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INTRO TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE
CHAPTERS 1-6 REVIEW
122
Criminology
10/18/2009

Additional Criminology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Which of the following would be the most accurate response to a comment that crime is a contemporary problem?

a. Crime is not a contemporary problem; it has been evolving as the nation has evolved.

 b. Crime rates today are higher than they were when this country was emerging as a nation.

c. In a historical sense, crime peaked during Civil War times and has been diminishing since that era.

d. Crime today is comparable to the lawlessness of the Old West.

Definition
Crime is not a contemporary problem; it has been evolving as the nation has evolved - page 4
Term

Who was the 18th-century social philosopher who argued against the use of torture and capital punishment?

a. James Q. Wilson

b. Sir Robert Peel

c. Cesare Beccaria

d. Ulysses S. Grant

Definition
c. Cesare Beccaria - page 6
Term

What commission, appointed by President Herbert Hoover, made a detailed analysis of the U.S. justice system and helped usher in the era of treatment and rehabilitation?

a. Chicago Crime Commission

 b. American Bar Foundation Commission

c. Wickersham Commission

d. President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice

Definition
c. Wickersham Commission - PAGE 6
Term

The use of the term criminal justice system reflected a view that justice agencies could be connected in an intricate yet often unobserved network of decision-making processes. When was the term criminal justice system first used?

a. After the findings of the Chicago Crime Commission

b. After the findings of the American Bar Foundation project

c. After the findings of the Wickersham Commission

d. After the findings of the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice

Definition
b. After the findings of the American Bar Foundation project PAGE 6
Term

What are the three main components into which the contemporary criminal justice system is generally divided?

a. Law enforcement, the courts, and the legislature

b. The courts, the correctional system, and the legislature

c. Law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system

d. Law enforcement, the correctional system, and the legislature

Definition
c. Law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system PAGE 8
Term

Most police officer jobs are found at what level?

 

a. Local

b. State

c. Federal

 d. An equal number of jobs are found at the local, state, and federal levels

Definition
a. Local PAGE 10
Term

Which of the following is not an element of the correctional system?

a. Probation

 b. Parole

c. Courts

d. Jail

Definition
c. Courts PAGE 11
Term

Which of the following crimes would be placed in the top layer (Layer I) of the criminal justice "wedding cake"?

a. A noted celebrity is arrested for shooting her bodyguard

b. A burglary occurs at a local bar

c. An individual is arrested for public drunkenness d. A first-time offender assaults a friend

Definition
a. A noted celebrity is arrested for shooting her bodyguard PAGE 21-23
Term

First time offenders typically commit crimes considered Level _____ of the “wedding cake.”

 

a. I

b. II

c. III

d. IV

Definition
c. III PAGE 21-23
Term

Which justice perspective holds that the proper role of the justice system is to prevent crime through the judicious use of criminal sanctions, and demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law?

 

a. Crime control

b. Rehabilitation

c. Due process

d. Justice

Definition
a. Crime control PAGE 23-25
Term

Which of the following justice perspectives sees the justice system as a mechanism of caring for and treating people who cannot manage themselves, and assumes people are at the mercy of social, economic, and interpersonal conditions?

a. Crime control

b. Rehabilitation

c. Due process

d. Justice

Definition
b. Rehabilitation PAGE 25-26
Term

Which of the following justice perspectives holds that the greatest concern of the justice system should be providing fair and equitable treatment to those accused of committing a crime?

a. Crime control

b. Rehabilitation

c. Due process

d. Justice

Definition
c. Due process PAGE 25-26
Term

James Q. Wilson’s argument is characteristic of which justice perspective?

 

a. Due process

b. Crime control

c. Rehabilitation

d. Restorative justice

Definition
b. Crime control PAGE 23-25
Term

Ethical issues surface in all parts of the justice system. Why are ethical standards so important in criminal justice?

 

a. Without ethical decision making, it is possible that individual civil rights and liberties will suffer. b. Agents of the criminal justice system have access to citizens' most personal information, raising concerns of privacy and confidentiality.

c. Justice system personnel may work in an environment where moral ambiguity is widespread.

d. Ethical standards are important in the justice system for all these reasons.

