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INTRO TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE
CHAPTERS 7,8,9,10,11,15
122
Criminology
12/09/2009

Additional Criminology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

How do most municipal police departments determine promotion eligibility?

a. Testing

b. Physical agility

c. Arrest performance

d. Time-in-rank

Definition
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 235 OBJ: 2 TOP: the police organization
Term

Who is the person with general administrative control over the police organization?

 

a. Captain

b. Chief

c. Lieutenant

 d. Sergeant

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 235 OBJ: 1 TOP: the police organization

Term

While police patrol has many objectives, most police experts agree that the majority of police patrol efforts are devoted to:

 

a. Crime fighting

b. Order maintenance

 c. Responding to emergencies

d. Deterring crime

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 238 OBJ: 4 TOP: patrol activities

Term

The goal of the Kansas City study was to evaluate:

 

a. The effectiveness of different patrol models

b. Use of force standards

c. Command and control structures

d. The time-in-rank system of promotion

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 239 OBJ: 4 TOP: does patrol deter crime?

Term

What was the principal finding of the Kansas City study?

 

a. The type of patrol model adopted has significant impact on crime

b. There is little evidence that police patrol deters crime c. Patrol techniques can have a significant impact on citizen's attitudes

d. Patrol techniques can significantly impact citizen's satisfaction with police

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 239 OBJ: 4 TOP: does patrol deter crime?

Term

Police stopping motorists to issue citations and aggressively arresting suspicious persons is an example of what type of policing?

 

a. Proactive

b. Neighborhood

c. Reactive

d. Community

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 240 OBJ: 5 TOP: improving patrol

Term

Aggressive patrol in New York City during the 1990s aimed at vandalism, panhandling and graffiti has been credited with a reduction in what type of crime?

 

 a. Prostitution

b. Violent crime

c. Drug dealing

d. Property crime

Definition
Term

The Kansas City Gun Experiment was an example of:

 

a. Neighborhood-oriented policing

b. Community policing

c. Reactive patrolling

d. A police crackdown targeting a specific type of crime problem

Definition

 

ANS: D

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 242 OBJ: 5 TOP: improving patrol

Term

Which of the following has been shown to improve the effectiveness of patrol?

 

a. Aggressive patrol

b. Targeting specific crimes

c. Making more arrests

d. All of these

Definition

 

ANS: D

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 242 OBJ: 5 TOP: improving patrol

Term

The vice squad specializes in:

 

a. Violent crime

b. Property crime

c. Victimless crime

d. Drug crime

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 244 OBJ: 6 TOP: investigation function

Term

What term is used to describe organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly committing illegal acts or conspiring to engage in criminal activity?

 

a. Detective bureau

b. Sting operations

c. Vice squad

d. Proactive patrol

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

 PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 246 OBJ: 6 TOP: investigation function

Term

Community-oriented policing links police effectiveness to:

 

a. Productive interaction with the community being served

b. Interrelationships between cooperative police agencies

 c. Efficient utilization of existing personnel

d. Optimized usage of advanced technology

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 252 OBJ: 7 TOP: community policing

Term

The first experiments in community-oriented policing involved:

 

a. Decentralized, neighborhood-based precincts

b. Storefront mini-stations

c. Streamlining in the number of ranks in a department

 d. Foot patrol

Definition

 

ANS: D

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 253 OBJ: 7 TOP: implementing community policing

Term

What have evaluations of foot patrol programs in New Jersey and Michigan shown?

 

 a. The crime rate went down in foot patrol beats.

 b. The crime rate went up in foot patrol beats.

c. Officer job satisfaction increased.

d. Citizen attitudes toward the police improved.

Definition

 

ANS: D

 

 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 253 OBJ: 7 TOP: implementing community policing

Term

The concept of hot spots of crime is most closely associated with which model of policing?

 

a. Community-oriented policing (COP)

b. Neighborhood oriented policing (NOP)

c. Problem-oriented policing (POP)

d. Police-community relations (PCR)

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 257 OBJ: 9 TOP: problem-oriented policing

Term

What police support unit is responsible for investigating allegations of police misconduct?

