuses on the hands and face.

 

Term
Give two examples of DeVIA
Definition

Susan Dupor's Family Dog

Mary Thornley's Milan, Italy, 1880

Term
Name some DeVIA artists
Definition

Betty Miller

Ann Silver

Harry Williams

Chuck Baird

Mary Thornley

Liz Morris

Paul Johnson

Term
Name a Deaf sculptor
Definition

Lee Ivy

Her works include

1992's Deaf Power -

 a celebration of the

Gallaudet Revolution

Term

Children of a Lesser G-d was played by

several actresses, four of which

received awards for their performances.

Who are these actresses, what award did

each receive and what nationality is each one?

Definition

American Phyllis Frelich won a Tony

British Elizabeth Quinn won a Best Actress

French Emmanuelle Laborit won Best Actress

American Marlee Matlin won an Oscar

American Linda Bove played in the USA and Canada

Term
Who is Gilbert Eastman?
Definition

He was the first chairman of the drama

department at Gallaudet

He wrote some plays such as Sign Me Alice

based on Pygmalion -an ASL satire on the use of

invented sign systems 

Co - hosted the Deaf TV magazine Deaf Mosaic

One of 17 founding members of NTD

Term

What is the National

Theatre of the Deaf?

Definition

They are bringing hearing theatre

to hearing and Deaf audiences

using Deaf actors and thus show the world their

 extraordinary talents

Promotion of Deaf culture and

awaken the hearing world to the

 beauty of ASL and the artistry

 of Deaf performers

 

Term
Who was opposed to NTD?
Definition

AGBell Assoc

(of course)

Term

What is the play My Third Eye

about and who put it on?

Definition

It is a play in 5 parts about ASL and Deaf people.

 One of the segments was co-directed by

the British Deaf actress Dorothy Miles.

It features a ringmaster who displays 2

caged heating people and explains their bizarre

 ways to the audience - "they see with

their ears and sign with their mouths."

NTD put it on.

Term

What two dilemmas must Deaf

theatre grapple with?

Definition

The financial and moral dilemma

Its sense of mission and natural proclivity

is to address a Deaf audience with Deaf themes.

Its financial need makes it aspire to be

understood by a wider audience. One solution

 is to incorporate voicing actors into the signed language

performance. Another problem,

financial in nature, is the fact

that because of the visual nature, these productions

 cannot be in a large theatre yet it cannot use a

small house and charge large admissions.

Term

What film was made between

1910 and 1920? Who "starred" in it?

Definition

George Veditz (president

of NAD 1904-1910)

speaking about the importance

of preserving ASL.

Term
Who was Charles Krauel?
Definition

Filmmaker who filmed Deaf life

especially in the Midwest during

the period 1925 - 1940. He wanted

to preserve the social life of Deaf people

Term

What has an important role in the

bonding of the DEAF-WORLD and

transmits its heritage and wisdom?

Where does it develop?

Definition

Storytelling and the storyteller

In the residential schools

Term

What traits are important

in being a storyteller?

Definition

One must be able to control language and

 nonverbal communication

React to audience response

Make suitable selections from

a repertory of stories

Observe and feel the pulse of the DEAF-WORLD,

and what one learns is then reflected in

the way one selects and relates the stories

Term
What are the two genres of the stories
Definition

1) The success story

2) The legend of origins

They both move from the individual

to the social, from silence

to communication

Term
List some literary forms
Definition

humour

peotry

anecdotes

tall tales

allegories

theatre

narratives

legends

Term

What was a leading trade taught

in the residential schools?

Definition
Printing
Term

What are 4 common characteristics

of minorities that underpin affliation?

Definition

1) the group shares a common physical or cultural

characteristic - ie skin colour or language

2) individuals identify themselves as members

of the minority and others identify them in that way

3)There is a tendency to marry within the minority

4) minority members suffer oppression

Term

Although the DEAF-WORLD is

 extraordinarily diverse, is

there found discrimination?

Definition

Yes. There is gender, sexual orientation,

 ethnicity and disability.

Women did not gain equality for a long time -

 Deaf Women United,inc - 1st woman pres of NAD

 - Gertrude Galloway

Black Deaf Americans - triple heritage -

Black dialect of ASL - segrated residential schools -

 Nat's Black Deaf Advocates - double minority -

 Andrew Foster-1st Black student at Gallaudet 

Term
Name some other minority Associations
Definition

Nat's Hispanic Council of the Deaf

Nat's Asian Deaf Congress

Native American Deaf

Rainbow Alliance of the Deaf - Gay and Lesbian

American Assoc. of the Deaf-Blind

CODA

 

Term
What is the French counterpart of the NAD?
Definition
The Confederation National des Sourds de France
Term

What is the International Visual

 Theatre and who led it?