Definition
d. Ethical standards are important in the justice system for all these reasons. PAGE 30-36
Term
The contemporary criminal justice system may be viewed as an instrument of social control.
Definition
TRUE - PAGE 8
Term
Ethical behavior is particularly important in law enforcement because police officers have the authority to deprive people of their liberty and use physical and even deadly force.
Definition
TRUE - PAGE 32 -33
Term
Criminal Justice System:
Definition
the various sequential stages through which offenders pass, from initial contact with the law to final disposition, and the agencies charged with enforcing the law at each of these stages
Term
Exclusionary rule:
Definition
the principle that prohibits using illegally obtained evidence in a trial
Term
LEAA:
Definition
agency funded by the federal Safe Streets and Crime Control Act of 1968 that provided technical assistance and hundreds of millions of dollars in aid to local and state justice agencies between 1969 and 1982
Term
Preliminary Hearing:
Definition
(probable cause hearing) – hearing before a magistrate to determine if the government has sufficient evidence to show probable cause that the defendant committed the crime
Term
Victimless Crime:
Definition
a crime typically involving behavior considered immoral or in violation of public decency that has no specific victim, such as public drunkenness, vagrancy, or public nudity
Term

Criminal law is structured to reflect the preferences of those who hold social power, according to which view of crime?

 

a. The conflict view

b. The interactionist view

 c. The consensus view

d. The constructionist view

Definition
b. The interactionist view PAGE 43-44
Term

Index crimes are a key unit of analysis in which of the following crime data sources?

 

a. National Crime Victimization Survey

b. Uniform Crime Reports

c. Monitoring the Future Survey

d. National Incident-Based Reporting System

Definition
b. Uniform Crime Reports PAGE 50-54
Term

Which federal agency oversees the Uniform Crime Reports?

 

a. U.S. Department of Justice

b. Federal Bureau of Investigation

 c. National Institute on Drug Abuse

d. Bureau of Justice Statistics

Definition
b. Federal Bureau of Investigation PAGE 50-54
Term

Which of the following is considered the most widely cited source of criminal statistics?

 

a. National Crime Victimization Surveys

b. National Indicators of Drug Abuse

c. Uniform Crime Reports

d. Bureau of Justice Statistics

Definition
c. Uniform Crime Reports PAGE 50-54
Term

Which of the following is the redesigned variation on the Uniform Crime Reports that focuses on an expanded list of forty-six crimes, including emerging issues such as hate or bias crimes?

 

a. National Crime Victimization Survey

b. Uniform Crime Reports Revised

c. Monitoring the Future Survey

d. National Incident-Based Reporting System

Definition
d. National Incident-Based Reporting System PAGE 55
Term

What agency prepares the National Crime Victimization Survey?

 

a. Drug Enforcement Agency

b. Bureau of Justice Statistics

c. Central Intelligence Agency

d. Federal Bureau of Investigation

Definition
b. Bureau of Justice Statistics PAGE 55-57
Term

Which data source relies on a multi-stage sample of housing units to collect information about citizen's encounters with criminals?

 

a. National Crime Victimization Survey

b. Uniform Crime Reports

c. Monitoring the Future Survey

d. National Incident-Based Reporting System

Definition
a. National Crime Victimization Survey PAGE 55-57
Term

Information obtained from interviews and questionnaires with high school students would be classified as which of the following types of data?

 

a. Official

b. Victimization

c. Self-report

d. Observational

Definition
c. Self-report PAGE 57
Term

In which season of the year does the greatest number of reported crimes occur?

 

a. Summer

 b. Fall

c. Spring

d. Winter

Definition
a. Summer PAGE 67
Term

Which region has the highest property and violent crime rates?

 

a. Northeast

b. Midwest

c. South

d. West

Definition
c. South PAGE 67
Term

A rehabilitation advocate would argue that _____ is the key to reducing crime.

 

a. punishment

b. swift arrest

c. opportunity

d. due process

Definition
c. opportunity PAGE 70
Term

Which of the following is a theory that suggests that the traditionally lower crime rate for women can be explained by their second-class economic and social position?

 

a. Masculinity theory

b. Liberal feminist theory

c. Chivalry theory

d. Radical Marxian theory

Definition
b. Liberal feminist theory PAGE 72-73
Term
Apparent increases in crime rates in the UCR may actually reflect changes in the way the police record their data
Definition
TRUE PAGE 53-54
Term
The National Crime Victimization Survey found that less than half of all violent crimes are reported to the police.
Definition
TRUE - PAGE 55
Term
The availability of legalized abortion is one factor that been offered as a possible explanation for the drop in crime rates.
Definition
TRUE PAGE 60
Term
The Philadelphia Birth Cohort study found that arrest and court appearances did little to deter chronic offenders.
Definition
TRUE - PAGE 78
Term
Expressive Crimes
Definition
criminal acts that serve to vent rage, anger, or frustration
Term
Hate Crimes:
Definition
criminal acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group targeted because of their racial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristics
Term
Instrumental Crimes:
Definition
– criminal acts intended to improve the financial or social position of the criminal
Term
Public Order Crimes:
Definition
behaviors considered illegal because they run counter to existing moral standards. Obscenity and prostitution are considered public order crimes
Term
UCR:
Definition
the official crime data collected by the FBI from local police departments
Term

