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Human Development 7e Midterm
Baby-Infancy Childhood Chapters 1-5 (James Vander Zanden)
92
Psychology
06/11/2007

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Term
Development
Definition
Change and the constancy over the life span. Orderly change over time from birth to death.
Term
Development Psychology
Definition
Changes over life span studied from psychological point of view, how people change in time. The role of the psychologist is to DESCRIBE< EXPLAIN< PREDICT< and CONTROL changes in behavior.
Term
Growth
Definition
increase in cells and tissues
Term
maturation
Definition
functional development changes over time period,for example motor development
Term
learning
Definition
permanent modification in behavior due to practice
Term
social norm
Definition
regulated people's behavior in each age strata
Term
age cohort
Definition
a group of persons born in the same time interval
Term
ascription
Definition
assignment of roles to individuals in independently of their unique abilities or qualities ex. sex, age, teenager, adolescent
Term
culture
Definition
social heritage of people;; learned patterns of thinking and behaving
Term
age strata
Definition
social layers that are based on time periods in life, youth, old age
Term
life span
Definition
the period from conception to death including both prenatal and post natal periods
Term
scientific method
Definition
1. selecting a researchable problem
2. formulating a hypotheses
3. testing hypotheses
4. drawing conclusions about the hypotheses
5. publishing the findings
Term
longitudinal method
Definition
a research approach in which the same individual is studied ober an extended time period
Term
cross sectional method
Definition
different groups varying in ages are simultaneously studied
Term
stimulus
Definition
stimulus=cause=independent variable shown by x horizontal axis
Term
response
Definition
response=effect=dependent variable shown by Y on vertical axis
Term
social survey method
Definition
survey method uses questionaire, telephone directory, interviews, a sample is tested from the population
Term
theory
Definition
is a set of interrelated statements that provide explanation for a class of events. Theory inspires research. hypotheses are based on theories. 100% theory is a law.
Term
Freud
Definition
psychoanalysis, instinctual drives, sex and aggression major forces of human motivation. Psychosexual stages. Libido (the energy of life instinct) lodges in various erogenous zones during development
Term
Psyhcosexual stages
Definition
oral 1-2
anal 3-4
phallic 4-6
latency 6-12
genital 12-18
Term
Overindulgence/ under-indulgence psycho sexual stage
Definition
over results in fixation
under resutls in regression
Term
Erikson
Definition
personality continues to develop over the entire life span. Psychosocial stages
Term
epigenetic principle
Definition
stages that each part of personality has a particular time in the life span when it must develop. if it does not, the rest of development is unfavorably altered
Term
behavioral theory
Definition
must be observable and measureable. emphasize condition and learning. Skinner thinks behavior is divided into units called responses. The environment is dividied into unts called the stimuli.
Term
behavior modifcation
Definition
is the application of learning theory and experimental psychology to changing mal-adaptive behavior
Term
humanistic theory
Definition
third force of psychology, stress human condition. holistic approach is followed. Behavior is looked at as a whole
Term
Maslow
Definition
low to high

biological physiological needs
safety needs
love and belongingness
self esteem
self actualization
Term
cognitive theory
Definition
congition.... Thinking, Reasoning, and Problem Solving and the Information processing
Term
Jean Piaget
Definition
cognitive stages, growth and maturity of an ind. ability to think reason and solve problems
Term
schema
Definition
a cognitive structure that people evolve for dealing with specific kinds of situations in their environment

Blue print age 2
Term
adaption
Definition
this process involves both assimilation and accomodation
Term
assimilation
Definition
taking new information and interpreting it so that it conforms to a currently held schema of the world

put in what it already knows
Term
accomodation
Definition
changing a schema to make it a better match to the world of reality
Term
equilibrium
Definition
balance between the two processes assimilation and accomodation
Term
the sensori-motor stage
birth to 2 years
Definition
the infant tries to discover the relationship between sensation and motor development. Infant shows positive emotions like joy and happiness about three months. Ego begins to develop around 6 months. The first memory appears about nie months. The infant responds to Object permanence-repappear and disappear an object
Term
the pre-operational stage
2-7
Definition
infancy terminates. the child begins to use symbols. language develops rapidly, 4 y/o the child shows egocentrism. Operation is defined as a mental act.
Term
the concrete operational stage
7-12
Definition
learn various mental operations and principles such as principles of order and reversibility. the child learns conservation mass principle. child operates mainly concrete
Term
the formal operational stage
12-18
Definition
there is a gradual shift from concrete to abstract thinking logical reasoning appear.

