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How societies are studied
F,G,H,I
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Sociology
07/15/2011

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Term
Society
Definition
A group of people who share a culture and a territory.
Term
Sociological perspective
Definition
stresses the sociological conyext in which people live.or were raised incl
Term
Social Location
Definition
the corners in life that people occupy, because of where they are located in a society
Term
Scientific Method
Definition
Using objective, systematic observations to test theories
-was being tried out in chemistry and physics.
Term
Sociology
Definition
The study of society (from the greek logos,"study of", and the latin socious." "companion' or "being with others")began in europe in the mid 1800s
Term
Positivism
Definition
By Auguste Comte (1798-1857) suggested that we apply the scientific method to the social world.
Term
Class conflict
Definition
By Karl Marx
the engine of human history
Term
Bourgeoisie
Definition
the capitalist who own the capital, land, factories, and machines
by Karl Marx
natural enemy : proletariat
Term
Proletariat
Definition
the exploited workers
by Karl Marx
Term
Social Intergration
Definition
The degree to which people are tied to their social group: Found that people who have weaker ties are more likely to commit suicide.
By : Emile Durkheim
Term
Basic Sociology
Definition
analyzing some aspect of society, with no goal other than gaining knowledge.
Term
Applied Sociology
Definition
using sociology to solve problems
Term
Public Sociology
Definition
American Sociological Association is promoting a middle ground between research and reform.
Term
Symbolic interactionism
Definition
is that -symbols- things to which we attach meaning - are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another.
Term
Theory
Definition
is a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work.
Term
Functional analysis
Definition
is that sociaty is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together.
Term
Macro level
Definition
that is, they examine large scale patterns of society
Term
micro level
Definition
focus usually on symbolic interactionists
Term
social interaction
Definition
what people do when they are in one another's presence
Term
nonverbal interaction
Definition
(gestures use of spaace and so on ex: silence of a homeless shelter
Term
roles
Definition
the behaviors, obligations and privilages attached to a status - were already set up for you.
Term
group
Definition
consists of people who interact with one another and who feel that the values, interests and norms they have in common are important.
Term
Social institutions
Definition

the standard or usual ways that a society meets its basic needs- vitally effect your life

ex: family, religion , education,economy,medicine,politics,law,science,military,mass media,technology

Term
Auste Comte
(1798-1857)
Definition
positivisn = applying the scientific method to the social world
wondered about social order
believed sociology should guide social reform
'armed sociology"
Term
Herbert Spencer
(1820-1883) and Social Darwinism
Definition
Believed societies evolve from lower to higher form
believe charity and helping the poor were wrong
armchair sociology
Term
Karl Marx
(1818-1883) and class conflict
Definition
social reformer believed econ. class conflict was behind all human history.
controling class of capitalist, who own the means of production vs. the exploited class who provides the labor
supported revolution to achive utopia of a classes society
viewed religion as a means to keep the exploited in thrall
Term
Modern socs.
Max Weber (1864-1920) and the protestant Ethic
Definition
religion was the central force of social change
catholics = church= salvation
protestants =signs = financial success
--- they lived frugal lives saving money and investing in surplus which nrought out capitalism
capitalism flurished in protestant countries.
Term
Emile Durheim
(1858- 1917) and social Integration
Definition
succede in getting sociology recognized as a separate academic discipline
demostraited that social forces affect peoples behaivior in a classic study of suicide
showed that suicide was correlated to a group's level of socialintergration, it didnt occur randomly
Term
when was social security formed ?
Definition
1935
Term
when did england first industrialize ?
Definition
1750
Term
where did manufacturing 1st beging ?
Definition
in a meat factory in Chicago IL.
Term
Hypothesis
Definition
a testible verifiable of fasiable proposition concerning the relationship between particular sets of variables in collected data
eithe rejected or not but never accepted
Term
variable
Definition
data that changes from case to case
Term
theory
Definition
interconnected hypothesis that offer general explanations for naturals or social phenomena
Term
YMCA London 1899
Definition
To improve the spiritual condition among young men in the drapery and other trades
Term
conflict
Definition
society is composed of groups that engage in competition, sometimes fierce, for scarece resources
Term
symbolic Interactionism
Definition
behaiviors depend on how we define ourselvs and others
Term
Functionalism
Definition
society is a whole unit it is made up of interrelated parts that work together
Term
Master Status Variables
Definition
sex age race
Term
class
Definition
defined by wealth , income , education, occupation, opportunity
and parents variables count too
Term
in preindustrial sociaties
Definition
Lineage matters class did not exist
Term
marion tallot
Definition
editor of the american journal of sociology for 30 years
Term
grace abbout
Definition
first chief of u.s. children's burreau
Term
Frances Perkins
Definition
first to hold cabinet position for 12 years as secretary of labor unders president franklin roosevelt
Term
w.e.b. du bois 1868-1963
Definition
fist african american to earn doctorate at hardvard studyed relations between black and whites naacp founder social reformer editor of crisis
Term
Jane addams 1860 -1935
Definition
nobel peace price winner for peace
worked on behalf of poor immigrants
founded hull house a center to help immigrants in chicago
leader in womens rights
Term
Talcott parsons 1902 - 1979
Definition
developed abstract models of society that influence a generation of sociology
Term
manifest function
Definition
is an action intended to help some part of a system
Term
latent functions
Definition
unintended consiquences that help a system adjust.
Term
latent disfunctions
Definition
human unintended actions that hurt a system.
Term
Robert Merton 1910-2003
Definition
dismissed the organic theory analogy, maintained the essence of functionalism - image of society as a whole being composed of parts that work together
used functions to refer to the benefecial consequences
Term
who is Harriet Marineau ?
Definition
translated comte
published a discription of american sociaty
Term
when did the first apartment exist and where was it constructed ?
Definition
1869 and in new york
Term
failure or success in a city depended on
Definition
income
Term
coke from coal was likely used to
Definition
smelt iron
Term
3 downfalls of city living
Definition
lack of privacy, conformaty , people weren't nice
Term
4 things fossil fuels lead to ?
Definition
production of goods, transportation, electricity, accompleshing work tasks
Term
symbolic interactionism
Definition
weber
Term
why do symbols change over time ?
Definition
eviormental and sociaty changes
Term
what did karl marx looked at class conflict as and what do we view it today as ?
Definition
marx: between social classes
today: amoung social classes
Term
what does functionalism examine ?
Definition
sociaty as a whole working out interelated parts or social institutions working together.
Term
what is protestestant ethic and who did it?
Definition
if you worked hard god will give you a sign that you are saved
max weber.
Term
who invented the stock market ?
Definition
proltestants=capitalist
Term
what two religions did max weber notice a big difference in ?
Definition
catholics = merchantile
prolestans= capitalism
Term
who argued "social darwinism " meaning societies go from primitive forms to more advanced forms ?
Definition
herbert spencer !
Term
what are the 6 steps in the scientific method ?
Definition
1theory/ general observation
2hypothesis
3empirical observation
4analysis- statistics and probability
5 explanation
6 theory
Term
who where the socail philosiphers?
Definition
comte, spencer,marx
Term
who were social reformers?
Definition
w.e.b. dubois. addams . durkhime
Term
what is the deffenition of factory production ?
Definition
specialized labor- knowing how to do one task not the whole process
Term
what was the purpose of minimum wage ?
Definition
it was desingned to have a minimum amount of pay to survive.
Term
what was the key invention to indudtrilazation ?
Definition
the steam enginee
Term
what do the most industrialized nations have incommon?
Definition
are europe or at some point where colonized by europe
Term
original need of the steam engine was to ?
Definition
pump water out of the deep mines