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Invitation to Psychology- Wade & Travis
Chapter One- What is Psychology?
23
Psychology
04/28/2010

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Term
Psychology
Definition
The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment; often represented by the Greek letter psi
Term
Empirical
Definition
Relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement
Term
Pseudoscience
Definition
pseudo means 'false'
Term
Phrenology
Definition
The now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality trains, which can be 'read' from bumps on the skull
Term
Wilhelm Wundt
Definition
1832-1920
trained introspection
credited for formally initiating the movement to make psychology a science
Term
Trained introspection
Definition
volunteers were taught to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations, metal images, and emotional reactions.
Rejected as too subjective.
Term
Functionalism
Definition
psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness
Term
Psychological Perspectives
Definition
Biological
Learning
Cognitive
Sociocultural
Pyschodynamic
Term
Biological Perspective
Definition
bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
Term
Evolutionary psychology
Definition
Evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior
Term
Learning Perspective
Definition
Environment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories
Term
Cognitive Perspective
Definition
Mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior
Term
Sociocultural Perspective
Definition
Social and cultural influences on behavior
Term
Psychodynamic Perspective
Definition
Unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual engery
Term
Humanist Psychology
Definition
Free will, personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential
Term
Basic Psychology
Definition
Study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application
-'How does peer pressure influence people's attitudes and behavior?'
Term
Applied Psychology
Definition
Study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings
-'How can knowledge about peer pressure be used to reduce binge drinking in colleges?'
Term
Critical Thinking
Definition
Ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote
Term
Hypothesis
Definition
Statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relationships among events or variables and are empirically tested
Term
Operational Definition
Definition
Precise definition of a term in a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being defined
Term
Principle of falsifiability
Definition
Scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation
Term
Theory
Definition
Organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships
Term
Case Study
Definition
Detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated