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Isys 363
test 1 ch 1-7
78
Business
09/30/2008

Additional Business Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
digital firm
Definition
a digital firm is one in which nearly all of the organizations significant business relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees are accomplished though digital networks spanning the entire organization or linking multiple organizations
Term
business processes
Definition
the set of logically related tasks and behaviors that organizations develop over time to produce specific business results and the unique manner in which these activities are organized and coordinated.
Term
business model
Definition
describes how a company produces, delivers and sells a product or service to create wealth
Term
information technology (IT)
Definition
consists of all the hardware and software that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives
Term
information system
Definition
a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve, process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization
Term
information
Definition
data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings
Term
data
Definition
streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can effectively understand and use
Term
input
Definition
captures or collects raw data from within the organization or from its external environment
Term
processing
Definition
converts this raw input into a meaningful form
Term
output
Definition
transfers the processed information to people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used
Term
feedback
Definition
output that is returned to appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct the input stage
Term
information systems literacy
Definition
broader understanding of the management and organizational dimensions of information systems, which encompasses an understanding of the management and organizational dimensions of systems as well as the technical dimensions of systems
Term
computer literacy
Definition
focuses primarily on knowledge of information technology
Term
management information systems (MIS)
Definition
tries to achieve this broader information systems literacy, deals with behavioral issues as well as technical issues surrounding the development, use, and impact of information systems used by managers and employees in the firm
Term
senior management
Definition
makes long range strategic decisions about products and services as well as ensures financial performance of the firm
Term
middle management
Definition
carries out the programs and plans of senior management
Term
operational management
Definition
is responsible for monitoring the daily activities of the business
Term
knowledge workers
Definition
such as engineers, scientists, or architects, design products or services and create new knowledge for the firm
Term
data workers
Definition
secretaries or clerks, assist with paperwork at all levels of the firm
Term
production or service workers
Definition
actually produce the product and deliver the service
Term
business functions
Definition
specialized tasks performed by business organizations, consist of sales and marketing, manufacturing, production, finance and accounting, and human resources
Term
culture
Definition
fundamental set of assumptions, values and ways of doing things that has been accepted by most of its members
Term
computer hardware
Definition
physical equipment used for input, processing and output activities in an information system
Term
computer software
Definition
consists of the detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the computer hardware components in a information system
Term
data management technology
Definition
consist of the software governing the organization of data on physical storage media
Term
networking and telecommunications technology
Definition
consisting of both physical devices and software, links the various pieces of hardware and transfers data from one physical location to anoter
Term
network
Definition
links two or more computers to share data or resources
Term
internet
Definition
network or networks
Term
intranets
Definition
internal corporate networks based on internet technology
Term
extranets
Definition
private intranets extended to authorized users outside the organization
Term
world wide web
Definition
service provided by the internet that uses universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting and displaying information in a page format
Term
information technology (IT) infrastructure
Definition
foundation on which the firm can build its specific information systems
Term
organizations and management capital
Definition
investments in an organization and management such as complementary assets, new business models, new business procedures, management behavior, organizational culture or training
Term
sociotechnical view
Definition
optimal organizational performance is achieved by jointly optimizing both the social and technical systems used in production
Term
sales and marketing information systems
Definition
supports business processes that are concerned with identifying the customers for the firms products or services, determining what customers need or want, planning and developing products and services to meet their needs and advertising and promoting these products and services, taking orders and following up on sales
Term
manufacturing and production systems
Definition
support activities that deal with planning, development, and maintenance of production facilities; the establishment of production goals; the acquisition, storage, and availability of production materials; and the scheduling of equipment, facilities, materials, and labor required to fashion finished products
Term
finance and accounting information
Definition
deals with maintaining and managing the firms financial records to account for the flow of funds in a firm. keep tract of assets and fund flows. they track money owned the firm, prepares short term budgets, plans long term profits.
Term
Human resources information systems
Definition
support activities such as identifying potential employees, maintaining complete records on existing employees, and creating programs to develop employees talents and skills
Term
transaction processing system (TPS)
Definition
provides information on elementary activities, transactions of the organization- sales, receipts, cash deposits, payroll, credit decisions and the slow of materials in a factory
Term
management information system (MIS)
Definition
designates a specific category of information systems serving the middle management.