Proponents of choice theory argue that criminals commit crimes based on:

 

a. Free will

b. Intelligence

c. Peer pressure

d. A drive to succeed

Definition

Proponents of choice theory argue that criminals commit crimes based on:

 

a. Free will

b. Intelligence

c. Peer pressure

d. A drive to succeed

 

a. Free will - PAGE 92

Term

According to the principles of choice theory, in order for punishment to most effectively deter crime, it must meet what three conditions?

 

a. Swift, satisfactory and certain

b. Severe, certain and punitive

c. Severe, certain and swift

d. Intense, lasting and cumulative

Definition

According to the principles of choice theory, in order for punishment to most effectively deter crime, it must meet what three conditions?

 

a. Swift, satisfactory and certain

b. Severe, certain and punitive

c. Severe, certain and swift

d. Intense, lasting and cumulative

 

c. Severe, certain and swift - PAGE 93

Term

The idea that a potential criminal would fear punishment because they know of someone else who was punished is referred to as:

 

a. General deterrence

b. Specific deterrence

c. Routine activities theory

d. Situational crime prevention

Definition

The idea that a potential criminal would fear punishment because they know of someone else who was punished is referred to as:

 

a. General deterrence

b. Specific deterrence

c. Routine activities theory

d. Situational crime prevention a. General deterrence PAGE 93

Term

A situation in which a potential criminal remembers the harsh punishment she has previously suffered and decides not to commit a crime exemplifies which of the following?

 

a. General deterrence

b. Specific deterrence

c. Routine activities theory

d. Situational crime prevention

Definition

A situation in which a potential criminal remembers the harsh punishment she has previously suffered and decides not to commit a crime exemplifies which of the following?

 

a. General deterrence

b. Specific deterrence

c. Routine activities theory

d. Situational crime prevention

 

 b. Specific deterrence PAGE 95

Term

Which philosophy of punishment advocates severely punishing offenders in an attempt to convince them to permanently cease committing criminal acts?

 

a. Specific deterrence

b. Rehabilitation

c. Incapacitation

d. General deterrence

Definition

Which philosophy of punishment advocates severely punishing offenders in an attempt to convince them to permanently cease committing criminal acts?

 

a. Specific deterrence

b. Rehabilitation

c. Incapacitation

d. General deterrence

 

a. Specific deterrence PAGE 95

Term

Target hardening techniques are examples of which type of situational crime prevention tactic?

 

a. Increasing the effort needed to commit the crime

b. Increasing the risks of committing the crime

c. Reducing the rewards for committing the crime d. Inducing guilt or shame over the crime

Definition

Target hardening techniques are examples of which type of situational crime prevention tactic?

 

a. Increasing the effort needed to commit the crime

b. Increasing the risks of committing the crime

 c. Reducing the rewards for committing the crime d. Inducing guilt or shame over the crime

 

a. Increasing the effort needed to commit the crime - PAGE 96

Term

The origins of scientific criminology are usually traced to the research of:

 

a. Karl Marx

 b. Edwin Sutherland

c. Cesare Lombroso

d. Sigmund Freud

Definition

The origins of scientific criminology are usually traced to the research of:

 

a. Karl Marx

b. Edwin Sutherland

c. Cesare Lombroso

d. Sigmund Freud

 

c. Cesare Lombroso PAGE 98

Term

Which of the following crime theories focuses on a person’s bonds to society as a factor in preventing crime?

 

a. Social learning

b. Social disorganization

c. Choice

d. Social control

Definition

Which of the following crime theories focuses on a person’s bonds to society as a factor in preventing crime?

 

a. Social learning

b. Social disorganization

c. Choice

d. Social control

 

d. Social control PAGE 114

Term

Who is credited with the creation of psychodynamic theory?

 

a. Freud

b. Jung

c. Lewis

d. Trevanian

Definition

Who is credited with the creation of psychodynamic theory?

