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Human Biology Test 1
CH 1-4
136
Science
09/16/2009

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Term
Biosphere
Definition
The network of life or sphere of life on the planet
Term
Natural Selection
Definition
the process of change that produces the diversity of life on earth
Term
Scientific Method
Definition
a concept based on conclusions of observations and experimentation that joins together well-supported and related hypotheses
Term
Homeostasis
Definition
the maintenance of an internal environment of a cell that varies only within only within certain limits.
Term
Data
Definition
the information collected during an experiment or observation
Term
Ecosystem
Definition
At what level of organization do populations interact with each other and with the physical environment?
Term
Which one of the following is true regarding an ecosystem? A) Energy cycles and nutrients flow. B) Nutrients cycle and energy flows. C) Energy cycles and nutrients cycle. D) Energy flows and nutrients flow.
Definition
B. Energy cycle and energy flows
Term
Hypothesis
Definition
step in the scientific method is being described: the tentative explanation to be tested
Term
Select from among the following statements the one(s) that is/are true: All living things, including humans, reproduce and grow. DNA is the genetic material and ATP is the energy source of living things. Life has a history of about 3.5 billion years. Humans, unlike all other organisms, are not made of cells.
Definition
All living things, including humans, reproduce and grow.DNA is the genetic material and ATP is the energy source of living things
Term
Which of the following demonstrate(s) the principle that humans tend to modify existing ecosystems for their own selfish purpose? Humans plant crops. Humans clear forests and grasslands. Humans build houses. Humans convert small towns into cities.
Definition
All of the above!
Term
Differentiate between a control group and an experimental group.
Definition
A test group is a group of subjects being exposed to the experiment variable, and the control group is not exposed and used for comparison
Term
Variable
Definition
factors that can cause an observable change during the progress of an experiment
Term
Population
Definition
all members of the same species that populate a certain area
Term
After formulating a hypotheses, what does a scientist do?
Definition
predicts the outcome of the hypothesis.
Term
What level of organization includes cells of the same structure and function?
Definition
Tissue
Term
Humans are related to all living things
Definition
Human beings are the products of an evolutionary process.
Term
The human population encroaches on natural habitats.
Definition
Human beings are part of an ecosystem
Term
Like cells form tissues in the human body
Definition
Human beings reproduce and grow
Term
We learn to behave from our elders
Definition
Human beings have a cultural heritage
Term
Which one of the following describes how a principle differs from a theory? A principle has not yet been tested by experimentation. A principle is generally accepted as valid by most scientists. A principle has been tested by experimentation, but the results were not conclusive. A principle is supported by experiments and observations.