18- the individual can think. reason and perform various mental acts.
Term
evolutionary theory
Definition
organisms adapt to a new environment, based on evolution and natural selection and survival of the fittest
Term
ethology
Definition
behavior patterns of organisms from biological view point. organisms are genetically prepared for certain responses
Term
imprinting
Definition
a process of attachment during the critical period or sensitive period in the life of an organism
Term
kin selection
Definition
evolution favors genes that improve the chances of a group's survival
Term
mechanistic
Definition
universe is a machine composed of elementary particles in motion. humans viewed as physical objects
Term
organismic
Definition
focuses on the whole. human beings are seen as organized configurations
Term
eclectic approach
Definition
selects and choses from various theories
Term
Pre natal stages
Definition
Germinal -conception to 3 weeks
Embryonic: 3 weeks to 3 months
Fetal: 3 months to 9 months
Term
Post Natal Stages
Definition
neonate-first three weeks
infancy first 2 years
early childhood-2-7
middle 7-12
adolescent early12-14
middle-14-16
late 16-18
post-adol 18-21
yound adult 21-35
middle years 36-65
old age 66-death
Term
reproduction
Definition
organisms create more of their own
Term
sex cells
Definition
gamets include sperm and ovum
Term
male sex hormone


female sex hormone
Definition
androgen/ secreted from testes

estrogen/ovaries
Term
Germinal period
Definition
The first two to three weeks after conception. After fertilization the fertilized egg, called zygote, beings to go through rapid cell divisions when the zygote appears as a hollow ball cell=blastocyst.
Term
Fertilization
Definition
Union of sperm and an ovum in the upper third oviduct
Term
embryonic period
Definition
3 weeks to 3 months or 2-8 weeks.

development of embryo is cephalocaudal. from head to feet. and proximodistal from middle of the body to the sides. sex determined by father. placenta is to exchange food and oxygen for metobolic waste and carbon dioxide
Term
the fetal period
Definition
3 months -9 months

no changes, fetus is connected to the placenta
Term
the rh factor
Definition
85% of people are RH positive. 15% or Rh negative. If the mother is negative and her first child is positive then she might endanger her second child. Erthroblastiosis fetalis-risk is minimal now with transfusions
Term
maternal stress
Definition
adrenaline secreted from adrenal glands directly travels though placenta into the fetal blood stream and will cause various nervous disease and problems for the fetus.
Term
HELLO GIRL!
Definition
Hello Suzanne!!!!!!!

I hope you are studying hard!!!!

Peace out!
-Dea
Term
maternal age
Definition
young mothers 16 or older mothers over 45, might have downs syndrome children. 3 chromosomes appear in pair 21. results in a shorter life span.
Term
at risk
Definition
premature infants weighing less than 5 1/2 pounds and less than 37 weeks old. premature infants can die of respiratory distress syndrome.
Term
chromosomes
Definition
23 pairs.
zygote, 46 individual or 23 pairs

each chromosome contains thousands of genes that carry characteristics of the parents. each gene made up of DNA molecules which appear like a rope ladder under magnification
Term
Newborn sleeps
Definition
18-20 hours a day
Term
crying baby
Definition
unlearned , involuntary response, which signals the needs of the neonate
Term
morro relflex
Definition
tilting head backward slightly when the neonate is gently dropped
Term
rooting relfex
Definition
when touched corner of the mouth or cheek,.turns head toward stimulus
Term
sucking response
Definition
neonate sucks on objects placed in mouth
Term
sucking response
Definition
neonate sucks on objects placed in mouth
Term
babinski reflex
Definition
when gently touched dowm the sole to the toes, the toes of the neonate crawl outward
Term
grasp relfex
Definition
baby crawls fingers around the finger of the person
Term
swimming relex
Definition
when born under water the baby swims to the surface ., there are 27 reflexes at the time of birth
Term
rate growth of the brain
Definition
the nervous system develops more rapidly than other systems. rapid growth of the brain the first two years is amazing
Term
motor development first 2 weeks
Definition
rhythmical behavior
locomotion
manual skills
Term
vision at birth
Definition
black/white patterns. cannot focus or use accomodation
Term
visual constancy
Definition
the tendency for objects to look the same to us despite sensory inputs has not yet developed
Term
depth perception
Definition
Elenor Gibson's visual cliff experiment shows the infant will not cross over for fear of falling down
Term
taste and smell
Definition
the neonate likes sweet taste and smell,. but dislikes sour or bitter tastes and foul smell
Term
cutaneous senses
Definition
hot, cold, pressure, pain receptors are functional. neonate loves to be touched and held
Term
cognition
Definition
thinking, reasoning, and problem solving-process of knowing
Term
learning
Definition
stable, permanent, changes in behavior due to practice
Term
language
Definition
a structural system of sound patterns that have meaning
Term
phonology
Definition
joining units of sounds
Term
syntax
Definition
rules and grammar
Term
Brocas area
Definition
center for production of language (stroke)
Term
wernicke
Definition
center of comprehension of language
Term
communication
Definition
people transmit information,. ideas and attitudes and emotions

language facilitates cognitive processes
Term
language thoughts
Definition
language-verbal
emotions-non verbal, concepts formed by language, through conceptualization ( grouping peceptions into classes or categories) we can identify and classify information input
Term
Innateness Theory
Definition
Noam Chomsky- no other animal has this ability. infants are biologically adapted to lean a language. the speech areas or centers in the human brain provide excellent evidence for this theory. (inborn language generating mechanism)
Term
paralanguage
Definition
refers to the stress, pitch, and volume of vocalization, how something is said , not what is said
Term
cooing/babbling
Definition
about the third month cooing appears.

about the six month babbling appears.

even deaf children go through these stages
Term
holophrasic speech
Definition
also known as telegraphic speech. single words conveying different meanings, such as ball or out
Term
two words sentences (age)
Definition
18-22 months
Term
three word sentences
Definition
about 2 years old. there is a strong similarity between the sentences a child makes and the telegram an adult sends