 

a. Freud

b. Jung

c. Lewis d

. Trevanian

 

a. Freud PAGE 101

Term

According to social learning theory, people become violent because they:

 

a. Model their behavior after others and have that behavior reinforced

b. Are born with a predisposition towards violence due to their genetics

c. Suffer damage to their egos and superegos at an early age

d. Have a mental disorder or illness

Definition

According to social learning theory, people become violent because they:

 

a. Model their behavior after others and have that behavior reinforced

b. Are born with a predisposition towards violence due to their genetics

c. Suffer damage to their egos and superegos at an early age

d. Have a mental disorder or illness

 

a. Model their behavior after others and have that behavior reinforced PAGE 103

Term

The origins of sociological criminology are usually traced to the pioneering work of:

 

a. Edwin Sutherland

b. Robert Merton

c. Emile Durkheim

d. Travis Hirschi

Definition

The origins of sociological criminology are usually traced to the pioneering work of:

 

a. Edwin Sutherland

b. Robert Merton

c. Emile Durkheim

d. Travis Hirschi

 

c. Emile Durkheim PAGE 107

Term

The theory that people who adopt the goals of society but lack the means to attain them will seek alternatives, such as crime, is suggested by which of the following views?

a. Strain theory

b. Social learning theory

c. Differential association theory

d. Self-control theory

Definition

The theory that people who adopt the goals of society but lack the means to attain them will seek alternatives, such as crime, is suggested by which of the following views?

 

a. Strain theory

b. Social learning theory

c. Differential association theory

d. Self-control theory

 

a. Strain theory PAGE 111

Term

The concept of secondary deviance is most closely associated with which type of sociological theory?

a. Labeling

 b. Conflict

c. Strain

d. Social disorganization

Definition

The concept of secondary deviance is most closely associated with which type of sociological theory?

a. Labeling

b. Conflict

c. Strain

d. Social disorganization

 

a. Labeling PAGE 115

Term

According to the views of latent trait theory, fluctuations in offending rates are caused by:

 

a. Varying criminal opportunities

b. Varying diet and mineral supplements patterns c. Changes in the elements of the social bond

d. Changes in the propensity to commit crime

Definition

According to the views of latent trait theory, fluctuations in offending rates are caused by:

 

a. Varying criminal opportunities

b. Varying diet and mineral supplements patterns c. Changes in the elements of the social bond

d. Changes in the propensity to commit crime

 

a. Varying criminal opportunities PAGE 118

Term

In their general theory of crime, Gottfredson and Hirschi argue that differences between individuals in the tendency to commit criminal acts stem from:

a. The level of relative deprivation in their immediate environment

b. Their level of self-control

c. The perceived value of social injustice in the community

d. Their tolerance for social strain

Definition

In their general theory of crime, Gottfredson and Hirschi argue that differences between individuals in the tendency to commit criminal acts stem from:

a. The level of relative deprivation in their immediate environment

b. Their level of self-control

c. The perceived value of social injustice in the community

d. Their tolerance for social strain

 

 b. Their level of self-control PAGE 118

Term

The “encouragement” of criminal activity is often referred to as:

 

a. Latent trait activation

b. Victim precipitation

c. Lifestyle theory

d. Cognitive abuse of the victim

Definition

The “encouragement” of criminal activity is often referred to as:

 

a. Latent trait activation

b. Victim precipitation

c. Lifestyle theory

d. Cognitive abuse of the victim

 

b. Victim precipitation PAGE 121

Term

What does lifestyle theory posit about victimization?

 

a. The victim invariably precipitates their own victimization

b. Victimization is a function of social strain and precipitation

 c. Crime is not a random event and the probability of a crime occurring is dependent on the activities of the victim

d. Victims are just as likely to become offenders as offenders are to become victims

Definition

What does lifestyle theory posit about victimization?

 

a. The victim invariably precipitates their own victimization

b. Victimization is a function of social strain and precipitation

c. Crime is not a random event and the probability of a crime occurring is dependent on the activities of the victim

d. Victims are just as likely to become offenders as offenders are to become victims

 

c. Crime is not a random event and the probability of a crime occurring is dependent on the activities of the victim PAGE 122

Term
Deterrent
Definition
Deterrent-preventing crime before it occurs by means of the threat of criminal sanctions
Term
General Deterrence
Definition
General Deterrence-a crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties
Term
Latent trait theories
Definition
Latent trait theories-a view that human behavior is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after, which influences and directs behavior
Term
Life course
Definition
Life course-the course of social and developmental changes through which an individual passes as he or she travels from birth through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and fi-nally old age
Term

What goals underlie the broad purposes of the criminal law?

a. Protecting individual liberties and promoting freedom

 b. Preventing and controlling unacceptable behavior and protecting citizens

c. Implementing and enacting the liberties set forth in the Bill of Rights

d. Enacting informal acts of moral censure for forbidden social acts

Definition

What goals underlie the broad purposes of the criminal law?