Definition
A principle has been tested by experimentation, but the results were not conclusive.
Term
After one has performed an experiment and collected data, what is the next step in the scientific method?
Definition
Give the conclusion and if the experiment id not match the hypothesis, you generate a new hypothesis.
Term
How, or by what process is energy brought into ecosystems? Be very specific and careful!!!!!
Definition
Human beings and other animals acquire materials and energy when they eat food.
Term
Which one of the following is an example of chemical cycling? A) Death and decay make inorganic nutrients available to plants. B) We eat and use the nutrients to grow or repair tissues. C) Plants absorb solar energy and make their own food. D) Hawks soar and nest in trees. E)Energy flows through an ecosystem and becomes heat.
Definition
B) We eat and use the nutrients to grow or repair tissues.
Term
What is the causative agent of peptic or stomach ulcers?
Definition
A bacteria known as HelicobacterPylori is the cause of gastritis and ulcers
Term
Which of the following statements is not correct, or is inaccurate? Humans are vertebrates. Humans belong to the animal Kingdom. Humans evolved from apes. Human and apes evolved from a common ancestor
Definition
Humans evolved from apes.
Term
Which one of the following has the MOST amount of validity or certainty associated with it: conclusion, theory or hypothesis?
Definition
Theory
Term
What is the most inclusive category used to classify organisms?
Definition
Eukarya
Term
If one knows the atomic number of an element, what else does one know concerning the same element?
Definition
How many protons, and how many electrons an atom has
Term
Ordinary nitrogen has 7 electrons, 7 protons, and 7 neutrons. What is different about an isotope of nitrogen?
Definition
the same type of atom but different in the number of neutrons and the mass
Term
What subatomic particles determine the atomic mass of an atom?
Definition
atomic mass units/neutrons
Term
What kind of chemical bonding would be mostly likely to form between an atom of 7 electrons in its outermost shell and an atom that has 1 electron in its outer shell?
Definition
Ionic Bonding
Term
Which of the following would be correct? water is an example of a molecule, a compound, or an ion?
Definition
all of the above
Term
An atom with an atomic number of 12 needs to have how many electrons to be electrically neutral?
Definition
12
Term
If the atomic number of an element is 15, then how many electrons are in the outermost shell of the atom?
Definition
5
Term
Ions
Definition
a charged atom with either an excess of electron or of protons.
Term
True or False: Water is a polar molecule in which electrons are shared equally.
Definition
True
Term
True or False: 60-70% of total body weight of most organisms is water.
Definition
True
Term
True or False: Due to hydrogen bonding, water molecules are cohesive.
Definition
True
Term
T or F: Hydrophilic molecules do not interact with water.
Definition
False
Term
Given the following CH4, HINT: A) what is the type of chemical bonding? B) What is the number of electrons on each atom's outer shell. HINT: FIRST RESPOND TO EACH H ATOM AND THEN TO THE C ATOM.
Definition
covalent bond H:1 C: 4
Term
In a water molecule, where does hydrogen bonding occur?
Definition
Between water molecules
Term
Acid
Definition
may either accept hydrogen ions in solution or may donate hydroxyl ions in a solution?
Term
Base
Definition
may donate hydrogen ions in a solution or may accept hydroxyl ions in a solution
Term
True or False: In an acidic solution the number of H+ ions is greater than the number of OH-, or hydroxide ione.
Definition
True
Term
A solution of pH 3 contains how many more hydrogen ions than the same amount of a solution with a pH of 5?
Definition
a ph of 3 has 200 more ions then a ph of 5
Term
Complete the following statement: the lower the pH the .....
Definition
the more acidic something will be the more hydrogen ions you have.
Term
The pH of blood is slightly basic. Which of the following pH numbers most closely reflects the pH of blood: 6.4, 4.6, 6.8, 7.4, or 13.8?
Definition
7.4
Term
What is a buffer? Cite two vital buffer present in the blood. Describe how these buffers work in order to help maintain the normal pH of blood.
Definition
Substance or group of substances that tend to resist ph changes of a solution thus stabilizing it's relative acidity and basicity
Term
TRUE/FALSE: Select from among the following statements or phrases those that are TRUE and those that are FALSE. A)The pH of blood is normally slightly basic. B)As the acidity increases, the pH increases. C)The pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. D)The pH extends from 0-14, therefore, pH 7 is neutral. E)The pH is logarithmic/[H+] varies ten-fold for every number.
Definition
A: True
B: False, the ph decreases
C: True
D: True
E: True
Term
Give the macromolecule that is composed of each of the following subunits, or monomers: nucleotides, amino acids, monosaccharides, glycerol/fatty acids.
Definition
amino acids=protein, glycerol/fatty acids=Lipids, monosaccaharides= carbohydrates, nucleotides=nucleic acids.
Term
Nitrogen is found in which of the following combination of molecules: glucose and fatty acids, amino acids and ATP, cellulose and starch, or nucleotides and steroids?
Definition
amino acids and atp
Term
What do cellulose, starch and glycogen have in common? Which one is used for energy storage in animals? In plants?
Definition
cellose, starch, and glycogen are polysaccharides that contain many glucose units. cellulose=plants glycogen=humans
Term
What is the structural difference between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids? HINT: three distinct differences!!! Which group tends to promote a healthy cardiovascular system?
Definition
1.unsaturated liquid @ room temp/Saturated is not
2.Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the carbon atoms chain is "saturated with all the carbons it can hold. Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds in the carbon chain.
