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Human Nutrition 210
Final Exam
132
Other
06/06/2010

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Term
building blocks of protein and nitrogen content
Definition
basic structure common to all amino acids is an amine group, have a central carbon, acid group, and side chain, unique because it has nitrogen, the side chain is the functional group
Term
essential amino acid
Definition
body cannot synthesize them, there are 9
Term
what happens to nitrogen from amino acid breakdown
Definition
waste product
Term
energy content of protein
Definition
4 cal/gram
Term
what happens when one essential amino acid is missing from the diet
Definition
protein cannot be made, all must be there or none can be used, limits the amount of protein that can be synthesized
Term
digestion and absorption of amino acids
Definition
protein denatured by acid in gastric juices, leaving polypeptide chain, pepsin breaks specific spots and cuts it into peptides, water helps, peptides meet peptidases in small intestine and are cut smaller, free amino acids are absorbed into blood in the villus and taken to liver through the portal vein
Term
RDA for protein in a sedentary person and calculation given weight in pounds
Definition
.8 grams of dietary protein per kilogram of body weight
Term
positive vs. negative protein balance and examples
Definition
protein intake compared to the output of the body, positive is taking more in than we are losing (growing, changing, healing, pregnancy), negative is losing more than you have consumed (protein intake is not adequate, serious injury, infections, surgery, malnutrition like anorexia and cancer wasting)
Term
edema and reasons for fluid/protein shift
Definition
inadequate protein diet is consumed, doesn't make as much protein to help hold the fluids in the blood vessels and fluids fill extravascular spaces resulting in edema or swelling
Term
name for chemical bonds adjoining amino acids
Definition
peptide bonds join two adjacent amino acids and hold the protein together
Term
digestion of proteins (where)
Definition
stomach and small intestine
Term
denaturation of proteins
Definition
process of destroying protein structure, organization of the protein is disrupted, the polypeptide chain is left instact, but the protein is no longer funcational, can be done by acid, alkalines, heat and metals
Term
foods likely to be high quality, what is high quality
Definition
high quality is containing all the essential amino acids and in a similar pattern of amino acids in humans, derived from animal products have all amino acids
Term
high protein diet risks for kidney disease
Definition
takes fluid to metabolize protein and puts extra strain on kidneys and liver
Term
basic building block of protein
Definition
amino acid
Term
provide all essential amino acids
Definition
animal products, like milk
Term
where are proteins digested in the body
Definition
stomach and small intestine
Term
chemical bond joining adjacent amino acids
Definition
peptide bond
Term
edema
Definition
build up of fluids in extracellular spaces
Term
anorexia would result in what state of protein balance
Definition
negative, take in less than used
Term
weights 176 pounds (80 kilograms), what is RDA for protein
Definition
.8*80= 64 grams
Term
comparing plant sources of protein to animal sources for dietary fiber
Definition
plant sources tend to contain more dietary fiber
Term
Kwashiorkor is associated with a deficiency of
Definition
protein
Term
vegetarian that excludes animal flesh but consumes milk and eggs
Definition
lacto-ovo-vegetarian
Term
primary function as chemical reaction regulation
Definition
needed to perform chemical reactions and create ATP
Term
anti-oxidant vitamins
Definition
E, C, A
Term
coenzyme nature of B vitamins
Definition
all work together to create ATP
Term
blood clotting and vitamin K
Definition
protein, calcium and vitamin K involved with platelets
Term
classical deficiency diseases for vitamin A
Definition
blindness, xerophthalmia (drying of the eye)
Term
classical deficiency diseases for vitamin D
Definition
rickets (bone misshapening), osteomalacia (bones lose mineral content and become soft)
Term
classical deficiency diseases for vitamin E
Definition
hemolytic anemia, only documented in premature infants
Term
classical deficiency diseases for vitamin K
Definition
bleeding and bone problems but very rare
Term
classical deficiency diseases for thiamin
Definition
beriberi (I can't, I can't) have no energy
Term
classical deficiency diseases for niacin
Definition
pellagra (dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death)
Term
classical deficiency diseases for B6
Definition
anemia, depression, epileptic-like seizures
Term
classical deficiency diseases for folate
Definition
spina bifida and anencephaly in a child if mother is folate deficient
Term
classical deficiency diseases for B12
Definition
pernicious anemia and folate symptoms
Term
classical deficiency diseases for vitamin C
Definition
scurvy
Term
vitamin for amino acid metabolism
Definition
B vitamins
Term
vitamins for red cell synthesis
Definition
B6, Folate, B12
Term
food sources of B12
Definition
fortified cereals, all animal foods
Term
requirements for structure function claims on supplements
Definition
can't make a claim that a supplements helps a specific disease, but broad claims are okay, don't need FDA approval
Term
major function of vitamin A
Definition