Definition

The IVT was led by Deaf artist Alfredo Corrado.

 It was founded in Paris and it presented

avant-garde plays in LSF on

themes in Deaf culture.

Term

Besides acting, what did Deaf

theatre become?

Definition
It became a ground for activism
Term

There were 4 summer institutes

 at Gallaudet. Who attended?

Definition

French parents, professionals and Deaf

 people who came face-to-face with

American hearing and Deaf scholars

investigating ASL with politically active Deaf

groups such as Deaf pride and the

 American Civil Rights movement.

Term

What happened when the French

returned home after attending

 the summer institutes?

Definition

Deaf and hearing allies worked to reclaim

 French Deaf history and to investigate LSF.

The Academy of French Sign Language was

 established at the Paris National Institute for 

 Young Deaf People. An LSF dictionary was

compiled and classes started to teach LSF.

Term
What is 2LPE?
Definition

Deux Langues pour Une Education

 - Two Languages, One Education

bilingual education

Term

What is the significance

of the Residential schools?

Definition

It is in the network of residential

schools which are the foundation

of the DEAF-WORLD. It is where

many acquire their shared language

and culture. It may be the

first time a Deaf child meets a Deaf

adult and/or child.

Term

Deaf introductions require

what important piece of information?

Definition

Introductions require stating one's school.

Deaf ties acquired at school often last a lifetime

Term

 

 The first recorded

organisation in the USA was what?

Definition

An alumni assoc. of

what is now the

American School for the Deaf

in Hartford, Conn.

Term

True or False

Deaf people have mounted an

 aggressive campaign to

block the closing

of residential schools.

 

Definition
True
Term

In the absence of a single

gathering place for all the

members of the DEAF-WORLD in

America, what has served to bring

groups of Deaf folks together

and end Deaf isolation?

Definition
Residential schools and Deaf clubs
Term

Sports frequently play an

important role in the

lives of minorities -why?

Definition

They open a path to achievement

 and distinction where many others

 are closed by prejudice

Term

Athletics in Deaf culture also

serve what two functions?

Definition
Linguistic and political
Term

What is the effect of

the different

histories of

colonization in regard to

 the DEAF-WORLD?

Definition

The effect of differing histories of

colonization on many nations have left

differing practices in their

 wake with regards to Deaf people.

These factors combine with the countries

different cultures, geography and

 economy have had an effect on the

 Deaf to forge a common language to

congregate, to advocate for their own interests

 and to participate in national political life

Term

What country is considered the cradle of

Western Deaf education?

Definition
France
Term

More signed languages in the

 Western world today,

 including ASL, trace

 their roots to  .........?

Definition

LSF

French Sign Language

Term

The first public school for

 the Deaf was

established where and

 by whom and when? 

 

Definition

The first public school for the Deaf was

established in Paris, in the 1760's by

abbe de l'Epee

Term

In 1789, as Eppe lay dying, a delegation from

 the legislature of the new French Republic

joined the pupils at his bedside to tell him

that his wish - the certain continuation of

his school, was assured. This moment in

 Deaf history was painted by whom?

Definition

French Deaf artist Frederic Peyson

It was displayed at the Paris Salon des

beaux-Arts in 1839.

Term

What was the predominant language

 in the French Deaf schools

Definition

LSF became the predominant language

among pupils and Deaf faculty

although Signed French was often used

in the classroom

Term

True or False:

LSF and Signed French were

 constantly under

 attack and frequently banned

in favour

of the exclusive use of French

Definition
True
Term

Why is France so protective

of its language?

Definition

From 1789, France felt threatened by the

 diversity of languages within its borders. This

was even more important as languages, such as German,

 were spoken across its borders by its

 enemies. The legislature created primary schools

 where all children would learn French and only

French would be used in instruction.

 Minority languages were discouraged.

Term

In the 1830's what happened to

signed and spoken French?

Definition

It fel into disuse in the French

 schools for

 the Deaf. LSF was used

for instruction

Term

What was the Congress of

 Milan and

 what happened in its wake?

Definition

LSF was banished from

public education

 of its Deaf children and

all the Deaf teachers

 were fired on the grounds

 that they would be

 likely to use LSF.