 

a. Internal affairs

b. Personnel services

c. Civilian review boards

d. Field-training offices

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 259 OBJ: 10 TOP: support functions

Term
community-oriented policing (COP
Definition
community-oriented policing (COP programs designed to bring police and the public closer together and create a more coop-erative working environment between them
Term
hot spots of crime
Definition
hot spots of crime -the view that a significant portion of all police calls in metropolitan areas typically radiate from a relatively few locations: bars, malls, the bus depot, hotels, and certain apartment buildings
Term
neighborhood-oriented policing (NOP)
Definition
neighborhood-oriented policing (NOP) -a philosophy of police suggesting that problem solving is best done at the neighborhood level, where issues originate, not at a far-off central headquarters
Term
proactive policing
Definition
proactive policing an aggressive law enforcement style in which patrol officers take the initiative against crime instead of waiting for criminal acts to occur. For example, they stop motor vehicles to issue citations and aggressively arrest and detain suspicious persons
Term
problem-oriented policing (POP)
Definition
problem-oriented policing (POP)
-a style of police management that stresses proactive problem solving instead of reactive crime fighting
Term

The term "blue curtain" describes:

 

a. Police reluctance to express personal feelings to each other

b. The police practice of shrouding the windows and doors of the briefing room when confidential information is disseminated at roll call

c. The secrecy and insulation from others in society that is a consequence of the police subculture

d. The cloth used to drape the coffins of slain police officers

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 277 OBJ: 4 TOP: police culture

Term

Which of the following traits is said to be found at all levels of policing?

 

a. Anger

b. Racism

c. Dogmatism

d. Cynicism

Definition

 

ANS: D

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 278 OBJ: 5 TOP: police personality

Term

Which of the following perspectives on the police personality has been supported by research?

 

a. Police officers tend to be rigid and cynical

b. Police officers value personality traits such as flexibility and emotion

c. Police officers are less depressed and anxious than the general population

d. All of these

Definition

 

ANS: D

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 278 OBJ: 5 TOP: police personality

Term

An officer that approaches a group of teenagers drinking beer, checks everyone's ID, and arrests all who are underage would typify which style of policing?

 

a. Crime fighter

b. Social agent

c. Law enforcer

d. Watchman

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 279 OBJ: 6 TOP: police style

Term

An officer that approaches a group of teenagers standing in a parking lot, checks them for gang symbols, and calls into the station to ascertain if any of them have active warrants exemplifies which style of policing?

 

a. Crime fighter

b. Social agent

c. Law enforcer

d. Watchman

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 279 OBJ: 6 TOP: police style

Term

Which police style involves problem-solving and is therefore well suited for community policing?

 

a. Crime fighter

b. Social agent

c. Law enforcer

d. Watchman

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 279 OBJ: 6 TOP: police style

Term

Which police style is associated with the preference to ignore issues of concern or treat them informally, unless the social or political order is being jeopardized?

 

a. Crime fighter

b. Social agent

c. Law enforcer

d. Watchman

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 279 OBJ: 6 TOP: police style

Term

In which of the following situations would a police officer exercise the greatest amount of discretion?

 

a. Homicide

b. Traffic stop

c. Aggravated assault

d. Hostage situation

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 281 OBJ: 7 TOP: police discretion

Term

Which of the following factors is most likely to foster individual discretion on the part of officers within a department?

 

a. Large department size

b. A high ratio of sergeants to patrol officers

c. Supervisors who spend time mentoring and coaching d. Written guidelines

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 283 OBJ: 7 TOP: police discretion

Term

Court decisions that limit police discretion are an example of a(n):

 

a. External stressor

b. Organizational stressor

c. Duty stressor

d. Individual stressor

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 288 OBJ: 8 TOP: job stress

Term

The inconvenience and physical strains that come from rotating shift work are both examples of:

 

a. External stressors

b. Organizational stressors

c. Duty stressors

d. Individual stressors

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 288 OBJ: 8 TOP: job stress

Term

What U.S. Supreme Court decision set forth the “reasonable officer” standard for police use of deadly force?

a. Williams v New York

 b. Graham v. Connor

 c. Sherman v. California

 d. Tennessee v. Garner

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 300 OBJ: 10 TOP: deadly force

Term

What is the lowest level of reasonable officer response mapped out in the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center's use-of-force model?

