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Intelligence
Cuz we're all just so SMART
50
Psychology
12/11/2010

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Term

Intelligence scores are MOST LIKELY to be stable over a one-year period for a(n)

A. infant whose intelligence score is 105.

B. preschool student whose intelligence test score is 80.

C. second-grade student whose intelligence test score is 125.

D. sixth-grade student whose intelligence test score is 115.

E. tenth-grade student whose intelligence test score is 95.

Definition
E. tenth-grade student whose intelligence test score is 95.
Term

Harmful chemicals or viruses that can be transferred from a mother to her developing fetus are called

A. schemas.

B. attachments.

C. teratogens.

D. zygotes.

E. menarche.

Definition
C. teratogens.
Term

Killing one person in order to save five by throwing a switch that diverts a runaway trolley id judged as more morally accpetable than killing one person in order to save five by pushing a stranger directly onto the path of the oncoming trolley.  This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect

A. fluid intelligence.

B. gut-level intuitions.

C. stranger anxiety.

D. formal operational thought.

E. critical period.

Definition
B. gut-level intuitions.
Term

Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to

A. provide a quantitative estimate of inherited intellectual potential.

B. distinguish between academic and practical intelligence.

C. identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes.

D. assess general capacity for goal-directed adaptive behavior.

E. distinguish between people with high intelligence factor (g) and savant syndrome.

Definition
C. identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes.
Term

Fred has no meaningful occupational goals and has switched college majors several times.  Erikson would have suggested that Fred lacks

A. identity.

B. initiative.

C. trust.

D. autonomy.

E. competence.

Definition
A. identity.
Term

In the context of debates regarding the origins of knowledge, Aristotle is to _________ as Plato is to _________.

A. soul; body

B. structuralism; functionalism

C. stability; change

D. introspection; observation

E. nurture; nature

Definition
E. nurture; nature
Term

Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him.  Nageeb's altered conception of a "nurse" illustrates the process of

A. habituation.

B. assimilation.

C. accommodation.

D. attachment.

E. imprinting.

Definition
C. accommodation.
Term

During the last few years, 75-year-old Mrs. Yamaguchi has gradually become so mentally disoriented that she can't find her way around her own house and often fails to recognize her husband.  It is most likely that Mrs. Yamaguchi is suffering the effects of

A. crystallized intelligence.

B. menopause.

C. habituation.

D. Alzheimer's disease.

E. menarche.

Definition
D. Alzheimer's disease.
Term

Which of the following refers to the debate about the relative contribution of genetic inheritance and experiences to our development?

A. nature-nurture

B. continuity-stages

C. stability-change

D. attachment-imprinting

E. assimilation-accommodation

Definition
A. nature-nurture
Term

Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic?

A. female ovaries

B. male facial hair

C. the male grip

D. female height

E. male testes

Definition
B. male facial hair
Term

Those who emphasize the importance of the g factor would be most likely to encourage

A. discontinuing special programs for intellectually advanteged children.

B. deriving adult intelligence test scores from the ratio of mental age to chronological age.

C. using a small standardization sample in the process of intelligence test construction.

D. quantifying intelligence with a single numerical score.

E. studying autistic savants in order to research alternative forems of intelligence.

Definition
D. quantifying intelligence with a single numerical score.
Term

Exposure to high levels of male sex hormones during prenatal development is most likely to facilitate the subsequent development of

A. the g factor.

B. savant syndrome.

C. spatial abilities.

D. Down syndrome.

E. emotional intelligence.

Definition
C. spatial abilities.
Term

The Sternberg-Wagner test measures writing skills, skill in motivating others, and ability to effectively delegate tasks.  This test measures which of the intelligences described by Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence?

A. emotional intelligence

B. creative intelligence

C. analytical intelligence

D. intrapersonal intelligence

E. practical intelligence

Definition
E. practical intelligence
Term

On which of the following tasks are 55-year-old adults most likely to perform just as effectively as they could 30 years earlier?