Term

Name some of the teachers that

lost their

jobs in the aftermath of

 the Milan Congress.

Definition

Dusuzeau - science teacher and Deaf leader

Tessieres - author of the national curriculum

for Deaf pupils

Theobald - history teacher and Deaf leader

M Trone - writing teacher

M Simon - deputy headmaster

 

Term

When was the earliest Deaf association

founded and by whom?

What did it provide?

Definition

The earliest Deaf assoc. was founded in 1834

 by a towering intellectual in French Deaf

history - Ferdinand Berthier.

It provided mutual aid and an athletic,

cultural and leisure programme

to Deaf adults. It was named the

 Comite des Sourds-Mutes (Deaf -Mute Committee)

 In 1838, it was renamed the

Central Society for the Assistance and

Education of Deaf-Mutes

Term

Deaf adults could no longer

 work in education

 in the years following the

Milan Congress.

Where did they find work?

Definition
Printing was one place. art, sculpting
Term

Deaf leaders were active politically. What

civil rights did they manage to secure

 for Deaf people?

Definition

The right to marriage and to an

education and protesting the hearing

 dominance of Deaf education.

This activism was reflected in 3

international congresses on the

Deaf held in Paris at the

turn of the century.

Term

What two-pronged argument do the

 French make for their language?

Definition

1) French is one of the world's great

languages with resources in grammar,

vocabulary and texts that can enable people

 developing nations to gain access to the

world's store of knowledge, its corridors of

 power and its boardrooms of commerce

2) the local languages cannot fulfill these

 functions.

Term

French educators of the Deaf said

what of signed language?

Definition

The world will never learn signed language

and LSF can never fulfill the

functions of French.

The French administration and

 law consider LSF

speakers- not as a linguuistic

minority but as

 French speaking citizens with a disability.

Term

In 1975, what did the French national

television do?

Definition

In 1975, at the WFD meeting, the French

were impressed with the place that had

 been made for ASL in American society

and the large number of American Deaf presenters.

 In that same year they started a weekly

programme aimed

at Deaf and hard-of-hearing that was

interpreted into signed language

Term

What was the Confederation

Nationale

 des Sourds de France?

Definition
The French counterpart of NAD
Term
Who was Ferdnand Berthier?
Definition

He published numerous articles

and books

He created the first known social

organisation of the Deaf. In 1834 

he founded the Comite des Sourds-Muers

(Deaf-Mute Committee)

in 1838 it was renamed the Central

Sociery for the Assistance and

 Education of Deaf - Mutes

vice-pres of the first welfare

organisation for the Deaf.

Member of literary and historical

societies

Term

Wo was Bernard Mottez

and Harry Markowiez?

Definition

Mottez was a French sociologist and Markowiez

 was a sociolinguist. They

studied the Deaf

community and began a

 graduate seminar

on the Deaf Community. They

conducted lectures and

published a hard-hitting underground

newspaper that focused on

the Deaf community

Term

What was the International Visual

Theatre and who led it?

Definition

The IVT had an all Deaf cast led by

 Alfredo Corrado. It was founded in Paris

 and presented avant-garde plays in

LSF for both Deaf and hearing audiences

Term

Gallaudet held 4 summer institutes.

What did the French take away

from these get-togethers?

Definition

Some of the Deaf and hearing participants

worked together to reclaim French Deaf

 history and to investigare LSF.

Academy of French Sign Language was

established at the Paris Nat'l Institute for

 Young Deaf PeopleLSF dictionary

was compiled

LSF classes started

bilingual education-Deux Langues

 pour Une Education

Term

Were all of the French Deaf people

 happy with all these developlments?

Definition

No all. they viewed these activities with

 skepticism. They accused the activists of

promoting the exploitation of Deaf people

by hearing people and of seeking a position of superiority.

Term

In 1985, events at a

residential school

brought the growing

 stuggle between

advocates of LSF and spoken

 French to national attention -

 what happened?

Definition

Some hearing teachers

and Deaf adults

at the school staged a

 hunger strike to demand

 inclusion of LSF and Deaf teachers.

Term

A year after the hunger strike

what happened?

Definition

Some Deaf people and their friends

rallied at the Basiille on behalf of official

recognition of LSF and then 3000-5000

people marched to the offices of the

 prime minister. This enlightened millions

of French people to the plight of Deaf education.