 

a. Contact controls

b. Verbal commands

c. Compliance techniques

d. Defensive tactics

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 300 OBJ: 10 TOP: deadly force

Term

Which of the following did the Knapp Commission conclude in its investigation of corruption within the NYPD during the 1970s?

a. The majority of police engaged in corruption were passively corrupt, accepting payoffs when they were solicited by the public.

b. The majority of police engaged in corruption were actively corrupt, using their status as law enforcement to demand payoffs.

c. The majority of corrupt police were engaged in drug dealing.

d. The majority of corrupt police were engaged in violence.

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 293 OBJ: 9 TOP: police corruption

Term
White policewomen are more likely to perceive sexual discrimination than African American policewomen.
Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 293 OBJ: 9 TOP: police corruption

Term
The consideration of a suspect's gender is considered an extralegal discretionary factor.
Definition

 

. ANS: T

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 281 OBJ: 7 TOP: police discretion

Term
accountability system-
Definition
accountability system- a system that makes police supervisors responsible for the behavior of the officers in their command
Term
blue curtain
Definition
blue curtain the secretive, insulated police culture that isolates officers from the rest of society
Term
Cynicism
Definition
Cynicism the belief that most people's actions are motivated solely by personal needs and selfishness
Term
Discretion
Definition
Discretion the use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in the criminal justice system
Term
double marginality
Definition
double marginality according to Nicholas Alex, the social burden that African American police officers carry by being both minority-group members and law enforcement officers
Term
Most departments promote police personnel according to the ____________________ system
Definition

 

ANS: time-in-rank

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 235 OBJ: 2 TOP: police organization

Term
Aggressive patrol is a tactic employed as part of an overall philosophy of ____________________ policing.
Definition

 

ANS: proactive

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 252 OBJ: 7 TOP: elements of community policing

Term
A(n) ____________________ is an operation designed to encourage and observe criminal behavior so the officers can make an arrest
Definition

 

ANS: sting

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 246 OBJ: 6 TOP: sting operations

Term
Organized citizen groups that examine police misconduct are termed ____________________.
Definition

 

ANS: civilian review boards

 

 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 260 OBJ: 10 TOP: support functions

Term
College degrees may have little direct impact on promotion potential for police officers.
Definition

 

ANS: T

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 234 OBJ: 1 TOP: police organization

Term
Detective divisions are typically organized into sections or bureaus.
Definition

 

ANS: T

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 244 OBJ: 6 TOP: the investigation function

Term

Which term describes the experience of black officers who must deal with the expectation that they will give members of their own race a break, while at the same time experiencing overt racism from their police colleagues?

a. The black curtain

b. Double marginality

c. Ethnic role strain

d. Toxic race relations

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 272 OBJ: 3 TOP: minority police officers

Term

Which of the following factors is most likely to foster individual discretion on the part of officers within a department?

a. Large department size

b. A high ratio of sergeants to patrol officers

c. Supervisors who spend time mentoring and coaching d. Written guidelines

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 283 OBJ: 7 TOP: police discretion

Term

What does research indicate is the most important determinant of police response in police use-of-force incidents?

a. Suspect age

 b. Suspect race

c. Suspect behavior

d. Alleged crime committed

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 291 OBJ: 9 TOP: violence and brutality

Term

The phrase "being on the pad" is associated with which category of police corruption?

a. Internal corruption

b. Bribery and extortion

c. Active criminality

d. Selective enforcement or nonenforcement

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 294 OBJ: 9 TOP: police corruption

Term
The ____________________ style of policing is characterized by an emphasis on maintaining public order.
Definition

 

ANS: watchman

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 279 OBJ: 6 TOP: police style

Term
The ____________________ rule is the oldest standard relating to the use of deadly force, dating back to English Common Law.
Definition

 

ANS: fleeing felon

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 300 OBJ: 10 TOP: deadly force