a. Protecting individual liberties and promoting freedom

b. Preventing and controlling unacceptable behavior and protecting citizens

c. Implementing and enacting the liberties set forth in the Bill of Rights

d. Enacting informal acts of moral censure for forbidden social acts

 

b. Preventing and controlling unacceptable behavior and protecting citizens PAGE 138

Term

Which of the early forms of judicial proceedings involved a determination of guilt based on the ability of the accused to withstand placing his hand in boiling water or holding a hot iron?

a. Trial by ordeal

b. Trial by combat

c. Trial by fire

d. Trial by jury

Definition

Which of the early forms of judicial proceedings involved a determination of guilt based on the ability of the accused to withstand placing his hand in boiling water or holding a hot iron?

a. Trial by ordeal

 b. Trial by combat

c. Trial by fire

d. Trial by jury

 

a. Trial by ordeal PAGE 139

Term

In general, what branch of government is responsible for adding, removing, or modifying criminal statutes?

 

a. Judiciary

b. Executive

c. Media

d. Legislature

Definition

In general, what branch of government is responsible for adding, removing, or modifying criminal statutes?

 

a. Judiciary

b. Executive

c. Media

d. Legislature

 

d. Legislature PAGE 141

Term

Regardless of its source, all criminal laws in the U.S. must conform to the rules and dictates of the:

a. U.S. Supreme Court

b. Office of the Presidency

c. United States Senate

d. U.S. Constitution

Definition

Regardless of its source, all criminal laws in the U.S. must conform to the rules and dictates of the:

a. U.S. Supreme Court

b. Office of the Presidency

c. United States Senate

d. U.S. Constitution

 

d. U.S. Constitution PAGE 142

Term

The term actus reus refers to the:

 

a. Measurement of mental ability

b. Exclusion of omission

 c. Guilty person

d. Guilty act

Definition

The term actus reus refers to the:

 

a. Measurement of mental ability

b. Exclusion of omission

c. Guilty person

d. Guilty act

 

d. Guilty act PAGE 146

Term

Criminal negligence is a form of:

 

a. Stare decisis

b. Mala in se

c. Mens rea

d. Actus reus

Definition

Criminal negligence is a form of:

 

a. Stare decisis

b. Mala in se

c. Mens rea

d. Actus reus

 

c. Mens rea PAGE 147

Term

The individual's state of mind or intent to commit a crime is formally referred to as:

 

a. Stare decisis

b. Mala in se

c. Mens rea

d. Actus reus

Definition

The individual's state of mind or intent to commit a crime is formally referred to as:

 

a. Stare decisis

b. Mala in se

c. Mens rea

d. Actus reus

 

c. Mens rea PAGE 147

Term

When a person's careless and inattentive actions cause harm, it is called:

a. Recklessness

b. Criminal negligence

c. Malice

d. Negligence

Definition

When a person's careless and inattentive actions cause harm, it is called:

 

a. Recklessness

b. Criminal negligence

c. Malice

d. Negligence

 

b. Criminal negligence PAGE 148

Term

Narcotics control laws, health and safety regulations, and sanitation laws are examples of which legal principle?

a. Recklessness

b. Criminal negligence

c. Malice

d. Strict liability

Definition

Narcotics control laws, health and safety regulations, and sanitation laws are examples of which legal principle?

a. Recklessness

b. Criminal negligence

c. Malice

d. Strict liability

 

d. Strict liability PAGE 148

Term

The defense of mistake ultimately rests on proving:

 

a. Presumption of guilt

b. Lack of intent

c. Existence of extenuating circumstances

d. Post facto affirmative presumption of innocence due to entrapment

Definition

The defense of mistake ultimately rests on proving:

 

a. Presumption of guilt

b. Lack of intent

c. Existence of extenuating circumstances

d. Post facto affirmative presumption of innocence due to entrapment

 

b. Lack of intent PAGE 151

Term

The effect of intoxication upon criminal liability depends on:

a. The type of intoxicant used

b. Whether the defendant voluntarily becomes intoxicated by using drugs or alcohol

c. When the consumption of intoxicant began prior to the crime

d. Whether the defendant has prior convictions

Definition

The effect of intoxication upon criminal liability depends on:

a. The type of intoxicant used

b. Whether the defendant voluntarily becomes intoxicated by using drugs or alcohol

c. When the consumption of intoxicant began prior to the crime

d. Whether the defendant has prior convictions

 

 b. Whether the defendant voluntarily becomes intoxicated by using drugs or alcohol PAGE 152

Term

Insanity, intoxication, and age are examples of:

 

a. Legal defenses used to negate the required proof of mens rea

b. Legal defenses that negate the required proof of actus reus

c. Examples of defenses based on double jeopardy

d. Legal defenses based on a presumption of conclusive incapacitation

Definition

Insanity, intoxication, and age are examples of:

 

a. Legal defenses used to negate the required proof of mens rea

b. Legal defenses that negate the required proof of actus reus

c. Examples of defenses based on double jeopardy

d. Legal defenses based on a presumption of conclusive incapacitation

 

a. Legal defenses used to negate the required proof of mens rea PAGE 151-153

Term

Which is the name for the legal defense that states law enforcement agents used decoys and deception to induce criminal action?