Term

In July 1990 there was

an international

conference on signed

 languages in Poitiers -

 what happened at this meeting?

Definition

It drew inspiration from the 1989

 international Deaf culture conference -

 DEAF WAY. It was also a political

gathering to chart a course for reform.

In 1991 bilingual education for Deaf

children was approved by the

French Parliament.

Term

Who starred in the second run of

Les Enfants du Silence

(Children of a Lesser G-d) in 1993?

Definition

Emmanuele Laborit

She is the most visible

of the Deaf actors

 trained at the

 International Visual Theatre.

Term

The present situation in France's

DEAF-WORLD is both good

 and bad - what is bad?

Definition

resistance of French society to accepting the DEAF-WORLD

The institutions that are serving the Deaf is directed and staffed

with hearing people whose attitude is paternalist and intolerant of their language/French Deaf education is under the auspices of the Ministry

of Health/no degree granting programmes for interpreters

public schools cannot employ Deaf teachers/Spoken French is

 used and mainstreaming is pushed/deaf students rarely receive the

regular high school degree and cannot go on to college but it is

available to hearing people/Deaf are directed into the manual

 trades even though these are dying out

Term
What is good about the present situation?
Definition

Deaf activism in suppoprt of LSF and bilingual education

classes for Deaf children have led to passage of a law

that allows parents of Deaf kids to choose to have their kids educated with both LSF and French/ some French

universities have begun providing basic services for Deaf students /Deaf people are increasingly providing

professional services to Deaf people as mental health

 workers as museum tour guides and instructors as

 teacher's aides and interpreters

Term
What does "pluralistic society" mean?
Definition

Pluralistic Society

A society comprised of people from numerous different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Although some integration and acculturation is only natural, a pluralistic society is one that acknowledges and allows for the cultural diversity of its citizens.
Term

WHat is the French view

of minorities in general?

Definition

In French view, a democracy without

institutionalized cultural distinctions is

more just - for example - to give

everyone equal educational opportunity

is to give each person equal access

to schools conducted in French.

Term

True or False:

The USA is more pluralist and ready to

 institutionalize the wishes of the minorities.

Definition
True
Term

The difference in pluralism

 between the USA and France is what?

Definition

It is not so much in demographics as in

the pluralism of government structures.

France is a pluralistic society with many

of their citizens speak as the primary

language arabic, turkish, vietnamese and

 LSF, etc but these people were not found in the political parties. This is slowly changing.

Term

How is Sweden different from France in

its embrace of cultural pluralism and of

 Deaf culture in particular?

Definition

The govt has a policy of preserving

minority languages and cultures. In

matters that affect minorities, the

Swedish gov't deals preferentially

with formal representative organizations

 from those minorities.

Term

In the first half of the 20th century,

 Sweden allowed only the spoken and

 written national language to be used

in Deaf ed. What happened in 1969?

Definition

In 1969, free interpreter services were

 recognized as a right of Deaf people

and an interpreter training programme

was established, conducted by the

Swedish Federation of the Deaf

(Sveriges Dovas Riksforbund, SDR)

Term

In 1981, as a result of activism by SDR,

by the assoc. of parents of Deaf kids and

by linguists at the University of Stockholm -

 what transpired?

Definition

Swedish Sign Language was formally

recognised as one of the nation's minority

languages and bilingual ed. was instituted in the nation's schools for Deaf kids.

Term

In 1983, what was added to the

requirements for admission for

educational programmes for teachers

 planning to teach the Deaf?

Definition

Knowledge of Swedish Sign Language

is a requirement. The knowledge that

Deaf people have concerning  their

 language is respected and seen as

essential to the successful education

and psychological development of Deaf kids.

 

Term

THere is another development in Deaf Ed.

coming out of the 1981 decision.

What was it?

Definition

More Deaf teachers have been hired

Swedish is now taught as a second language

 using SSL as a vehicle for this instruction

there are courses in Deaf history,language and

culture speech training for those kids

that can profit from it

Term

Describe the outreach programme that

Sweden has in place.

Definition

It is bringing SSL and Deaf adults into the lives of

hearing families with Deaf children

Bringing those hearing families together as a

support system

Special preschools/Deaf home visitors/short-term

 live in arrangements

Deaf clubs host SSL classes and parents meetings

Blocked mainstreaming

Term

What percent of the Deaf population

in Sweden belong to the SDR?

Definition
65%
Term

In the USA, Deaf clubs have been

 closing due to lack of membership.