maintaining vision, production of mucus, required for epithelial tissues, maintain healthy immune system, bone growth, cell differentiation
Term
major function of vitamin D
Definition
regulates calcium metabolism, possibly other things as well
Term
major function of vitamin E
Definition
protect cell membranes, DNA, other electron dense areas in the cell from free radical damage
Term
major function of vitamin K
Definition
blood to clot normally, bone formation
Term
major function of thiamin
Definition
transform food energy into ATP
Term
major function of riboflavin
Definition
food energy into ATP
Term
major function of niacin
Definition
participates in metabolic reactions in a cell, food energy into ATP
Term
major function of pantothenic acid
Definition
food energy into ATP
Term
major function of B6
Definition
participates in almost all metabolic reactions involving amino acids, keep body supplied with glucose when fasting or exercising, iron in hemoglobin
Term
major function of folate
Definition
synthesis of RNA and DNA (cell division and growth)
Term
major function of B12
Definition
control folate metabolism
Term
major function of vitamin C
Definition
promote synthesis of collagen, protect from free radical attack, prevent certain cancers caused by nitrosamines, absorb iron
Term
significant quantities of vitamins and minerals added to diet from food a good choice would be
Definition
fortified breakfast cereal
Term
true absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins
Definition
after absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and or stored in the liver and fatty tissue
Term
converted to vitamin A in the body
Definition
carotene (or beta carotene)
Term
vitamin D is unique among vitamins because
Definition
it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun
Term
B vitamins generally function as
Definition
coenzymes
Term
vitamin that prevent beriberi is
Definition
thiamin
Term
disease caused by thiamin deficiency
Definition
beriberi
Term
niacin is necessary to prevent
Definition
pellagra
Term
b-vitamin required for amino acid metabolism
Definition
thiamin
Term
scurvy prevented by adequate intake of
Definition
vitamin C
Term
sodium location in a cell and movement
Definition
extracellular, located outside the cell, always moving in and ATP pumps it back out
Term
potassium location in the cell and movement
Definition
intracellular, located inside the cell, always moving out through the cell membrane, immediately pumped back in
Term
estimate of fluid needs using energy expenditure
Definition
1 ml per 1 calorie expended
Term
heat regulation by evaporation
Definition
critical heat loss pathway in hot and humid weather, must evaporate to be cooling (not visible on body or soaking clothes)
Term
calorie content of minerals
Definition
remain after cremation so a huge amount of heat would be required so very high calories
Term
bioavailability in plant or animal sources better?
Definition
iron better if from animals because our body can better use it so it is more bioavailable
Term
physiological functions and storage of calcium
Definition
stored in bones and teeth, demineralize bone to maintain normal blood calcium levels
Term
regulation of iron absorption and best absorbed food sources and most likely deficient groups
Definition
short term storage elsewhere until it can be moved, most bioavailable iron is from animal foods, deficient groups are pregnant women or people with ulcers, hemorrhoids, colon cancer
Term
zinc deficiency symptoms
Definition
boys fail to mature sexually, women have difficulty getting pregnant and fetus is usually aborted, dwarfism, poor immune system, loss of taste
Term
iodide deficiency symptoms
Definition
goiter (enlarged thyroid gland), severe retardation in the child of a woman with goiter
Term
high sodium diet in a healthy person
Definition
if healthy, extra sodium is excreted by the kidneys and is not an issue
Term
antioxidant mineral
Definition
copper, zinc, selenium, they neutralize free radicals
Term
trace vs major minerals classification
Definition
major is more than 100 milligrams required per day (calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, magnesium), all others are trace
Term
flouride's role in tooth
Definition
prevent tooth decay and promote formation of strong bones
Term
water constitutes what percent of body weight
Definition
50-70%
Term
amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by
Definition
ion concentration
Term
body's need for water is approximately how many milliliter(s) per kcalorie
Definition
1
Term
how are minerals classified
Definition
trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less
Term
true about mineral bioavailability
Definition
minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants
Term
in the body, 99% of calcium is found
Definition
bones and teeth
Term
most nutrient-dense calcium food source
Definition
milk and dairy products
Term
magnesium's primary function
Definition
important for nerve and heart function
Term
amount of iron in the body is more regulated by
Definition
absorption in the small intestine
Term
goiter may form as a consequence of inadequate intake of
Definition
iodide
Term
energy content in alcohol
Definition
7 kcal/gram
Term
absorption of alochol
Definition
20% absorbed through stomach walls, small intestine rapidly absorbs alcohol, eating slows movement into small intestine but will not cause sobering up, gastrointestinal tract to liver through portal vein, first to acetaldehyde, then to acetate, then to acetyl CoA, metabolized in liver with ADH