 

a. Insanity

b. Double jeopardy

c. Compulsion

d. Entrapment

Definition

Which is the name for the legal defense that states law enforcement agents used decoys and deception to induce criminal action?

 

a. Insanity

b. Double jeopardy

c. Compulsion

d. Entrapment

 

d. Entrapment PAGE 153

Term

Statutory rape is an example of a crime that conclusively negates the use of what excuse?

 

a. Insanity

 b. Entrapment

c. Consent

d. Necessity

Definition

Statutory rape is an example of a crime that conclusively negates the use of what excuse?

 

a. Insanity

b. Entrapment

c. Consent

d. Necessity

 

c. Consent PAGE 154

Term

The traditional legal position that a person must retreat before reacting to a threat with physical violence anywhere other than outside his own residence is referred to as the:

 

a. Castle exception

b. Stand your ground rule

c. Self-defense doctrine

d. Home retreat waiver

Definition

The traditional legal position that a person must retreat before reacting to a threat with physical violence anywhere other than outside his own residence is referred to as the:

a. Castle exception

b. Stand your ground rule

c. Self-defense doctrine

d. Home retreat waiver

 

c. Self-defense doctrine PAGE 155

Term

The main source of procedural law is the:

 

a. Bill of Rights

b. Preamble

c. Confederate Congress

d. Continental Constitution

Definition

The main source of procedural law is the:

 

a. Bill of Rights

b. Preamble

c. Confederate Congress

d. Continental Constitution

 

a. Bill of Rights PAGE 159

Term
Actus reus
Definition
Actus reus-an illegal act, or failure to act when legally required
Term
Criminal negligence
Definition
Criminal negligence-liability that can occur when a person's careless and inattentive ac-tions cause harm
Term
Mala in se
Definition
Mala in se-in common law, offenses that are from their own nature evil, immoral, and wrong. Mala in se offenses include murder, theft, and arson
Term
Mens rea
Definition
Mens rea-a guilty mind. The intent to commit a criminal act
Term
 torts
Definition
 torts-the law of personal injuries
Term

2. A(n) _____ uses criminal and violent acts to influence an audience beyond the immediate target.

a. Terrorist

b. Guerilla

c. Insurgent

d. Revolutionary

Definition

2. A(n) _____ uses criminal and violent acts to influence an audience beyond the immediate target.

a. Terrorist

b. Guerilla

c. Insurgent

d. Revolutionary

 

a. Terrorist PAGE 169

Term

A(n) _____ is the term for an irregular military band located in rural areas that attack military, police, and government targets.

a. Terrorist

b. Guerilla

c. Insurgent

d. Revolutionary

Definition

A(n) _____ is the term for an irregular military band located in rural areas that attack military, police, and government targets.

a. Terrorist

b. Guerilla

c. Insurgent

d. Revolutionary

 

b. Guerilla PAGE 170

Term

20. _____ is the use of computer networks for undermining the social, economic, and political system of an enemy through the destruction of infrastructure.

a. Cybertheft

b. Cybervandalism

c. Cyberterrorism

d. Cybermovement

Definition

20. _____ is the use of computer networks for undermining the social, economic, and political system of an enemy through the destruction of infrastructure.

a. Cybertheft

b. Cybervandalism

 c. Cyberterrorism

d. Cybermovement

 

c. Cyberterrorism PAGE 184

Term

_____ is the illegal acquisition of personal information such as bank passwords and credit card numbers by masquerading as a trustworthy person/business in what appears to be an official electronic communication.