Term
In the case Tennessee v. Garner, the U.S. Supreme Court deemed the use of deadly force against an unarmed, nondangerous fleeing felon to be a violation of the ____________________ Amendment.
Definition

 

ANS: Fourth

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 300 OBJ: 10 TOP: deadly force

Term
 beats
Definition
* beats-designated police patrol areas
Term
 broken windows model-role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety
Definition
* broken windows model-role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety
Term
* internal affairs-
Definition
* internal affairs-unit that investigates allegations of police misconduct
Term
*procedural justice-
Definition
*procedural justice-a concern with making decision that are arrived at through procedures that are viewed as being fair
Term
*corruption
Definition
*corruption-exercising legitimate discretion for improper reasons or pursuing illegal means to achieve approved goals
Term
* deadly force
Definition
* deadly force-police killing of a suspect who resists arrest or presents a danger to an officer or the community
Term
* Knapp Commission
Definition
* Knapp Commission-a public body that conducted an investigation into police corruption in New York City in the early 1970s and uncovered a widespread network of payoffs and bribes
Term
* police brutality
Definition
* police brutality-actions such as using abusive language, making threats, using force or coercion unnecessarily, prodding with nightsticks, and stopping and searching people to harass
Term
* booking-
Definition
* booking-the administrative record of an arrest listing the offender's name, address, physical description, date of birth, employer, time of arrest, offense, and name of arresting officer; it also includes photographing and fingerprinting of the offender
Term
* lineup
Definition
* lineup-placing a suspect in a group for the purpose of being viewed and identified by a witness
Term
* stop and frisk
Definition
* stop and frisk-the situation in which police officers who are suspicious of an individual run their hands lightly over the suspect's outer garments to determine if the person is carrying a concealed weapon—also called a threshold inquiry or pat-down
Term
appellate courts
Definition
appellate courts-courts that reconsider cases that have already been tried to determine whether the lower court proceedings complied with accepted rules of criminal procedure and constitutional doctrines
Term
court of last resort
Definition
court of last resort-a court that handles the final appeal on a matter—in the federal system, the U.S. Supreme Court
Term
* courts of general jurisdiction
Definition
* courts of general jurisdiction-courts that try felony cases and more serious civil matters
Term
* courts of limited jurisdiction-
Definition
* courts of limited jurisdiction-courts that handle misdemeanors and minor civil complaints
Term
*U.S. Court of Appeals-
Definition
*U.S. Court of Appeals-an appellate court in the federal court system
Term
*U.S. District Court-
Definition
*U.S. District Court-a trial court in the federal court system
Term
*U.S. Supreme Court
Definition
*U.S. Supreme Court-the highest appellate court in the United States
Term
defense attorney
Definition
defense attorney-legal counsel for the defendant in a criminal case, representing the accused person from arrest to final appeal
Term
* district attorney
Definition
* district attorney-the county prosecutor who is charged with bringing offenders to justice and enforcing the criminal laws of the state
Term
grand jury
Definition
grand jury-a group of citizens chosen to hear charges against persons accused of crime and to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the persons to trial
Term
prosecutor
Definition
prosecutor-the public official who presents the government's case against a person accused of a crime
Term
public defender
Definition
public defender-an attorney employed by the government to represent criminal defendants who cannot afford to pay for a lawyer
Term
community service restitution-
Definition
community service restitution-criminal sanction that requires the offender to work in the community at such tasks as cleaning public parks or helping handicapped children as an alternative to incarceration
Term
electronic monitoring (EM)-
Definition
electronic monitoring (EM)-electronic equipment that enables probation officers to monitor the location of those under house arrest or other forms of supervision
Term
forfeiture-
Definition
forfeiture-the seizure of personal property by the state as a civil or criminal penalty
Term
intensive probation supervision (IPS)-
Definition
intensive probation supervision (IPS)-a type of intermediate sanction involving small probation caseloads and strict daily or weekly monitoring
Term
* intermediate sanctions-
Definition
* intermediate sanctions-a group of punishments falling between probation and prison; community-based sanctions including house arrest and intensive supervision
Term
risk classification-
Definition
risk classification-assigning probationers to a level and type of supervision based on their particular needs and the risks they pose for the community
Term

Prosecution of physician-assisted suicide, violence against the elderly, and cases in which pregnant women are known drug abusers are all examples of what role assumed by local prosecutors?

