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Human Growth and Development
Midterm
47
Education
10/22/2007

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Cards

Term
cephalocaudal pattern
Definition
the sequence in which the greatest growth always occurs at the top--the head--with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differetiation gradually working its way down from top to bottom
Term
proximodistal pattern
Definition
the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities.
Term
neuron
Definition
a nerve cell that handles information processing at the cellular level
Term
Synapses
Definition
tiny gaps between neurons where connections between axons and dendrites take place
Term

Dendrites

Definition
receive information from other neurons to each other
Term
Myelin sheath
Definition
a layer of fat cells, encases most axons.  It insulates nerve cells and also belps nerve impulses travel faster
Term

"pruned"

Definition
illustrates the dramatic growth and later pruning of synapses in the visual, auditory, and prefrontal cortex areas of the brain
Term
Prefrontal Cortex
Definition
the area of the brain where higher-level thinging and self-regulation occur
Term
Hippocampus
Definition
an important structure in memory
Term
Forebrain
Definition
Highest level of the brain
Term
Cerebral Cortex
Definition
Covers the lower portions of the brain like a cap.  It plays a critical role in many important human functions, such as perception, language, and thinking. 
Term

The cerebral cortex is divided into four main areas called __.

Definition

Lobes

Term
Frontal Lobe
Definition
involved in voluntary movement and thinking.  Is immature in the newborn.
Term
Occipital Lobe
Definition
involved in vision
Term
Temporal Lobe
Definition
involved in hearing
Term
Parietal Lobe
Definition
involved in processing information about body sesations
Term
The cerebral cortex is divided into two halves, or __.
Definition
hemispheres
Term
Lateralization
Definition
the specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other
Term
T/F: All language processing is carried out in the left hemisphere.
Definition
False
Term
What do neuroscientists believe wires or rewires the brain?
Definition
Repeated experience
Term
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
Definition
also called crib death, occurs when infants stop breathing, usually during the night, and abruptly die without an apparent cause and withour warning.  It is the highest cause of infant death in the US.
Term
Risk factors for SIDS
Definition
Low birth weight, siblings have had it, sleep apnea, African American and Eskimo infants, lower socioeconomic groups, passively exposed to cigarette smoke, soft bedding
Term
Which theorist said this:  Twice as many synaptic connections are made as will ever be needed
Definition
Huttenlocher
Term

Which theorist: connections will be "pruned"

Definition
Huttenlocher
Term
Who conducted a experiments with rats to show whether early experiences change the brain's development?
Definition
Mark Rosenzweig
Term
Results of the experiment where some rats were given enriched environments and some were not.
Definition
The brains of the animals growing up in the enriched environment developed better than the brains of the animals reared in standard or isolated conditions.  The brains of the "enriched" animals weighed more, had higher levels of neurochemical activity.
Term
Dynamic Systems Teory
Definition
Infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting.  Notice that perception and action are coupled according to this theory. Thelen.
Term
Theorist: Infants modulate their movement patterns to fit a new task by exploring and selecting possible configurations.
Definition
Adolph
Term
Theorist: Locomotion and postural control are closely linked, especially in walking upright.
Definition
Adolph
Term
Theorist: infants learn what kinds of places and surfaces afford safe locomotion
Definition
Adolph
Term

Who investigated how experienced and inexperienced crawling infants and walking infants go down steep slopes?

Definition
Karen Adolph
Term
What were the results of the steep slope experiment?
Definition
 Newly crawling and walking infants went down the steep slopes, often falling.  After weeks of practice, they became more adept at judging which slopes were too steep.
Term
"the old-fashioned view that growth and motor development reflect merely the age-related output of maturation is, at best, incomplete.  Rather, infants acquire new skills with the help of their care
Definition
Karen Adolph and Sarah Berger
Term
Infants do not have to see thier own hands in order to reach for an object because of...
Definition
Prroceptive clues from muscles, tendons, abd joints
Term
Definition
Term
Ecological View
Definition
we directly perceive information that exists in the world around us
Term

Affordances

Definition
opportunities for interaction offered by objects that fit within our capabilities to perform activities
Term
Who did the visual cliff study?
Definition

Gibson and Walks

Term
when is the central nervous system most vulnerable during development?
Definition
Week 3,4,5,6
Term

When is the development of the heart most vulnerable?

Definition
Week 4, 5,6
Term
When is the development of the Ears most vulnerable?
Definition
Weeks 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Term
When is the development of the eyes most vulnerable?
Definition
Weeks 5, 6, 7, 8
Term
When is the development of the arms most vulnerable?
Definition

Weeks 5, 6, 7, 8

Term
When is the development of the legs most vulnerable?
Definition
Weeks 5, 6, 7
Term

When is the development of the teeth most vulnerable?

Definition
Weeks 7, 8, 9
Term
When is the development of the palate most vulnerable?
Definition

Weeks 7, 8, 9

Term
When is the development of the external genitailia most vulnerable?
Definition

weeks 8, 9, 10