3. UNSAT is good for your health
Term
Name a chemical that is produced by the body that has the same function as soap? What term is used to describe these two substances (made by the body and the soap)?
Definition
Emulsifiers-chemicals that cause water and fats to mix in humans prior to fat digestion, fatty food s are emulsified by bile secreted by the live and stored in the gallbladder.
Term
What determines the chemical difference (and therefore, the chemical properties) between one amino acid and another?
Definition
They differ according to their particular R group.
Term
Which of the following would be a description of what occurs when adjacent amino acids are chemically joined?: A peptide bond is formed. A covalent bond is involved. An ionic bond is formed. The joining is the result of a dehydration synthesis reaction.
Definition
The joining is the result of a dehydration synthesis reaction.
Term
Complimentary Base Pairing
Definition
the specific sequence of amino acids joined together which is under direct genetic control (DNA)?
Term
Which of the following pertains to an RNA nucleotide and not to a DNA nucleotide? Contains the sugar ribose, contains a nitrogen-containing base called uracil,contains a phosphate group or molecule, or becomes bonded to other nucleotides by dehydration synthesis.
Definition
Contains the sugar ribose, contains a nitrogen-containing base called uracil,
Term
What do cellulose, starch and glycogen have in common? Which one is used for energy storage in animals? In plants?
Definition
Cellulose, starch, and glycogen are polysaccharides that contain many glucose units. Cellulose=plants and glycogen=humans
Term
According to the text, there are four categories of organic molecules in living systems. Which of the categories are most enzymes classified?
Definition
carbohydrates: lipid, proteins, and nucleic acids
Term
hydrophilic, soluble in water, is polar, contains a sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate molecule and is a major component of cell membranes?
Definition
Phosolipids
Term
Describe the arrangement of phospholipids within plasma membranes.b
Definition
they spontaneously form a bilayer in which in which the hydrophilic heads face outward, toward watery solutions and the tails form the hydrophobic interior.
Term
What are trans fats? Do they promote good cardiovascular health? Explain.
Definition
are in vegetable oils that have been partially hydrogenated to make them semi-solid. no they do not increase your LDL cholesterol and decrease your good cholesterol.
Term
What is the term call that describes what happens to proteins when they are subjected to extremes of heat, temperature, or strong salt solutions?
Definition
denaturation
Term
Chemically and functionally, what is ATP? B. Where, within the molecule is most of the stored energy located?
Definition
the universal energy currency of cells is composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups. (triphosphate) when cells require energy ATP undergoes hydrolysis producing ADP + P with a release of energy.
Term
Chemically and functionally, what is ATP? B. Where, within the molecule is most of the stored energy located?
Definition
the universal energy currency of cells is composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups. (triphosphate) when cells require energy ATP undergoes hydrolysis producing ADP + P with a release of energy.
Term
What are the chemical components found in a nucleotide?
Definition
nitrogen base (A C G T) a phosphate group PO4 and a pentose sugar (ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA)
Term
Why is it about the chemical structure of cellulose that makes it non-digestible by humans?
Definition
The appropriate enzymes to breakdown the betaacetal linkages are lacking. the indigestable cellulose is used as fiber.
Term
What do the following have in common: sucrose, lactose, maltose? HINT: Two Commonalities
Definition
have the same chemical formula C12H22O11 and all have at least one glucose molecule
Term
Which is NOT a correct match: lipid: fat, carbohydrate: disaccharide, nucleic acid: DNA, or protein: nucleotide?
Definition
protein;nucleotide
Term
Which of these associations are mismatched: nervous tissue - conduction and message sending? epithelial tissue - protection and absorption? connective tissue - binding and support? Nervous tissue - specialized for conducting impulses? muscle tissue -binds structures together/provide structural support?
Definition
muscle tissue: binds structures together and provides structural support
Term
Which type of tissue is more likely to line the lumen of the digestive tract?
Definition
columnar epithelium
Term
How is Simple epithelium described or classified: where it is, how many blood vessels it has, shape of the cells, number of cell layers, or the shape of the cells and the number of cell layers?
Definition
number of cell layers
Term
Name the specific tissue that contains a fluid ground matrix, or substance.
Definition
Fibrous Connective Tissue
Term
A fetal skeleton is made of what specific kind of connective tissue? What specific type of connective tissue replaces a fetal skeleton?
Definition
Hyaline Cartilage-----> turns into bone
Term
Which of the following is/are related to tendons and ligaments: connective tissue, subject to injury, found in vertebrae, associated with bones?
Definition
Connective Tissue...subject to injury....associated with bones
Term
Name two specific kinds of connective tissues that have their cells housed in lacunae.
Definition
Cartilage and Bone
Term
Why is cartilage injury hard to heal?
Definition
has no direct blood supply
Term
Name the kind of tissue that does the following: A) covers body surfaces and lines cavities? B) specialized for conducting impulses? C) binds organs together, provides support and protection, fills spaces, produces blood cells and stores fat? D) contains actin and myosin filaments, and accounts for contractile movement?
Definition
A.Epthelial:covers body surfaces and lines cavities

