Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Intro To Sociology Quiz #2
quiz #2
56
Sociology
10/23/2006

Additional Sociology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
macro-level analysis
Definition
an examination of large-scale patterns of society
Term
micro-level analysis
Definition
an examination of small-scale patterns of society
Term
master status
Definition
a status that cuts across the other statuses that an individual occupies
Term
status set
Definition
all the statuses or positions that an individual occupies
Term
status inconsistency
Definition
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others; also called status discrepancy
Term
group
Definition
people who have something in common and who believe that what they hae in common is significant; also called a social group
Term
dramaturgy
Definition
an approach pioneered by Erving Goffman in which social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the stage; also called dramatugical analysis
Term
status symbols
Definition
items used to identify a status
Term
achieved status
Definition
a position that is earned, is accomplished, or involces at least some effort or activity on the individual's part
Term
ascribed status
Definition
a position that an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life
Term
Gemeinschaft
Definition
a type of society in which life is intimate; a community in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness
Term
Gesellschaft
Definition
a type of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interest
Term
social construction of reality
Definition
the use of background assumptions and life experiences to define what is real
Term
ethnomethodology
Definition
the study of how people use background assumptions to make sense out of life
Term
role conflict
Definition
conflicts that someone feels 'between' roles because the expectations attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role
Term
role strain
Definition
conflicts that someone feels 'within' a role
Term
face-saving behavior
Definition
techniques used to salvage a performance that is going sour
Term
impression management
Definition
people's efforts to control the impressions that others receive of them
Term
teamwork
Definition
the collaboration of two or more people to manage impressions jointly
Term
Thomas theorem
Definition
William I. and Dorothy S. Thomas' classic formulation of the definition of the situation: "If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences"
Term
mechanical solidarity
Definition
Durkheim's term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
Term
organic solidarity
Definition
Durkheim's term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people needing others to fulfill their jobs
Term
primary group
Definition
a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation
Term
secondary group
Definition
compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity, whose members are likely to interact on the bases of specific roles
Term
reference group
Definition
Herbert Hyman's term for the groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves
Term
voluntary associations
Definition
a group of people who voluntarily organize on the basis of some mutual interest; also known as voluntary memberships
Term
iron law of oligarchy
Definition
Robert Michels' term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite
Term
social network
Definition
the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together
Term
bureaucracy
Definition
a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor; emphasis on written rules, communications, and records; and impersonality of positions
Term
(the) rationalization of society
Definition
a widespread acceptance of rationality (using measured, efficient means to reach objectives) and social organizations that are built largely around this idea
Term
corporate culture
Definition
the orientations that characterize corporate work settings
Term
in-groups
Definition
groups toward which one feels loyalty
Term
out-groups
Definition
groups toward which one feels antagonism
Term
alienation
Definition
1. Marx's term for workers' lack of connection to the product of their labor; caused by heir being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product- this leads to a sense of powerlessness and normlessness
2. refers to feelings of isolation, that you are not a part of something or that no one cares about you
Term
electronic community
Definition
individuals who interact regularly with one another on the Internet and who think of themselves as belonging together
Term
Max Weber
Definition
declared that sociology should be value-free. sociologists' values should not affect research
Term
leadership styles
Definition
ways in which people express their leadership
Term
groupthink
Definition
Irving Janis' term for a narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer, in which to even suggest alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty
Term
goal displacement
Definition
the adoption of new goals by an organization; also known as goal replacement
Term
the McDonaldization of society
Definition
the process by which ordinary aspects of life become rationalized and efficiency comes to rule them, including such things as food preparation
Term
deviance
Definition
the violation of rules or norms
Term
stigma
Definition
"blemishes" that discredit a person's claim to a "normal" identity
Term
social order
Definition
a group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they orientate their lives
Term
criminal justice system
Definition
the system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime
Term
street crime
Definition
crimes such as mugging, rape, and burglary
Term
white-collar crime
Definition
Edwin Sutherland's term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; examples include bribery of public officials, securities violations, embezzlement, false advertising, and price fixing
Term
illegitimate opportunity structure
Definition
opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life
Term
institutionalized means
Definition
approved ways of reaching cultural goals
Term
control theory
Definition
the idea that two control systems- inner controls and outer controls- work against our tendencies to deviate from norms
Term
labeling theory
Definition
the view, developed by symbolic interactionists, that the labels people are given affect their own and others' peceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior either into deviance or into conformity
Term
differential association
Definition
Edwin Sutherland's term to indicate that associating with some groups results in learning an "excess of definitions" of deviance and, by extension, in a greater likelihood that one will become deviant
Term
corporate crime
Definition
crimes committed by executives in order to benefit their corporation
Term
hate crime
Definition
crimes to which more severe penalties are attached because they are motivated by hatred (dislike, hostility) of someone's race-ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disavility, or national origin
Term
recidivism rate
Definition
the proportion of released convicts who are rearrested
Term
social control
Definition
a group's formal and informal means of enforrcing its norms
Term
medicalization of deviance
Definition
to make deviance a medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illnes that needs to be treated by physicians