Is the situation the same in Sweden?

Definition

NO - they offer lectures, films, videos, social events

and some have resort facilities. In addition some offer

courses in SSL and the Stockholm Deaf Club also teaches

ASL and 9 other subjects. There are 4 clubs with

 recreational themes and the sports club has 14

sections ranging from bowling to volleyball.

There is folk dancing and special interest groups

 such as youth, seniors, women and so forth

Term

What is the Swedish National

 Athletic Assoc. of the Deaf seeking to do?

Definition

They want to withdraw from a disability

coalition and gain entrance to the Swedish Confederation of Sports as they do not

see themselves as disabled

Term

SDR is the official and centralized

organization of Deaf people. Name

some of the facets of Deaf life

 they are involved in.

Definition

issues debated in local Deaf clubs are brought

 to a national level for discussion and action

education/establishment of a professorship in SSL /

involved in teacher education/ interpreter ed/ child care/

health care/ employment/recreation/services for the

elderly and people with disabilities/audiology centres/

development of technology/nat'l newscasts interpreted into SSL/

research on sign language/Deaf theatre/ they

have their own TV production unit

Term
What is the International Sign Linguistics Assoc.?
Definition

Formed in 1986, it publishes a newspaper -

 Signpost

It is an international workshop

 for Deaf researchers focusing

on sign languages

particiaption is restricted

to Deaf scholars

Term

WHat happened in the European

 Parliament in 1988?

Definition

They voted a motion urging all

member states to promote and

preserve their signed languages.

Term

Most Deaf adults in Europe were

educated how?

Definition

Orally and oral education

remains widespread.

Term

What new trends are making in-roads in

the developed nations?

Definition

1) Total Communication or SimCom - entails

 speaking and signing at the same time with

the order of the signs following the

order of the spoken words

2) bilingual/bi-cultural education

3)mainstreaming

Deaf ed. in Europe continues to prepare most

Deaf students for non-professional jobs

The Deaf are excluded from decision-making

about their own lives

Term

Does Europe prepare most Deaf students

for college and professional jobs?

Definition

NO - Deaf students are funneled into

non-professional jobs. They are

not so much unemployed as underemployed

pushed into trades such as carpentry,

 printing, leather work,baking,tailoring

and dress-making

Term

True or False

Deaf people have a big say

about their lives?

Definition
False
Term

What has been a significant force on

the world Deaf scene?

Definition

WFD

World Federation of the Deaf

Term
The WFD grew out of what event?
Definition

The WFD grew out of the international

congresses of Deaf people late in the

19th century which were organized in part

to defend Deaf language and culture in the

 aftermath of the Congress of Milan.

Term
What is the WFD?
Definition

The WFD General Assembly is a

 law-making body comprised of two Deaf

delegates from every national Deaf assoc.

Term
How often does the WFD meet?
Definition

The General Assembly convenes every

 4 years to elect members to the WFD

 Board and to adopt policies and programmes.

Term

The WFD has standing commissions that

focus on developments in what fields?

Definition

Audiology, education,psychology,

signed language, interpreting

and Deaf culture

Term
What is the purpose of the commissions?
Definition

The commissions make formal

presentations at the WFD congresses

and they make recommendations and

 propose resolutions based on those formal

 papers and resulting discussion.

Term
Who is Liisa Kauppinen?
Definition

At the 11th Congress of the WFD, in

 Vienna in 1995, Liisa was elected

the first woman president.

Term

What is the oldest nationwide

Deaf organisation in the world?

Definition
NAD
Term

What is the second oldest

 Deaf assoc.

 in the world?

Definition

British Deaf Assoc.

modeled after NAD.

Term

What did some communist govt's

 force the

 Deaf and

H-H persons to do?

Definition

They forced Deaf and H-H persons to

 form a single organisation but these

separated again in several countries after the communist collapse.

Term

In recent years, the WFD has

 emphasized what ?

Definition

Outreach to developing nations

whose Deaf citizens comprise 80%

of the Deaf people in the world.

Term

Kenya is compared in size to

what US state?

Definition
Texas
Term

How many languages are Deaf kids

in Kenya taught?

Definition

Deaf children in Kenya who are taught

in English are often working on their

4th language.

the languages are their tribal language,

 Swahili (Kenya's national language)

 signed language and English

Term

What is the percentage of kids that

 attend school?

Definition
90%
Term

How many schools for the Deaf are

there in Kenya?