A. writing a story

B. solving an abstract geometry problem

C. recalling previously presented nonsence syllables

D. repeating numbers in the opposite order they were presented

E. balancing an algebraic equation

Definition
A. writing a story
Term

Like Piaget, Kohlberg emphasized that children's moral judgments build on their

A. cognitive development.

B. social development.

C. physical development.

D. economic development.

E. attachment development.

Definition
C. physical development.
Term

Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by

A. seeking a lifelong romantic relationship.

B. severing the emotional ties between themselves and their childhood friends.

C. investigating the personal suitability of varous occupational and social roles.

D. adopting whatever values and expectations their parents recommend.

E. resolving unconscious fixations developed in infancy.

Definition
C. investigating the personal suitability of varous occupational and social roles.
Term

If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a(n)

A. FAS.

B. form of DNA.

C. depressant.

D. teratogen.

E. neurotransmitter.

Definition
D. teratogen.
Term

Dmitri is a typical 6-month-old.  When he looks into a mirror he is likely to

A. recognize the image as himself.

B. show no interest and ignore what he sees.

C. reach toward the image as if it were another child.

D. be somewhat frightened and turn away.

E. babble at the image and become angry when it doesn't respond.

Definition
C. reach toward the image as if it were another child.
Term

Mr. and Mrs. Linkletter are parents of an intellectually disabled child.  It is most likely that their child

A. is a female rather than a male.

B. is unusually creative.

C. was born with an extra chromosome.

D. will have difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent adult life.

E. is a direct result of ill-advised parenting practices.

Definition
D. will have difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent adult life.
Term

The process by which certain birds form attachments during a critical period very early in life is called

A. imprinting.

B. assimilation.

C. habituation.

D. bonding.

E. the rooting reflex.

Definition
A. imprinting.
Term

Research indicated that Head Start programs

A. contribute to dramatic and enduring gains in the participants' intelligence test scores.

B. yield the greatest benefits for participants coming from intellectually stimulating home environments.

C. reduce the likelihood that participants will repeat grades or require special education.

D. generally are not cost effective in improving student achievement.

E. improve analytical intelligence but not practical intelligence.

Definition
C. reduce the likelihood that participants will repeat grades or require special education.
Term

Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative contributions of heredity and experience to personality development?

A. cognitive

B. behavioral

C. psychodynamic

D. biological

E. biopsychosocial

Definition
E. biopsychosocial
Term

If a road test for a driver's license adequately samples the tasks a driver routinely faces, the test is said to

A. be reliable.

B. have a normal distribution.

C. have content validity.

D. be standardized.

E. have predictive validity.

 

Definition
C. have content validity.
Term

About _______ percent of WAIS scores fall between 70 and 130.

A. 10

B. 30

C. 60

D. 70

E. 95

Definition
E. 95
Term

Research participants were asked to monitor and report their own immediate sensory reactions to differently colored objects.  This research involved a technique known as

A. empiricism.

B. structuralism.

C. introspection.

D. functionalism.

E. psychometrics.

Definition
C. introspection.
Term

Gender identity refers to

A. one's biological sex.

B. the sense of being male or female.

C. the set of expected behaviors for males and for females.

D. how masculine a boy is for how feminine a girl is.

E. a person's identification with the parent of the opposite sex.

Definition
B. the sense of being male or female.
Term

Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of _________ development.

A. motor

B. social

C. cognitive

D. emotional

E. physical

Definition
C. cognitive
Term

Terman observed that children with IQ scores over 135 are likely to

A. be athletically uncoordinated.

B. be academically successful.

C. have a high degree of practical intelligence.

D. be socially isolated.

E. have low emotional intelligence.

Definition
B. be academically successful.
Term

The Flynn effect is LEAST likely to be explained in terms of

A. changes in human genetic characteristics.

B. increasing educational opportunities.

C. reductions in family size.

D. improvements in infant nutrition.

E. greater access to technology.

Definition
A. changes in human genetic characteristics.
Term

The Flynn effect best illustrates that the process of intelligence testing requires up-to-date

A. factor analyses.

B. standardization samples.

C. reliability indices.

D. heritability estimates.

E. intelligence quotients.

Definition
B. standardization samples.
Term

Achievement tests are designed to

A. measure the desire and potential capacity to sucessfully meet challenges.

B. assess ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

C. compare an individual's personality with those of highly successful people.

D. assess learned knowledge or skills.

E. measure capacity to learn.

Definition
D. assess learned knowledge or skills.
Term

The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as __________ is to an adolescent girl.