B.Nevous:specialized for conducting impulses

C.Connective:binds organs together, provides support and protection, fills spaces, produces blood cells and stores fat

D.muscular:ontains actin and myosin filaments, and accounts for contractile movement
Term
Select from among the following the one that would best describe the main function of epithelial tissue: sensation, protection, support, contraction.
Definition
Protection
Term
Select from among the following functions the one(s) that would be a protective function of epithelial tissue: sweeps up impurities via cilia, waterproof barrier, or secrete mucus?
Definition
secrete mucus ..... sweeps up impurities via cilia
Term
Explain why the rationale for the name pseudostratified columnar epithelium. B) Cite one location of this type of epithelium.
Definition
appears to be layered (false layers)

ex: lining of windpipe [trachea]
Term
What is being described: epithelium, which consists of a single layer of cells (( simple epithelia)? B) give the three categories of this kine of epithelium and, C) a general location of each in or on the body.
Definition
A) Simple Epitheilia



B) (1) airsacs of lungs (2) walls of blood vessels

C)
Term
Select from among the following, the activity that is not a function of adipose tissue: insulation, organ protection, blood cell formation, or energy reserve?
Definition
blood cell formation
Term
What is being descried: epithelial that secretes a product, whether it is a single cell, or many cells?
Definition
glandular
Term
Distinguish and give one example of the following: A) endocrine gland. B) exocrine gland.
Definition
A. endocrine:glands that have no duct ( excrete internally)B.exocrine: glands that secret onto outer surface ex: sweat glands and mammory glands

ex: pituitary gland [transported by blood stream]

Term
Give three (3) locations of transitional epithelium. B) How is this location related to the functions carried out by the organs that contain this tissue?
Definition
A.urinary bladder, ureters, part of urethra

B. when organs stretch, epithileium stretches and takes on a squamous appearence
Term
Identify the type of cells found in loose fibrous, dense fibrous and adipose tissue.
Definition
loose:lungs, arteries, urinary bladder dense: tendons and ligaments

adipose:beneath skin, around kidneys, surface of heart
Term
What is being described: cells that form a plug, sealing holes in injured vessels during blood clotting?
Definition
platelets
Term
How would a reduction in red blood cells cause problems?
Definition
would decrease ability to fight infection
Term
Identify the following: a type of cartilage found at the ends of long bones, nose, ribs, and respiratory passages?
Definition
hyaline cartilage
Term
Identify the following types of cartilages that are depicted. A. A type of cartilage that can withstand great pressure and tension; found between the vertebrae and wedges in knee joints? B. A very elastic type of cartilage that is found in the epiglottis and external ear? C. A type of cartilage that is found at the ends of the long bones, nose, ribs, and respiratory passages?
Definition
A.Fibrocartilage