Definition

17 residential schools and one for the

Deaf - Blind

these are all elementry

1 high school

5 self-contained classes in schools

for hearing kids

Term

The teachers of the Deaf attend a

 2 year training course. Who

conducts this programme?

Definition

The Ministry of Basic Education

An inspectorate monitors their

performance in the classroom

Term

what is the purpose of the Kenya

 Institute of Special Education?

Definition

It runs a 3-year programme to teachers of

special ed. It takes a teacher's certificate

and 3 years experience to be considered

for admission.

The institute is also concerned

with assessment, documentation,

research, teaching aids, correspondence

courses and in-service training

Term

Although schools for the Deaf have the

same curriculum and use the same

examinations as regular schools -

they are different in two aspects -

 what are they?

Definition
method and pace
Term

The emphasis in Kenya has been

 on what method of teaching?

Definition
Mainstreaming
Term

Were Deaf children doing well

on national exams?

Definition

NO this prompted teachers and

 officials to advocate the use

of signed language in Deaf ed

Term

What book did the Kenyan Nat'l Assic.

of the Deaf publish?

Definition

A dictionary of signs. A Deaf member

of the Kenya Institute of Special Ed

supplemented a basic list of Kenyan

 signs with others fron ASL. This has

not been met with joy by everone.

Term
What is the Machakos School?
Definition

It was a new residential school and

 they used both sign and speech.

It was established with help from

Sweden. It cost $250 per student.

 Instruction is conducted in spoken

 English with each word

accompanied by a sign.

Term

True or False

3 of the 17 residential schools

are vocational?

Definition

True

the students must pass

national trade exams

Term

Name some of the advantages

Deaf people have in Kenya

Definition

enthusiastic and well informed officials and

teachers/ an inspectorate for monitoring

 and improving classroom practices/

uniform nat'l exams to evaluate the

 system's success and failures/

dymanic parents assoc which founds

clinics,gathers data,raises funds and

meets boarding expenses of

about 1/2 of the Deaf kids

 

Term

True or False

Oralist practices from Great Britain

 are very successful in Kenya.

Definition
False
Term

What is the prime source

of income in Burundi?

Definition

Almost all of the adult population

is engaged in subsistence agricuture

 on scattered family plots.

Term

Are Deaf people integrated

 into Burundi society?

Definition
No they are quite isolated
Term

True or False

As in Kenya, Deaf people have

a full developed signed language

Definition

False

There is a complex system of

home grown manual language.

Term

What are the twp major ethnic

groups in Burundi?

What are the two

common languages?

Definition

The two manor ethnic froups in

Burunde are the Hutus nd the Tutsis.

The common language is Kirunde

and a second official language is French.

 

Term

Is education as accessable 

as in Kenya?

Definition

Not Really

Less than a 1/4 of the adult

 population is literate.

1 child in 3 attend promary school

 

Term

What kind of education is

available to Deaf kids?

Definition

There is no system of Deaf

education/ Deaf kids are

 unwelcome in hearing schools

Deaf children are uneducated

and believed uneducatable.

Term
Who is Assumpta Naniwe?
Definition

She is a Burundian psychologist.

 She interviewed a dozen parents

of Deaf children in Burundi.

Term
What did Assumpta Naniwe find out?
Definition

It revealed the perception of Deaf people by

hearing adults who cannot communicate with them.

she was able to discern the highly restricted

roles assigned to Deaf people

she discovered the significance of the

discovery of Deafness for the family

 and the family's ultimate adaptation

Term

There are two church - related schools

 for Deaf children. What effect are

these schools having on

 the hearing population?

Definition

these two schools are changing

 hearing peoples perception of

 Deaf people and Deaf peoples'

perception of themselves.

Term

The interviews that Assumpta Naniwe

conducted made clear the reason

that hearing folks believe that the

 Deaf are mentally retarded.

 What is the reason for this belief?

Definition

The breakdown in communication

 between the two worlds. This is

why they are assigned modest

social roles and largely

excluded from education.

Term

For all cultures, we may

distinguish

 5 types of instruction.

 What are they?

Definition

self instruction

peer instruction

parental teaching

community teaching

formal instruction

Term

Why don't many children

(hearing or Deaf)

 receive formal instruction?

Definition

Either because they simply

 do not have physical access

 to it or because they do not

 have linguistic access to it

 since that instruction is

 conducted in a language they

do not know and cannot understand.

Term
Definition
Term

What happens to a child that

doesn't receive formal instruction?

