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Hole's Chapter 4 Vocabulary
intro terms and bold terms
50
Anatomy
09/28/2009

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Term
aer-
Definition
air
Term
an-
Definition
without
Term
ana-
Definition
up
Term
cata-
Definition
down
Term
co-
Definition
with
Term
de-
Definition
undoing
Term
mut-
Definition
change
Term
-strat
Definition
spread out
Term
sub-
Definition
under
Term
-zym
Definition
causing to ferment
Term
anabolism
Definition
synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones; anabolic metabolism
Term
catabolism
Definition
breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones; catabolic metabolism
Term
dehydration synthesis
Definition
anabolic process that joins small molecules by releasing the equivalent of a water molecule
Term
peptide bond
Definition
bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another
Term
dipeptide
Definition
molecule composed of two joined amino acids
Term
polypeptide
Definition
compound formed by the union of many amino acid molecules
Term
hydrolosis
Definition
enzymatically adding a water molecule to split a molecule into smaller portions
Term
substrate
Definition
target of enzyme action
Term
active sites
Definition
region of an enzyme molecule that temporarily combines with a substrate
Term
metabolic pathways
Definition
"series of linked, enzymatically controlled chemical reactions"
Term
rate-limiting enzyme
Definition
"enzyme, usually present in small amounts, that controls the rate of a metabolic pathway by regulating one of its steps"
Term
cofactor
Definition
small molecule or ion that must combine with an enzyme for activity
Term
coenzyme
Definition
combines with acetyl to form acetyl coenzyme A which then enters the citric acid cycle
Term
vitamins
Definition
"organic compound other than a carbohydrate, lipid, or protein that is needed for normal metabolism but that the body cannot synthesize in adequate amounts and must therefore be obtained in the diet"
Term
energy
Definition
"ability to cause something to move, and thus do work"
Term
adenosine triphosphate
Definition
"organic molecule that stores energy and releases energy, which may be used in cellular processes; ATP"
Term
adenosine diphosphate
Definition
molecule produced when adenosine triphosphate loses a terminal phosphate; ADP
Term
phosphorylation
Definition
metabolic process that adds a phosphate to an organic molecule
Term
oxidation
Definition
process by which oxygen is combined with another chemical; the removal of hydrogen or the loss of electrons; the opposite of reduction
Term
cellular respiration
Definition
cellular process that releases energy from organic compounds
Term
citric acid cycle
Definition
"series of chemical reactions that oxidizes certain molecules, releasing energy; Krebs cycle p.120"
Term
electron transport chain
Definition
series of oxidation-reduction reactions that takes high-energy electrons from glycolyis and the citric acid cycle to form water and ATP
Term
lactic acid
Definition
organic compound formed from pyruvic acid during the anaerobic reactions of cellular respiration
Term
acetyl coenzyme A
Definition
intermediate compound produced during the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats
Term
genome
Definition
complete set of genetic instructions for an organism
Term
gene
Definition
"portion of DNA that encodes the information to synthesize a protein, a control sequence, or tRNA or rRNA. The unit of inheritance"
Term
genetic code
Definition
information for synthesizing proteins that is encoded in the nucleotide sequence of DNA molecules
Term
complementary base pairs
Definition
hydrogen bond joins adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine in DNA. Adenine boinds to uracil in RNA
Term
replication
Definition
production of an exact copy of a DNA molecule
Term
DNA
Definition
"deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material; a double-stranded polymer of nucleotides, each containing a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine), and the sugar deoxyribose; DNA"
Term
RNA
Definition
"ribonucleic acid; single stranded polymer of nucleotides; each containing a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base (adenine, uracil, guanine, or cytosine), and the sugar ribose"
Term
messenger RNA (mRNA)
Definition
RNA that transmits information for a protein's amino acid sequence from the nucleus of a cell ot the cytoplasm; mRNA
Term
transcription
Definition
manufacturing a complementary RNA from DNA
Term
codons
Definition
set of three nucleotides from messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule corresponding to a particular amino acid
Term
translation
Definition
assembly of an amino acid according to the sequence of base triplets in an mRNA molecule
Term
transfer RNA (tRNA)
Definition
RNA molecule that carries an amino acid to a ribosome in protein synthesis
Term
ribosomal RNA
Definition
organelle composed of RNA and protein that is a structural support for protein synthesis
Term
repair enzymes
Definition
protein that removes mismatched nucleotides fron a section of DNA and replaces them with complementary nucleotides
Term
mutagens
Definition
agent that can cause mutations
Term
activation energy
Definition
energy required by metabolic reactions before they proceed