Term
liver's role in alcohol absorption
Definition
chief site of metabolism and first exposure
Term
gender/ethnic differences in ADH
Definition
ADH enzyme is less in Asians, Native Americans, and women
Term
guidelines for moderate consumption of alcohol for men and women
Definition
one for women, two for men
Term
cirrhosis vs. hepatitis
Definition
cirrhosis is scarring of the liver, hepatitis is enlarging of the liver, both can be caused by alcohol but hepatitis has many other causes, cirrhosis is usually associated with alcohol but has more causes too
Term
ADH
Definition
Alcohol Dehydrogenase, liver produces most, it metabolizes alcohol
Term
Ethanol
Definition
the alcohol in beverages
Term
is alcohol an essential nutrient
Definition
not required to function and performs not structural role for the body
Term
fetal alcohol syndrome
Definition
caused by drinking while pregnant, deprives fetal brain of oxygen and essential nutrients, mental and physical retardation, abnormalities of the face and skull and small size, no treatment and damage/condition is permanent
Term
red wine and health benefits
Definition
phenols in wine protect against heart disease, decrease LDL, may increase HDL
Term
when liver's ability to deal with alcohol is saturated, which system must be functioning
Definition
microsomal ethanol oxidizing system
Term
factors to consider in determining how much alcohol the body can safely metabolize
Definition
between .1 and .2 grams per kilogram of weight per hour, previous drinking history, heritage or ethnicity of person
Term
symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome
Definition
physical retardation, mental retardation, behavioral problems, abnormalities in the face and skull
Term
t or f: red wines may reduce heart disease when consumed in moderation
Definition
true
Term
ounces of beer in one serving of alcohol
Definition
12 ounces
Term
kcalories with 15 grams of carbs and 12 grams of alcohol
Definition
15*4 + 12*7 = 144 kcalories
Term
general guidelines for daily alcohol intake are (less than) how many for men and women
Definition
two for men, one for women
Term
cirrhosis
Definition
progressive scarring and fibrosis of the liver regardless of cause
Term
liver enzyme primarily degrades alcohol is
Definition
alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
Term
kcalories in 10 grams of alcohol
Definition
7*10 = 70 kcals
Term
basal metabolic rate definition and factors to increase/decrease
Definition
number of calories you would burn if you stayed in bed all day, increase with physical activites, decrease with age and not eating regularly
Term
energy balance calculations relative to weight gain/loss
Definition
3500 calories in one pound of body fat, lose one pound would have to lose 3500 calories
Term
goals of weight loss programs
Definition
weight loss, flexibility, reduced intake, behavior modification, overall health, 1-2 pounds/week
Term
methods to measure body fat and relative accuracy
Definition
underwater weighing, bodpod, skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance assessment, near infrared assessment, in order from most to least
Term
minimal BMI
Definition
men - 5%, women - 10-12%
Term
athletic BMI
Definition
men - 5-13%, women - 12-22%
Term
recommended BMI
Definition
men - 10-25%, women - 20-35%
Term
obese BMI
Definition
men - greater than 25%, women - greater than 35%
Term
indirect calorimetry
Definition
estimation of heat produced by means of respiratory differences
Term
direct calorimetry
Definition
measurment of heat actually produced, must be in sealed chamber
Term
calorimetry use in nutrition
Definition
measure energy expenditure
Term
thermic effect of food and usual percentage of energy needs
Definition
amount of calories it costs to digest, absorb, transport, and store nutrients in the body, 5-10% of total calorie expenditure, resting metabolic rate goes up for about 5 hours after eating
Term
android obesity and risks of having a large waist circumference
Definition
android obesity is apple shape with upper body obesity, higher risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes
Term
basal metabolism is the energy expended when?
Definition
resting but awake and in a fasting state
Term
what is not associated with an increase in basal metabolism
Definition
low kcalorie intake
Term
thermic effect of food
Definition
represents the kcalories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food
Term
when attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above what for men warrants obesity diagnosis
Definition
24%
Term
when attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above what for women warrants obesity diagnosis
Definition
35%
Term
body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields
Definition
body mass index (BMI)
Term
testing method considered most accurate way of measuring percent body fat
Definition
underwater weighing
Term
android obesity is associated with a higher incidence of all the following except
Definition
Alzheimers (IS associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease)
Term
NOT a major goal for weight control programs
Definition
5 pound weight loss per week
Term
daily deficit of 500 kcalories should result in weight loss of about how many pounds per week?
Definition
500*7=3500, which is equal to one pound of fat so 1 pound