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Human Nutrition- Chapter 8
Energy Balance and Body Composition
23
Chemistry
05/04/2009

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Term
Bomb calorimeter
Definition

An instrument that measues the heat energy released when foods are burned, thus providing an estimate of the potential energy of the food.

 

  • calor= heat
  • metron= measure
Term
Appetite
Definition
The integrated response to the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food that initiates or delays eating.
Term
Hunger
Definition
The painful sensation caused by lack of food that initiates food-seeking behavior.
Term
Hypothalamus
Definition
A brain center that controls activities such as maintenance of water balance, regulation of body temperature, and control of appetite.
Term
Satiation
Definition
The feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eating. Satiation determines how much food is consumed during a meal.
Term
Satiety
Definition
The feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the the next meal. Satiety detercmines how much time passes between meals.
Term
Neuropeptide Y
Definition
A chemical produced in the brain that stimulates appetite, diminishes energy expenditure, and increases fat storage.
Term
Thermogenesis
Definition
The generation of heat; used in physiology and nutrition studies as an index of how much energy the body is expending.
Term
Basal metabolism
Definition
The energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest.
Term
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Definition
The rate of energy used for metabolism under specified conditions: after a 12 hour fast and restful sleep, without any physical activity or emotional excitement, and in a comfortable setting. It is usually expressed as kcalories per kilogram bofy weight per hour.
Term
Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
Definition
Similar to the basal metabolic rate (BMR), a measure of the energy use of a person at rest in a comfortable setting, but with less stringent criteria for recent food intake and physical activity. Connsequently, the RMR is slightly higher than the BMR.
Term
Lean body mass
Definition
The body minus its fat content.
Term
Thermic effect of food (TEF)
Definition
An estimation of the energy required to process food (digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store ingested ingested nutrients); also called the specific dynamic effect (SDE) of food or the specific dynamic activity (SDA) of food. The sum of the TEF and any increase in the metabolic rate due to overeating is known as diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT).
Term
Adaptive thermogenesis
Definition
Adjustments in energy expenditure related to changes in environment such as extreme cold and to physiological events such as overfeeding, trauma, and changes in hormone status.
Term
Body mass index (BMI)
Definition
An index of a person's weight in relation to height; determined by dividing the weight (in kilograms) by the square of the height (in meters).
Term
Underweight
Definition
Body weight below some standard of acceptable weight that is usually defined in relation to height (such as BMI); BMI below 18.5.
Term
Overweight
Definition
Body weight above some standard of weight that is usually in relation to height (such as BMI); BMI 25-29.9.
Term
Obese
Definition
Overweight with adverse health effects; BMI is 30 or higher.
Term
Intra-abdominal fat
Definition
Fat stored within the abdominal cavity in association with the internal abdominal organs, as opposed to the fat stored directly under the skin (subcutaneous fat).
Term
Central obesity
Definition
Excess fat around the trunk of the body, also called abdominal fat or upper-body fat.
Term
Waist circumference
Definition
An anthropometric measurement used to assess a person's abdominal fat.
Term
Insulin resistance
Definition
The condition in which a normal amount of insulin produces a subnormal effect in muscle, adipose, and liver cells, resulting in an elevated fasting glucose; a metabolic consequence of obesity that precedes type 2 diabetes.
Term
Inflammation
Definition
An immunological response to cellular injury characterized by an increase in white blood cells.