 

a. Etailing fraud

b. Phishing

c. Cybertheft

d. Touting

Definition

_____ is the illegal acquisition of personal information such as bank passwords and credit card numbers by masquerading as a trustworthy person/business in what appears to be an official electronic communication.

a. Etailing fraud

b. Phishing

c. Cybertheft

d. Touting

 

b. Phishing PAGE 188

Term

_____ is one type of malicious software program that disrupts or destroys existing programs and networks.

 a. Computer worms

b. Computer virus

c. Trojan horse

d. Cyberbullying

Definition

_____ is one type of malicious software program that disrupts or destroys existing programs and networks.

a. Computer worms

b. Computer virus

c. Trojan horse

d. Cyberbullying

 

b. Computer virus PAGE 188

Term

Which type of cybervandalism appears as a benign application which actually contains codes that can damage the system operations?

a. Mydoom

b. Trojan horse

c. Malware

d. Chiseling

Definition

Which type of cybervandalism appears as a benign application which actually contains codes that can damage the system operations?

a. Mydoom

b. Trojan horse

c. Malware

d. Chiseling

 

b. Trojan horse PAGE 188

Term
The term terrorism first appeared during the Vietnam War.
Definition

The term terrorism first appeared during the Vietnam War.

 

FALSE - PAGE 168

Term
The view that terrorists suffer psychological abnormality is well accepted by those advocating the psychological view.
Definition

The view that terrorists suffer psychological abnormality is well accepted by those advocating the psychological view.

 

TRUE - PAGE 189

Term
Lack of economic opportunity and recessionary economies are positively correlated with terrorism
Definition

Lack of economic opportunity and recessionary economies are positively correlated with terrorism

 

TRUE - 189-190

Term
____________________ is illegal behavior that targets the security of computer systems and/or the data accessed and processed by computer networks
Definition

____________________ is illegal behavior that targets the security of computer systems and/or the data accessed and processed by computer networks

 

CYBERCRIME - PAGE 183

Term
The ____________________ is a computer program that appears benign but which actually contains something harmful
Definition

The ____________________ is a computer program that appears benign but which actually contains something harmful

 

TROJAN HORSE - PAGE 188

Term

What arrangement in early English society required that every person in a village be responsible for protecting the settlement from thieves?

a. The runner system

b. Community policing

c. The pledge system

d. The watch system

Definition

What arrangement in early English society required that every person in a village be responsible for protecting the settlement from thieves?

a. The runner system

b. Community policing

c. The pledge system

d. The watch system

 

c. The pledge system page 200

Term

Which of the following officers was part of the watch system of policing that thrived in thirteenth century England?

 

a. Watchmen

b. Shire reeve

c. Justice of the peace

d. All of these

Definition

Which of the following officers was part of the watch system of policing that thrived in thirteenth century England?

a. Watchmen

b. Shire reeve

c. Justice of the peace

d. All of these

 

d. All of these - page 200

Term

What was the name of the organized private police that patrolled eighteenth century England? a. Constables

b. Shire reeves

c. Bobbies

d. Thief takers

Definition

What was the name of the organized private police that patrolled eighteenth century England? a. Constables

b. Shire reeves

c. Bobbies

d. Thief takers

 

 d. Thief takers - PAGE 201

Term

English police officers are known as bobbies because:

a. The tails of the horses they rode were cut short (bobbed).

b. Sir Robert (Bobbie) Peel was responsible for their creation.

c. The first name Robert and its accompanying nickname Bobbie was extremely common among the first generation of English police.

d. They were paid in shillings, for which the slang term was "bob."

Definition

English police officers are known as bobbies because:

a. The tails of the horses they rode were cut s

hort (bobbed).

b. Sir Robert (Bobbie) Peel was responsible for their creation.

c. The first name Robert and its accompanying nickname Bobbie was extremely common among the first generation of English police.

d. They were paid in shillings, for which the slang term was "bob."

 

b. Sir Robert (Bobbie) Peel was responsible for their creation. PAGE 202

Term

Which American city created the first formal U.S. police department?

a. Boston

b. New York City

 c. Philadelphia

d. Chicago

Definition

Which American city created the first formal U.S. police department?

a. Boston

b. New York City

c. Philadelphia

d. Chicago

 

a. Boston PAGE 203

Term

The first technological breakthrough in policing came in which of the following areas?

 

a. Transportation

b. Communication

c. Regulation

d. Administration

Definition

The first technological breakthrough in policing came in which of the following areas?

 

a. Transportation

b. Communication

c. Regulation

d. Administration

 

b. Communication PAGE 203

Term

How did police reformer August Vollmer contribute to police professionalism?