Term
decision support systems (DSS)
Definition
support nonroutine decision making for middle managment
Term
executive support systems
Definition
help senior management make decisions such as strategic issues and long term trends in the firm and external environment
Term
portal
Definition
uses a web interface to present integrated personalized business content
Term
enterprise applications
Definition
systems that span functional areas, focus on executing business processes across the business firm and include all levels of management
Term
enterprise system
Definition
solve problems by collecting data from various key business processes in manufacturing and production, fiance and accounting, sales and marketing, and human resources and storing the data in a single central data repository
Term
supply chain management
Definition
help businesses manage relationships with their suppliers. help to suppliers, purchasing firms, distributors, and logistics companies share information about orders, production, inventory levels and delivery of products and services so that they can source, produce, and deliver goods and services efficiently
Term
inter organizational system
Definition
they automate the flow of information across organizations boundaries. ex. supply chain
Term
customer relationship management (CRM) systems
Definition
help firms manage their relationships with customers.
Term
knowledge management systems (KMS)
Definition
enable organizations to better manage processes for capturing and applying knowledge and expertise
Term
electronic business, e business
Definition
refers to the use of digital technology and the internet to execute the major business processes in the enterprise
Term
electronic commerce, e commerce
Definition
part of the e business that deals with the buying and selling of goods and services over the internet
Term
e government
Definition
refers to the application of the internet and networking technologies to digitally enable government and pubic sector agencies relationships with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government
Term
information systems department
Definition
is the formal organizational until responsible for maintaining the hardware, software, data storage, and networks that comprise the firms IT infrastructure
Term
programmers
Definition
highly trained technical specialists who write the software instructions for computers
Term
systems analysts
Definition
the principal liaisons between the information systems groups and the rest of the organization
Term
information systems managers
Definition
are leaders of teams of programmers and analysts, project managers, physical facility managers, telecommunication managers, or database specialists.
Term
chief information officer (CIO)
Definition
senior manager who oversees the use of information technology in the firm
Term
end users
Definition
representatives of departments outside of the information systems group for whom applications are developed.
Term
organization
Definition
a stable, formal social structure that takes resources from the environment and processes them to produce output
Term
routines
Definition
-standard operating procedures- are precise rules, procedures, and practices that have been developed to cope with virtually all expected situations
Term
transaction cost theory
Definition
firms and individuals seek to economize on transaction costs, much as they do on production costs.
Term
agency theory
Definition
the firm is viewed as a "nexus of contracts" among self interested individuals rather than a unified, profit maximizing entity
Term
competitive forces model
Definition
most widely used for understanding competitive advantage, provides a general view of the firm, its competitors, and the firms enviroment
Term
product differentiation
Definition
product is similar across the marketplace
Term
efficient customer response program
Definition
directly links customer behavior to distribution and production and supply chains
Term
mass customization
Definition
the ability of offer individually tailored products or services using the same production resources as mass production
Term
switching costs
Definition
the cost of switching from one product to a competing product
Term
value chain model
Definition
highlights specific activities in the business where competitive strategies can be best applied and where information systems are most likely to have a strategic impact
Term
primary activities
Definition
are most directly related to the production and distribution of the firms products and services which create value for the customer
Term
support activities
Definition
make the delivery of the primary activities possible and consist of organization infrastructure, human resources, technology, and procurement
Term
benchmarking
Definition
comparing the efficiency and effectiveness of your business processes against strict standards and then measuring performance against those standards
Term
best practices
Definition
are usually identified by consulting companies, research organizations, government agencies, and industry associations as the most successful solutions or problem solving methods for consistently and effectively achieving a business objective
Term
value web
Definition
a collection of independent firms that use information technology for a market collectively
Term
core competency
Definition
is an activity for which a firm is a world class leader
Term
network economics
Definition
a networking view to economics
Term
virtual company
Definition
uses networks to link people, assets, and ideas, enabling it to ally with other companies to create and distribute products and services without being limited by traditional organizational boundaries or physical locations
Term
business ecosystem
Definition
loosely coupled by interdependent networks of suppliers, distributors, outsourcing firms, transportation service firms and technology manufacturers
Term
strategic transitions
Definition
a movement between levels of sociotechnical systems