Is this child a recipient of

 any learning at all?

Definition

He frequently grows up to

become an economically

 disadvantaged adult

Such a child still receives

informal instruction from

friends and parents and

relatives and neighbors.

Term

When Harlan Lane visited Burundi,

what in the schools astonished him?

Definition

Although very few Burundians

 know English, he was astonished

to see teachers using signs from ASL

 --in French word order

Term
Who is Andrew Foster?
Definition

He was the first Black person

to graduate from Gallaudet

He eatned master's degrees in

special education and in missionary work

He founded the Christian Mission

 for Deaf Africans in 1956

Foster's presence changed African's

beliefs about the

potential of Deaf people.

Term

How did Andrew Foster change

 the way one school taught?

Definition

He gave a 3 month training

 course in Nigeria

The youngest children learn math

and written French and the later grades 

add natural and physical sciences

and finally history and

geography come on-board.

Term

Where do the vast majority

 of Deaf people live?

Definition

They live in the developing nations

and this underscores the importance

of gaining a general

understanding of the common

 problems that Deaf people face.

Term

What did the WFD pubish in

1991 and what did it show?

Definition

In 1991, the EFD published a survey

of Deaf people in the developing world.

This survey showed that unemployment

 among Deaf folks is 3 times higher than

the national average in the developing world.

There is major discrimination against Deaf people

in employment/lack of vicational training/legal

 discrimination ie no drivers license and 1/2

the countries have no interpreters or only

 1 or2 for the entire nation.

Term

In developing nations, what

were the living conditions

for Deaf folks like?

Definition

Living conditions frequently involve

 violations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights/

they cannot vote/cannot marry a Deaf person or marry at all/establish a club or organisation/in 17 countries they

 cannot gather formally at all so there

is no national Deaf organisation.

There are some countries where they can

 gather in a club or church

There are Deaf sports and cultural events which include theatre,mime,magic and dance

Term

What did the WFD survey say

about signed languages

in developing countries?

Definition

 

There is some form of signing used in their schools

but rarely the natural language - an invented system

12 countries report that the signed language

has official recognition.1/2 report little or no sign lang.

instruction.where there is classes hardly anyone

enrolls and the teachers are not fluent. 1/2 the

 countries do not have an interpreter

 

Term

Who is partnering with WFD in

 encouraging development

 of signed language?

Definition
UNESCO
Term

What is the WFD policy

 regarding signed language

 in developing countries?

Definition

Indigenous signed languages

should be given priority over

the importation  of foreign

signed languages such as ASL or SSL

Term

In the developing countries,

 who initiates Deaf education?

Definition
religious groups
Term

In the developing countries

that have Deaf education,

 what kind of instruction is popular?

Definition

They tend to an oralist philosophy.

Why? Because of the

former colonizing power

Term

Special Education in the

Developing Countries f the

British Commonwealth

illustrates their ideas about Deaf folks .

Definition

Deaf children cannot think

in words so their mental growth is severely

 retarted/pupils are taught in

outdated sign language

Deaf folks cannot be trained to

a satisfactory standart as

 teachers of the deaf

Term

Who undertook the job of

 discrediting the British view of the Deaf?

What did they do?

Definition

UNESCO

They invited experts from

more than a dozen countries

 to convene and advise it on the

different approached to

 educating Deaf kids.

Term

What did the report

 from UNESCO affirm?

Definition

Deaf folks have the same intellectual capacities

as hearing folks

Deaf adults have an important role to play

 in the socialization and education of Deaf kids

Signed language should be accorded

the same standing as oral language

Rejected is the idea that signed language

interferes with learning the national language

Term

True or False

In geographically isolated

places around the world

such as islands, forests or

 mountainous regions, there

are and were areas with

very high percentage of Deaf

Definition
True
Term

Name a few of the places that

 had a high population of Deaf.

Definition

Chilmark on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Yucatec Mayan village, Mexico

Admorobe village, Ghana

Providence Island, Columbia

Urubu, Brazil

Term

Where do the ancestors 

 on Martha's Vineyard come from?

Definition

They have been traced to an

 area in the county of Kent called

the Weald. This was a land locked

 sheep-raising region whose people

married within their own villages

 or nearby villages

Term

Why did these folks

 come to the New World?

Definition

Some were Puritans.

They settled in southern

Massachusetts. As new

folks came from Kent, they

joined their countrymen.

