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I Heart You
Module 7 Vocab
27
Health Care
06/05/2008

Additional Health Care Flashcards

 


 

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Term
bradycardia
Definition
a condition in which the heart rate is less than 60/min. <90 per minute in newborns or <60 in older infants or children. This causes a serious drop in cardiac output because the small muscle mass of their hearts cannot increase stroke volume significantly.
Term
bruit
Definition
Low-pitched bowing sound over a peripheral vessel. Usually indicates a narrowed vessel
Term
capillary refill
Definition
A test of blood circulation in the fingers or toes. This is an index of peripheral perfusion and cardiac output. Depress and blanch the nail beds; release and note the time for color return. Usually, the vessels refill within a fraction of a second. Consider it normal if the color returns in less than 1 or 2 seconds.
Term
diastole
Definition
the ventricles are relaxed, and the AV valves, (i.e., the tricuspid and mitral) are open. (Opening of the normal valve is acoustically silent.) The pressure in the atria is higher than that in the ventricles, so blood pours rapidly into the ventricles. (also see powerpoint!!)
Term
edema
Definition
the abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues
Term
ejection click
Definition
occurs early in systole at the start of ejection because it results from opening of the semilunar valves. Normally, the SL valves open silently, but in the presence of stenosis, their opening makes a sound. It is short and high pitched, with a click quality, and is heard better with the diaphragm. The aortic ejection click is heard at the second right interspace and apex and may be loudest at the apex. Its intensity does not change with respiration.
Term
heaves/lifts
Definition
a sustained forceful thrusting of the ventricle during systole. It occurs with ventricular hypertrophy as a result of increased workload. A right ventricular heave is seen at the sternal border; a left ventricular heave is seen at the apex
Term
Homan’s sign
Definition
Dorsiflexion of the foot with the knee slightly bent. Positive sign is calf pain. This is usually an abnormal sign indicating thrombosis (“blood clot”).
Term
murmur
Definition
Relatively prolonged extra sounds heard during systole or diastole. Is a blowing, swooshing sound that occurs with turbulent blood flow in the heart or great vessels. Causes: Increased blood flow across normal valves, Forward flow through a stenosed valve, Backward flow through an incompetent valve.
Term
opening snap
Definition
Normally the opening of the AV valves is silent. In the presence of stenosis, increasingly higher atrial pressure is required to open the valve. The deformed valve opens with this noise. It is sharp and high pitched, with a snapping quality. It sounds after S2 and is best heard with the diaphragm at the third or fourth left interspace at the sternal border, less well at the apex. It usually is not an isolated sound. As a sign of mitral stenosis, the sound usually ushers in the lowpitched diastolic rumbling murmur of that condition.
Term
orthopnea
Definition
is the need to assume a more upright position to breathe. an abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand to breathe deeply or comfortably.
Term
palpitations
Definition
a pounding or racing of the heart.
Term
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Definition
occurs with heart failure. Lying down increases volume of intrathoracic blood, and the weakened heart cannot accommodate the increased load. Classically, the person awakens after 2 hours of sleep with the perception of needing fresh air.
Term
pericardial friction rubs
Definition
Inflammation of the pericardium. Grating sound
Term
precordium
Definition
is the area on the anterior chest overlying the heart and great vessels
Term
PMI
Definition
the place where the apical pulse is palpated as strongest, often in the fifth intercostal space of the thorax, just medial to the left midclavicular line.
Term
pulse pressure
Definition
the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, normally 30 to 50 mm Hg.
Term
pulse deficit
Definition
a condition in which a peripheral pulse rate is less than the ventricular contraction rate as auscultated at the apex of the heart or seen on the electrocardiogram. The condition indicates a lack of peripheral perfusion.
Term
S1
Definition
Closure of mitral and tricuspid valves at the beginning of systole . Heard loudest at the apex: Mitral area. Almost synchronous with carotid pulsation. May be “split”: Tricuspid area on inhalation
Term
S2
Definition
Closure of aortic and pulmonic valves at the beginning of diastole. Heard loudest at the base: upper precordium. May have a physiologic split: Pulmonic area on inhalation. (powerpoint)
Term
S3
Definition
Variation during first rapid filling phase during diastole. Heard best at apex.
Term
S4
Definition
Variation during 2nd rapid filling phase. Heard best at apex.
Term
Sinus arrhythmia
Definition
a physiologic event in childhood. Heart rate varies in a cyclic pattern, usually faster on inhalation and slower on exhalation
Term
systole
Definition
the contraction of the heart, driving blood into the aorta and pulmonary arteries. The occurrence of systole is indicated by the first heart sound heard on auscultation, by the palpable apex beat, and by the peripheral pulse. (also see powerpoint!!)
Term
tachycardia
Definition
a condition in which the heart contracts at a rate greater than 100/min. It may occur normally in response to fever, exercise, or nervous excitement. Tachycardia acts to increase the amount of oxygen delivered to the cells of the body by increasing the rate at which blood circulates through the vessels.
Term
thrill
Definition
is a palpable vibration. It feels like the throat of a purring cat. It signifies turbulent blood flow and accompanies loud murmurs. Absence of this, however, does not necessarily rule out the presence of a murmur.
Term
venous hum
Definition
is common in children. Caused by turbulent blood flow in the internal jugular veins