 

a. Investigators of private morality

b. Defenders of the public trust

c. Protectors of the public health

d. Maintainers of the nation's values

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

 PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 389 OBJ: 1 TOP: priority prosecution

Term

The prosecutor's title, such as district attorney or U.S. attorney, depends on:

 

a. Whether they are elected or appointed officials

b. What area of the country they work in

c. The level of government and the jurisdiction they serve

d. The personal choice of the chief prosecutor

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 387 OBJ: 2 TOP: types of prosecutors

Term

The term community prosecution refers to:

 

a. A prosecutorial philosophy that emphasizes community support and cooperation

b. The practice of opening prosecutor's offices in neighborhood police substations

c. The practice of prosecuting minor crimes occurring in a community

d. A prosecutorial philosophy swiftly prosecutes dangerous offenders who commit a high proportion of the crimes in a community

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 393 OBJ: 2 TOP: the prosecutor within society

Term

All evidence points to the conclusion that prosecutorial discretion is used to:

 

a. Influence judicial decision making in the sentencing stage

b. Influence who gets re-elected to judgeships

c. Screen out the weakest cases

d. Achieve the most efficient case processing in terms of severity of sentence

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 394 OBJ: 3 TOP: prosecutorial discretion

Term

Which of the following is the most common reason cases are rejected by prosecutors?

 

a. Due process problems

b. Arrest problems

c. Evidence problems

d. Interest of justice problems

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 393 OBJ: 3 TOP: prosecutorial discretion

Term

Prosecutorial discretion is used to:

 

a. Reduce the number of cases that go to trial

b. Help the charging decision

c. Punish offenders

d. Impose indictment in the state court process

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 393 OBJ: 3 TOP: prosecutorial discretion

Term

Which of the following may cause a case to be dismissed?

 

a. Inefficient evidence

b. Interest of justice

c. Due process problems

d. All these

Definition

 

ANS: D

 

 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 393 OBJ: 3 TOP: prosecutorial discretion

Term

Who is the counterpart of the prosecuting attorney in the adversarial system?

 

a. The judge

b. The defendant

c. The defense attorney

d. The arresting officer

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 400 OBJ: 6 TOP: the defense attorney

Term

A public defender is assigned by the:

 

a. Prosecutor

b. Jury

c. Court

d. Clerk of the court

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 404 OBJ: 6 TOP: the defense attorney

Term

The right to counsel begins at which point of the criminal process?

 

a. When a suspect is interrogated

b. When a suspect is booked

c. When charges are brought

d. When a prosecutor takes the case

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 403 OBJ: 8 TOP: the right to counsel

Term

Which case established that procedural safeguards, including the right to counsel, must be followed at custodial interrogation to secure the privilege against self-incrimination?

 

a. Gideon v. Wainwright

b. Miranda v. Arizona

 c. United States v. Wade

d. Coleman v. Alabama

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 403 OBJ: 8 TOP: the right to counsel

Term
Interviewing witnesses in a criminal case is one of the duties of the prosecutor
Definition

 

ANS: T

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 387 OBJ: 1 TOP: the duties of the prosecutor

Term
"District attorney" is usually the title given to the chief prosecutor for a county.
Definition

 

ANS: T

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 390 OBJ: 2 TOP: types of prosecutors

Term
The ethical duties of the prosecutor and defense attorney are outlined in the American Bar Association's ____________________.
Definition

 

ANS: Model Code of Professional Responsibility

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 386-387 OBJ: 1 TOP: the prosecutor

Term

John Augustus pioneered his work in which state?

 

a. Massachusetts

b. Missouri

c. Vermont

d. Michigan

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 533 OBJ: 2 TOP: history of probation

Term

What happens when probation is revoked?

 

a. The probation contract is terminated and the original sentence is imposed

b. The judgment is deferred until such time as the defendant is rehabilitated

c. The suspended sentence is held in abeyance and the defendant is subject to mandatory participation in a pretrial diversion program

d. The probation contract is extended and a prison term is imposed

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 533 OBJ: 4 TOP: why probation?