 

 a. Instituting university training for young officers

b. Establishing the first formal police academy in the U.S.

 c. Becoming the first President of the IACP

 d. Creating the first SWAT team

Definition

How did police reformer August Vollmer contribute to police professionalism?

a. Instituting university training for young officers b. Establishing the first formal police academy in the U.S.

 c. Becoming the first President of the IACP

d. Creating the first SWAT team

 

a. Instituting university training for young officers PAGE 205

Term

Which federal law enforcement agency has unlimited jurisdiction?

a. CIA

b. DEA

c. U.S. Justice Department

d. No single federal agency has unlimited jurisdiction

Definition

Which federal law enforcement agency has unlimited jurisdiction?

a. CIA

b. DEA

c. U.S. Justice Department

d. No single federal agency has unlimited jurisdiction

 

d. No single federal agency has unlimited jurisdiction - PAGE 208

Term

Under its reformulated priorities, the FBI's primary objective is to protect:

a. Civil rights

b. U.S. businesses from infiltration by organized crime

c. The U.S. against espionage

d. The U.S. from terrorist attack

Definition

Under its reformulated priorities, the FBI's primary objective is to protect:

a. Civil rights

b. U.S. businesses from infiltration by organized crime

c. The U.S. against espionage

d. The U.S. from terrorist attack

 

d. The U.S. from terrorist attack PAGE 209

Term

What Federal agency is responsible for the transportation of federal prisoners?

a. U.S. Marshals

b. FBI

c. Department of Homeland Security

d. Secret Service

Definition

What Federal agency is responsible for the transportation of federal prisoners?

a. U.S. Marshals

b. FBI

c. Department of Homeland Security

d. Secret Service

 

 a. U.S. Marshals - PAGE 209

Term

Which is the oldest federal law enforcement agency?

a. U.S. Marshals

b. FBI

c. DHS

 d. IRS

Definition

Which is the oldest federal law enforcement agency?

a. U.S. Marshals

b. FBI

c. DHS

d. IRS

 

a. U.S. Marshals - PAGE 209

Term

Which of the following is a branch of the Department of Homeland Security?

 

a. Customs and Border Protection

 b. FBI

c. U.S. Marshals

d. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms

Definition

Which of the following is a branch of the Department of Homeland Security?

a. Customs and Border Protection

b. FBI

c. U.S. Marshals

d. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms

 

a. Customs and Border Protection - PAGE 211

Term
Cyber crime-
Definition
Cyber crime- the second contemporary challenge facing the system. It is defined as an illegal behavior that targets the security of computer systems and the data accessed and processed by computer networks.
Term
Terrorism
Definition
Terrorism – means premedited, politically motivated violence perpetrated against targets by subnationtionals groups or clandestine agents.
Term
USA Patriot Act
Definition
USA Patriot Act - Expands wiretaps, search warrants, pen/trap orders, and subpoenas. Gives greater power to the FBI to check and monitor phone, internet, and computer records without a court order. Allows enforcement agencies to monitor cable operators and obtain access to their records and systems
Increases the authority of the U.S. attorney general to detain and deport noncitizens with little or no judicial review.
Term
FALN
Definition
The Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (English: Armed Forces of National Liberation, FALN) was a Puerto Rican clandestine paramilitary organization that, through direct action, advocated complete independence for Puerto Rico. At the time of its dissolution, the FALN was responsible for more than 120 bomb attacks on United States targets between 1974 and 1983.[1] The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) classifies the FALN as a terrorist organization

Term
biometrics
Definition
* biometrics – automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic
Term
community policing
Definition
community policing – a law enforcement program that seeks to integrate officers into the local community to reduce crime and gain good community relations. It typically involves personalized service and decentralized policing, citizen empowerment, and an effort to reduce community fear of crime, disorder, and decay

Term
constable
Definition
constable – in early English towns, an appointed peacekeeper who organized citizens for protection and supervised the night watch
Term
hue and cry
Definition
hue and cry – in medieval England, a call for mutual aid against trouble or danger
Term
hundred
Definition
hundred – in medieval England, a group of 100 families responsible for maintaining order and trying minor offenses
Term
Metropolitan Police Act
Definition
Metropolitan Police Act – in 1829, when Sir Robert Peel was home secretary, the first Metropolitan Police Act was passed and the Metropolitan Police Force was established to replace the local watch and constable system in the London area
Term
sheriff
Definition
sheriff – the chief law enforcement officer in a county
Term
shire reeve
Definition
shire reeve – in early England, the chief law enforcement official in a county: the forerunner of today's sheriff

Term
tything¬ (tithing)
Definition
tything¬ (tithing) – during the Middle Ages, a group of about 10 families responsible for maintaining order among themselves and dealing with disturbances, fire, wild animals, or other threats
Term
vigilantes
Definition
vigilantes – in the old west, members of a vigilance committee or posse called upon to capture cattle thieves or other felons
Term
watch system
Definition
watch system – in medieval England, men organized in church parishes to guard at night against disturbances and breaches of the peace under the direction of the local constable