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Institutional Corrections
Test 1
41
Criminal Justice
09/26/2011

Additional Criminal Justice Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Felony
Definition
a serious criminal offenses; specifically one punishable by death or incarceration in a prison facility for more than a year
Term
Misdemeanor
Definition
a relatively minor violation of the criminal law, such as petty theft or simple assault, punishable by confinement for 1 year or less
Term
Infraction
Definition
A minor violation of a state statute or local ordinance punishable by a fine or other penalty, but not incarceration or by a specified, usually a very short term incarceration. Less serious than misdemeanor. An example of an of this is failure to wear seat belt, jaywalking, littering, spitting on the sidewalk.
Term
Institutional Corrections
Definition
involves the incarceration & rehabilitation of adults, juvenilles convicted of offenses against the law, and the confinement of persons suspected of a crime awaiting trial & adjudication
Term
Noninstitutional Corrections
Definition
Corrections aka "community corrections" it includes probation & parole activities, correctional adminstration not directly conncetable to instituitions, and miscellaneous activities
Term
Profession
Definition
an occupation granted high social status by virtue of the personal integrity of its member
Term
Corrections Professional
Definition
A dedicated person of moral character & personal integrity who is employed in the field of corrections & takes professionalism to heart
Term
Certification
Definition
A credentialing process, usually involving testing and career development assesment through which the skills, knowledge and abilities of correctional personnel can be formally recognized
Term
Evidence-based Corrections
Definition

The application of social scientific techniques to the study of everyday corrections procedures for the purpose of increasing effectiveness & enhancing the efficient use of available resources.

Term
What does Evidence Based Correction focuses on?
Definition

It focuses on what works

What correctional programs are effective in reducing recidivism & in preventing future crimes. The evidence is referred to "scientific evidence" & not to criminal evidence

Term
What are the goals of Criminal Sentencing
Definition
1. Being revenged...2) Retribution__3) Punishment__4) Deterrence__5) Incapacitation__6) Rehabilitation__7) Reintegration__8) Restoration
Term
Goal Sentencing: Revenge
Definition
Punishment is equated with vengeance & involves an emotional response to criminal victimization
Term
Goal Sentencing: Retribution
Definition

Punishment involves a "settling of scores" for both society and the victim.

Paying back victim for what offender has done

"an eye for an eye"

Term
Goal Sentencing: Punishment
Definition

 Being deserved: criminal offenders are morally blame worth and deserve punishment

Punishment restores the moral balance disrupted by crime

Term
Goal Sentencing: Deterrence
Definition

Punishment will prevent future wrongdoing by the offender & by others.

Punishment must outweight the benefits gained by wrongdoing

Term
Special Deterrence
Definition
Deterrence of individual being punished for committing additional crimes
Term
General Deterrence
Definition
Use of individual punishment to persuay others from committing crimes
Term
Goal Sentencing: Incapacitation
Definition
The use of imprisonment to reduce an offenders capabilities to committ more crimes
Term
Goal Sentencing: Rehabilitation
Definition
Changing of a criminal lifestyle into law abding ones by "correcting" the behavior of offenders throught treatment, counseling, education, and training
Term
Goal Sentencing: Reintegration
Definition
The process of making the offender a productive member of the community
Term
Goal Sentencing: Restoration
Definition
The process of returning to their previous condition all those involved in or affected by crime--including victims, offenders & society
Term
What is it meant by Restorative Justice
Definition
A response to wrongdoings that emphasizes healing the wounds of victims, offenders, and communities caused or revealed by crime
Term
Restorative Justice
Definition

Advocates of restorative Justice believe that crime is committed not just against the state but also against victims & community_Restorative Justice Programs try to personalize crime by showing offenders the consequences of their behavior._It allows  the judges & juries to consider victim impact statements_the harm caused by victime is repaired through negotiaiton, mediatation, & empowerment

Term
Consecutive Sentencing
Definition
When the sentencing are served one after another.
Term
Concurrent Sentencing
Definition
Sentences that are served together at the same time. All charges are served together versus serving one after another
Term
Mandatory Sentences
Definition
A sentence required by law under certain circumstances. --such as conviction of a specified crime or a series of offense of a specified type. These sentences allow judges no leeway in sentencing
Term
Indeterminate Sentence
Definition
A sentence is a sentence in which the judge sets a maximum and minimum sentence. Parole board determines the actual time of release
Term
Determinate Sentencing
Definition
Aka "fixed sentence" this sentence maybe reduced by good time. Parole does NOT review. Prisoner know when they will be released. With Good Time inmates can reduce time by earning credits and earned by demonstrating good behavior
Term
Advisory Guidelines
Definition
Recommended sentencing policies that are not required by law. Usually based on past sentencing practices & serve as a guide to judges
Term
Unconditonal Diversion
Definition
termination of criminal processing of any point before adjudication(conviction)  with NO threat to prosecution. It best protects defendants rights. Defendant have to nothing to lose but more to gain. Researchers say its more effective b/c is done on volunatry basis
Term
Condition Diversion
Definition
The charges are dismissed if the defendant <<sucessfully>> completes treatment, counseling and other program ordered by the justice system. It does not eliminate possibilities of more severe penalities, if the defendant fail the programs
Term
What is Probation?
Definition
It is the release of a convicted offender into the community under supervison of a probation officer. It can be revoked if certain conditions are not met such as if offender takes a drug test & fails it.
Term
What are the "Goals of Probation"
Definition

Protect the community___Carry out court imposed sanctions___Identify probationer's supervison & service needs___Support Crime Victims___Coordinate & Promote use of community Resources * i.e. mental health programs & GED programs

Term
What is the "Reason for Probation"
Definition
Keeps offenders in their communities & facilities reintegration__Avoids the instiutionalization and stigma of imprisonment__Reduce the expense of incarceration__Fair treatment for offenders whose crimes do merit incarceration
Term
What is the cost of Probation?
Definition

Regualar Supervison : 139 Caseloads/officer w/ avg cost of $3.07/day

Intensive Supervision: 29 Caseload/officer w/avg cost of $8.97/day

Electronic Supervison: 6 Caseloads/officer w/ avg. cost of $8.71/day

Special Supervison: 45 Caseloads/officer w/avg. cost of $4.27/day

Term

Special Conditions

vs

Standard Conditions

Definition

Standard Conditions: supervison that everyone must abide by

Special Conditions: Supervison specific for that one specific offender

Term
Probation Revocation
Definition
The formal termination of an offenders conditional freedom
Term
Revocation Hearing
Definition
A due process hearing that must be helod to determine whether the conditions of probation have been violated before probation can be revoked and the offender removed from the community
Term
Revocation Triggers: Technical Violation
Definition

A failure to comply with the conditions of probation.

**Absconding: fleeing without permission of the jurisdiction in which the offender is required to stay

Term

Revocation Triggers:

New Offenses Violation

Definition
The arrest & prosecution for the commission of a new crime
Term

Intermediate

Sanctions (Punishment)

 

Definition
Punishment options developed to fill the gap b/t traditional probation and traditional jail or prison sentences and to better match the severity of punishment to the seriosness of the crime