Term

Community corrections has traditionally emphasized:

 

a. Incapacitation

b. Rehabilitation

c. Retribution

d. Retaliation

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 556 OBJ: 9 TOP: advantages of intermediate sanctions

Term

What do judges generally rely on when determining financial penalties and fines?

 

a. The defendant's ability to pay

b. The seriousness of the offense

c. Whether or not the defendant was able to post bail d. The recommendation of the probation officer in the presentence investigation

Definition

 

ANS: B

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 549 OBJ: 9 TOP: fines

Term

Community service is an example of:

 

a. Forfeiture

b. Shock incarceration

c. Restitution

d. Intensive probation supervision

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 550 OBJ: 9 TOP: restitution

Term

Which intermediate sanction makes a jail term a condition of probation?

 

a. Shock probation

b. Intensive probation supervision

 c. Split sentencing

d. Residential community corrections

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 551 OBJ: 9 TOP: shock probation and split sentencing

Term
____________________ means that the probation contract is terminated and the original sentence is enforced.
Definition

 

ANS: Revocation

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 533 OBJ: 4 TOP: why probation?

Term
A(n) ____________________ is a sentence of incarceration that is not carried out unless the offender disobeys the rules of probation while in the community.
Definition

 

ANS: suspended sentence

 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 535 OBJ: 4 TOP: awarding probation

Term
____________________ is when the offender must pay the victim or community back for damages.
Definition

 

 

ANS: Restitution

 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 550 OBJ: 9 TOP: restitution

Term
____________________ probation involves resentencing an offender to probation after a short prison stay.
Definition

 

 

ANS: Shock

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 551 OBJ: 4 TOP: shock probation and split sentencing

Term
Courts have supported the imposition of conditions on probation as long as they are reasonable.
Definition

 

 

ANS: T

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 535 OBJ: 7 TOP: legal rights of probationers

Term

24. Of these choice, which is the most punitive alternative on the punishment ladder?

 

a. Residential community center

b. Pretrial release

 c. Restitution

d. House arrest

Definition

 

ANS: A

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 548 OBJ: 9 TOP: advantages of intermediate sanctions

Term

Which duty involves evaluating the probationer based on information from the initial intake or presentence investigation?

 

a. Investigation

b. Intake

c. Diagnosis

d. Treatment supervision

Definition

 

ANS: C

 

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: p. 539 OBJ: 5 TOP: duties of probation officers

Term
foot patrol-
Definition
foot patrol-police patrol that takes officers out of cars and puts them on a walking beat to strengthen ties with the community
Term
order maintenance (peacekeeping)-
Definition
order maintenance (peacekeeping)-maintaining order and authority without the need for formal arrest; "handling the situation"; keeping things under control by means of threats, persuasion, and understanding

Term
excited delirium-
Definition
excited delirium-an overdose of adrenaline that can occur in heated confrontations with the police
Term
overload hypothesis-
Definition
overload hypothesis-the theory that police workload influences discretion so that as workload increases, less time and attention can be devoted to new cases, especially petty crimes

Term
fruit of the poisonous tree-
Definition
fruit of the poisonous tree-secondary evidence obtained from a search that violates the exclusionary rule
Term
cartilage-
Definition
cartilage-grounds or fields attached to a house
Term
Missouri Plan-
Definition
Missouri Plan-a method of judicial selection that combines a judicial nominating commission, executive appointment, and nonpartisan confirmation elections
Term
rule of four-
Definition
rule of four-the convention that four justices must agree to hear a case before a writ of certiorari will be issued
Term
pro bono-
Definition
pro bono-the practice by private attorneys of taking the cases of indigent offenders without fee as a service to the profession and the community
Term
* zero tolerance-
Definition
* zero tolerance-a practice in which criminal defendants forfeit homes, cars, and so on for the slightest law violation
Term
* presentence investigation-
Definition
* presentence investigation-a postconviction investigation, performed by a probation officer attached to the trial court, of the defendant's background, education, employment, family, acquaintances, physical and mental health, prior criminal record, and other factors that may affect sentencing