Many carried the recessive

gene for Deafness

Term

What was unusual

 about Martha's Vineyard?

Definition

Since so many were Deaf,

everyone signed-hearing or Deaf.

People intermarried with Deaf

and the Deaf had a full life there.

They developed their own sign language.

Term

On Martha's Vineyard,

were the Deaf educated?

Definition

They were very well educated

receiving early education in the

 home. When they went to

 the American School in Hartford,

they brought their sign

language with them and

 eventually it found its way into ASL.

Term

What led to the demise

of the Deaf society?

Definition

Improved transportation

 and marriage with off-islanders.

By 1952 there were no Deaf

living on Chilmark.

Term

What is the term for communities

 such as Martha's Vineyard?

Definition

Assimilating

Since Deaf folks and hearing folks

 both learned the signed language,

 Deaf people are assimilated into

 the larger hearing society

Term

For a community to be assimilative,

three ingredients appear to

be essential. What are

 these 3 ingredients?

Definition

Several generations of Deaf people (which

 assures the transmission of language and culture)

A relatively high incidence of Deaf people

 (which motivates hearing people to

 learn the signed language

Geographic isolation encouraging

intermarriage (which perpetuates

the Deaf population) and

face-to-face communication

Term

What was the first international

Deaf organisation  known as

 and when was it

 established and for what ?

Definition

The first international Deaf organisation

is now known as the International

 Committee for Deaf Sports was

established in 1924 to host

 the quadrennial World Games for the Deaf

Term
Definition
Term

How often does the World

Federation of the Deaf

hold its international congresses?

Definition

The WFD has held its

quadrennial international

congresses at which member

 states are represented since 1951.

Term

Deaf scholars also have meetings.

What is the name of their

 meeting and what is discussed there?

Definition

Deaf scholars gather at

the International Workshops

for Deaf Researchers and at

international and regional

congresses on signed language,

Deaf history and other disciplines.

Term

Partly because of international

organisations, contacts among

Deaf people from different lands

have proliferated. How do they

 communicate with each other?

Definition

A contact language known as

International Sign has developed

allowing speakers of mutually

unintelligible signed languages

to communicate.

Term

Deaf participants from developing

countries are often unaccompanted

by intertreters of their signed languages.

 How do they communicate with others?

 

Definition

The vocabulary used in such

 contact situations is quite restricted

 consisting mostly of nouns and verbs with a few adjectives and adverbs.

Term

Vocabulary comes from 3 sources

- what are they?

Definition

The national signed language of

 the interlocutors

Mime

A limited number of signs that

 have been adopted informally

over the yearsas a standardized

International Sign vocabulary

Term

In the 1970's WFD led an

effort to expand and standardize

 the vocabulary of International

 Sign. What did they do?

Definition

Three books were publishedpresenting about

1500 signstaken from various signed languages.

The first two books were inspired by

the goal of a shared international language

The third - GESTUNO - sought to facilitate

 communicationat international meetings.

Term

Deaf people do not live apart

from hearing society but live in

 its midst. Yet there is quite

a difference from one country

 to another. Explain this difference

Definition

Deaf integration in Burundi because of

 geography and history and poverty,

have very limited possibilities of

communicating. This is called

integration with isolation.

In Sweden, Deaf people's integration

is founded on their distinct culture,

language  and ties to the DEAF-WORLD.

This is integration with autonomy

Term

What type of integration

 do Deaf people prefer?

Definition

Integration with autonomy. THe kind of integration

 requires that Deaf kids grow up with pride in

themselves and their DEAF-WORLD, fluency

 in the language and strong bonds with

 its members

Term

How do hearing people try to

 achieve this integration and

why is it wrong?

Definition

Mainstreaming

It sets the Deaf child apart, keeps

him from learning about his

signed language and culture.

What it amounts to is

integration with isolation

Term

Talk about the grammar of

 the international sign language.

Definition

The grammatical structures are surprisingly

complex for a pidgin

Subjects and objects are placed in space

and verbs are made to agree with those locations

facial expressions are used in questions

 and negation as well as several other

 negation markers such as a finger

wag, palm up and zero

Term
Definition
Term

Questions about signed

languages in the WFD survey

of developing countries

revealed what?

Definition

Families with several Deaf

develop their own signs. Schools foster

the development of sign lang. by

bringing Deaf folks together

Signs from foreign signed lang

are intreduced into the community

by teachers trained abroad,

missionaries and Deaf folks

educated in toher countries