B.Elastic

C.Hyaline
Term
What is being described: the most rigid type of connective tissue?
Definition
Bone
Term
What is being described: the most rigid type of connective tissue?
Definition
Bone: Matrix is sold and rigid that is made of collagen and calcium salts.
Term
Give the general name for the special class of connective tissue that is about to be described: is solid yet flexible, is found at the joints, nose, ears, discs between the vertebrae, and other places?
Definition
Cartilage
Term
Identify the following according to type of cell junction: A)forms when a channel is formed between two adjacent plasma membranes? B)forms an impermeable barrier, where plasma membranes join? B) Found in the cells of the kidney tubules E)Forms when adjacent plasma membranes have filaments that firmly attached at button-like thickenings?
Definition
A. Tight junction B. Gap Junction C. Tight Junction D. Adhesion Junction
Term
Which of the following components of blood fight infection or engulf pathogens: plasminogen, platelets, white blood cells, or red blood cells?
Definition
White Blood Cells
Term
What is being described: cells of the nervous system that have specialized helper functions and outnumber the neuron nine to one? HINT: THEY COME IN THREE DIFFERENT CELL TYPES!!!!!
Definition
Neuroglia
Term
Identify the cell type (found in nervous system) that has a phagocytic function.
Definition
Microglea
Term
Identify the following cell type that is being described: highly specialized cell in the nervous system that conducts signals?
Definition
Oglio Dendrocytes
Term
Select the functions that can be attributed to blood:A) Protects from disease and prevent blood loss. B) Removes carbon dioxide and other waste products from cell. C) Transports oxygen and nutrients to cell. D) Distributes heat.
Definition
A, B, C
Term
What is being described in the following situiations: is voluntary and is attached to the bones of the skeleton? is called visceral lmuscle, has spindle shaped cells, and is found in the walls of rogans? is found only in the wall of the heart? a type of muscle tissue that is bound end to end with intercalated discs? is involuntay and smooth? is voluntary and striated?
Definition
Muscle Tissue 1. Skeletal 2. Smooth 3. Cardiac 4. Smooth 5. Skeletal
Term
Identify the following kinds of membranes: A) lines external openings of the body (digestive, urinary, and reproductive)? B) lines the thoracic and abdominal cavities? C) Surrounds the brain and spinal cord? D) lines freely movable joints?
Definition
A. Mucous