A. intimacy

B. puberty

C. the first kiss

D. menarche

E. secure attachment

Definition
D. menarche
Term

Hereditary Genius is the title of a book authored by

A. James Flynn.

B. David Wechsler.

C. Francis Galton.

D. Alfred Binet.

E. Robert Sternberg.

Definition
C. Francis Galton.
Term

Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in a

A. rectangular shape.

B. circular shape.

C. bull's-eye pattern.

D. facelike image.

E. mirrored surface.

Definition
D. facelike image.
Term

Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the

A. adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions.

B. component elements of sensory experience.

C. disruptive effects of unconscious motives.

D. treatment of psychological disorders.

E. inward immediate sensations, feelings, and impulses.

Definition
A. adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions.
Term

The similarity between the intelligence test scores of identical twins raised apart is

A. less than that between children and their biological parents.

B. equal to that between identical twins reared together.

C. equal to that between fraternal twins reared together.

D. greater than that between ordinary siblings reared together.

E. equal to that between adopted siblings reared together.

Definition
D. greater than that between ordinary siblings reared together.
Term

Exceptionally inhibited and fearful infants tend to become introverted adolescents. This best illustrates the long-term stability of

A. temperament.

B. the critical period.

C. gender schemas.

D. the X chromosome.

E. self-concept.

Definition
A. temperament.
Term

Problem behaviors are more likely to be associated with a child's __________ than with the amount of time the child spends in day care.

A. sense of object permanence.

B. secondary sex characteristics

C. infantile amnesia

D. temperament

E. schema

Definition
D. temperament
Term

Carol is distressed because post-childbirth complications prevented her from being in close physical contact with her child during his first few hours of life.  Carol should be told that

A. human infants do not have well-defined critical periods for the formation of a mother-infant attachment.

B. physical content with her infant immediately after birth would not contribute to the development of mother-infant attachment.

C. infants should be left physically undisturbed during the first few hours of life so they can rest.

D. as long as she can breast-feed her baby, no lasting damage will be done.

E. infants form attachments based mostly on nourishment, not physical contact.

Definition
A. human infants do not have well-defined critical periods for the formation of a mother-infant attachment.
Term

According to Kohlberg, morality based on a desire to uphold the laws of society is characteristic of the __________ stage.

A. preconventional

B. preoperational

C. conventional

D. postconventional

E. operational

Definition
C. conventional
Term

When Andy becomes upset about getting a poor grade, he typically fails to realize that he feels scared.  This lack of self-insight best illustrates an inadequate level of

A. the g factor.

B. analyticl intelligence.

C. factor analysis.

D. emotional intelligence.

E. predictive validity.

Definition
D. emotional intelligence.
Term

Three-year-old Zara calls all four-legged animals "kitties." Her tendency to fit all four-legged animals into her existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of

A. conservation.

B. assimilation.

C. accommodation.

D. egocentrism.

E. habituation.

Definition
B. assimilation.
Term

Mr. Johnson spends time each day caressing and rocking his infant daughter.  This time together should serve most directly to promote

A. habituation.

B. secure attachment.

C. stranger anxiety.

D. egocentrism.

E. conservation.

Definition
B. secure attachment.
Term

The Stanford-Binet, WAIS, and WISC tests are all types of

A. personality tests.

B. factor analysis tests.

C. achievement tests.

D. multiple intelligence tests.

E. general intelligence tests.

Definition
E. general intelligence tests.
Term

Sets of expected behaviors for males and for females are called

A. gender identities.

B. gender roles.

C. norms.

D. gender types.

E. social learning theory.

Definition
B. gender roles.
Term

A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) _________ test.

A. reliability

B. interest

C. achievement

D. aptitude

E. intelligence

Definition
D. aptitude
Term

The French government commissioned Binet to develop an intelligence test that would

A. demonstrate the innate intellectual superiority of western European races.

B. effectively distinguish between practical and creative intelligence.

C. provide an objective measure of teaching effectiveness in the public school system.

D. reduce the need to rely on teachers' subjectively biased judgments of students' learning potential.

E. use achievement test scores to accurately predict aptitude.

Definition
D. reduce the need to rely on teachers' subjectively biased judgments of students' learning potential.
Term

Clinical psychologists specialize in

A. constructing surveys.

B. animal research.

C. providing therapy to troubled people.

D. providing drugs to treat behavioral disorders.

E. treating patients in clinical settings.

Definition
C. providing therapy to troubled people.
Term

Three-year-old Bert, who lives in Alaska where moose roam freely, has learned the schema for moose.  When his family visits his cousin Michael on a horse farm, Bert modified his schema for large, shaggy animals to include horses.  This process is called

A. habituation.

B. accommodation.

C. assimilation.

D. maturation.

E. conservation.

Definition
B. accommodation.
Term

Five-year-old Wilbur performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4-year-old.  Wilbur's mental age is

A. 4.

B. 4.5.

C. 5.

D. 80.

E. 125.

Definition
A. 4.