B. Serous

C. meninges

D.Synovial
Term
Name the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Definition
Diaphragm
Term
Inflammation of the membrane covering the lungs is known as ______. Inflammation of the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is known as _____.
Definition
Pleura. Peritonitis
Term
Which of the following is a function of skin: protection from invading pathogens, temperature regulation, manufacture of vitamin D, or collection of sensory input?
Definition
All of the above!
Term
Select from among the pairs, the correct matched locations in the skin: keratinization - epidermis; nerve/blood vessels - epidermis; hair follicle - dermis; sense organs - dermis; fat - subcutaneous layer.
Definition
keratinization-epidermis, sense organs-dermis, fat- subcutaneous layer
Term
Select from among the following, the activity that is an example of a positive feedback mechanism: temperature regulation, childbirth, blood pressure stabilizes, blood clotting, or regulation of the ovarian cycle in human females.
Definition
Childbirth
Term
What is being described: a type of homeostatic mechanism that reduces any changes or keeps a variable close to a particular point?
Definition
Negative Feedback
Term
Which of the following is an example of negative feedback? A) Air conditioning goes off when room temperature lowers. B) Heart rate increases when blood pressure drops. C) Insulin decreases blood sugar levels after eating a meal rich in carbohydrates.
Definition
A. Air conditioning goes off when room temperature lowers.
Term
Identify the specific kind of epithelium that lines blood capillaries and the air sacs of the lungs.
Definition
Simple squamous epithelial tissue
Term
Which, if any, of the following homeostatic mechanisms does the liver mediate: regulation of blood glucose through insulin, detoxification of chemicals, or collection of excess tissue fluid?
Definition
regulation of blood glucose through insulin, detoxification of chemicals
Term
Describe the behavior of the superficial blood vessels and sweat glands when a human being is A) cold. B) hot.
Definition
A. When the body is cold the blood vessels of the skin constrict. This conserves heat.
B. When the body is hot the blood vessels of the skin dilate. This allows blood flow to move toward the surface of the body and release heat.
Term
Name two organs that can be found in the dorsal cavity. This cavity has two subdivision. Name them.
Definition
Brain within the cranial cavity, and the spinal chord within the vertebral cavity.
Term
The ventral cavity has two major subdivisions. Name each one and give the names of two different organs that can be found in each subdivision.
Definition
horacic cavity houses the heart and lungs, and the Abdominal cavity houses the stomach, liver, and intestines.
Term
What is being described: functions in blood cell production, mineral storage, and movement?
Definition
Skeleton
Term
Name a layer that is associated with the skin that is involved in storing energy?
Definition
Subcutaneous
Term
Label the diagram of body cavities shown in number 30 on page 84.
Definition
A. Cranial Cavity B. Vertebral Cavity C. Dorsal Cavity D. diaphragm E. Pelvic Cavity F. Abdominal Cavity, G. Thoracic Cavity H. Ventral Cavity
Term
Running up two flights of stairs may produce an oxygen defit. Explain. (pg 56)
Definition
your muscles have run out of oxygen and have started fermenting insead.Fementation is an anaerobic process meaning that it does not require oxygen when oxygen is not available to cells the electron transport chain soon b/c's in operative b/c oxygen is not present to accept electrons.
Term
Which of the following utilizes ATP: muscle contraction, nerve impulse conduction, synthesis of molecules in cells, or active transport of molecules across the cell membrane?
Definition
Muscle contraction and active transport of molecules across the cell membrane
Term
Which one of the following is a description of what happens when a human cell is placed in the a hypotonic solution or environment? Water enters the cell toward the area of higher solute concentration. Solute exits the cell to equalize the concentration on both sides of the membrane. Water exits the cell toward the area of higher solute concentration. Equal amounts of water exits and enters the cell.
Definition
water exists the cell toward the area of higher solute concentration. the cell shrinks
Term
Choose the following molecules that may not easily pass through the cell membrane: water molecules, small lipid molecules, proteins with associated cell carriers, or large, charged, foreign molecules?
Definition
Large, charged, foreign molecules
Term
If a cell lacks ribosomes, what activity does not occur?
Definition
Protien synthesis and there would be no RNA
Term
Use the terms given to label the diagram shown on page 60, number 29.
Definition
A. Active site
B. substrates
C. Product
D. Enzyme
E. Enzyme substrate complex
F. Enzyme
Term
What special class of proteins is being: speed up metabolic reactions, effective in small amounts,and can be used over and over again?
Definition
co-enzyme is organic molecule, and carry chemical groups between enzymes.
co-factor is a non protein chemical compound and a co-factor is bound tightly to the enzyme and is required for the catalytic reaction to occur.
Term
Chemically, how does a coenzyme differ from an enzyme? BE CAREFUL!!! Check notes.
Definition
co enzymes has hydrogen where enzymes do not.
Term
Label the diagram for problem number 28 on page 60.
Definition
a. carbohydrate
b. hydrophillic heads
c. phosolipid bilayer
d. hydrophobic heads
e. filaments of cytoskeleton
f. protein
g. protein
Term
t the end of cellular respiration, the oxygen that is required by cellular respiration becomes a part of which molecule ?
Definition
H2O after oxygen receives the electrons it combines w/ hydrogens and bc's water
Term
During the process of cellular respiration, which metabolic process (phase) produces the most ATP?
Definition
During the eletron-transport chain
Term
What is being described: the process by which cells completely break down glucose to carbon dioxide and water with the release of energy?
Definition
cellular respiration
Term
Which pathway of cellular respiration does not require the presence of oxygen?
Definition
Glycolysis
Term
34a. carbon dioxide
34b. oxygen
34c. water
34d. NADH yields NAD+
Definition
a. citric acid cycle
b. electron transport system
c. electron transport system
d. glycolysis
Term
Match the pathway to a location.
35a. Electron transport chain
35b. Glycolysis
35c. citric acid cycle
Definition
a. cristae of the mitochondria
b. In the cytoplasm
c. matrix of the mitochondria
Term
Which of the following is true regarding fermentation? It begins with glucose. It occurs in the absence of oxygen. It has a net gain of only two ATP molecules. It occurs in the cytoplasm. It donates electrons to the electron transport system. The NAD that is produced is required to maintain glycolysis- the only means of extracting energy in the form of ATP
Definition
It occurs int he absence of oxygen. It has a net gain of only two ATP molecules. It occurs in the cytoplasm. The NAD that is produced is required to maintain glycolysis.
Term
Which pathway of cellular respiration produces: A)32 molecules of ATP? B)A total of 4 ATPs and a net of two? C) a total/net of 2 ATPs?
Definition
a. electron-transport chain
b. glycolysis
c. citric acid cycle
Term
Which one of the following is an accurate description of yeast fermentation? An energy source is not required. Oxygen is required. Alcohol and carbon dioxide are given off?
Definition
Alcohol and carbon dioxide are given off