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History of Psychology
Exam
263
Psychology
11/14/2011

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

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Term

Gestalt

Definition

A system of Psychology that focuses largely on learning and perception. They emphasized the “Whole”, suggesting that combining sensory elements produces new patterns with properties that did not exist in the individual elements.  

Term
Pragnanz
Definition
The law of simplicity, we order our experiences in a matter that is simple, it cannot be broken down.
Term
Field theory
Definition
Lewins system using the concept of fields of force to explain behavior in terms of one’s field of social influences.
Term
Fields of Force
Definition
regions or spaces traversed by lines of force, such as of a magnet or electric current.
Term
Insight
Definition
Immediate apprehension or cognition or the apparently spontaneous apprehension or understanding of relationships. →There is no underling conditioning taking place, rather from a certain point on, a realization of understanding the relationship occurs.
Term
Phi phenomenon
Definition
The illusion that two stationary flashing lights are moving from one place to another.→Apparent movement does not need explaining, it exists as it is perceived and cannot be reduced to anything simpler.
Term
Isomorphism
Definition
The doctrine that there is a correspondence between psychological or conscious experience and the underlying brain experiences. (Isomorphism accounts for the phi phenomenon)
Term
Life space
Definition
A special representation of all the forces that control a persons behavior, or a persons psychological activities occur with in a kind of psychological field. Life space is consisting of the persons needs in interaction with the psychological environment. It encompasses the past, present, and future events, which all effect behavior in a given situation.
Term
Perceptual constancies
Definition
A quality of wholeness or completeness in perceptual experience that does not vary even when the sensory elements change.
Term
Phenomenology
Definition
Stumpf’s introspective method that examined experience as it occurred and did not try to reduce experience to elementary components. Also an approach to knowledge based on an unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs, not analyzed or reduced to elements.
Term
Zeigarnik effect
Definition
The tendency to recall uncompleted tasks more easily than completed tasks.
Term
Productive thinking
Definition
Wertheimer’s book on productive thinking, proposed thinking is done in terms of wholes.
Term
Brick-and-mortar psychology
Definition
A gestalt psychologist referred to Wundt’s approach (as they understood it) as brick and mortar psychology implying that the elements (the bricks) where held together by the mortar of the association process.
Term
Anxiety: Freud’s 3 anxieties
Definition
Objective: arises from fear of real life situations
Neurotic: anxiety arising from deliberating over id impulses. It is fear of the punishment, not the impulse.
Moral: The ideal self vs. the actual self, anxiety from having to act against your morals.
Term
Catharsis
Definition
The process of reducing or eliminating a complex by recalling it to conscious awareness and allowing it to be expressed.
Term
Defense mechanisms
Definition
Behaviors that represent unconscious denials or distortions of reality but which are adopted to protect the ego against anxiety.
Term
Dream analysis
Definition
A psychotherapeutic technique involving the interpretation of dreams to uncover unconscious conflicts.
Term
Ego
Definition
The rational aspect of personality responsible for controlling the instincts. The ego serves as a mediator between the id and the circumstances of the external world to facilitate their interaction. The ego does not exist independently of the id, it derives its energy from the id and constantly strives to bring satisfaction to the ids instincts.
Term
Id
Definition
The source of psychic energy and the aspect of personality allied with the instincts. The Id seeks immediate satisfaction without regard for the circumstances of reality.
Term
Super ego
Definition
The moral aspect of personality derived from internalizing parental and societal values and standards. The superego has two parts the conscious and the ego-ideal. The superego represents morality and a striving for perfection.
Term
Free association
Definition
A psychotherapeutic technique in which the patient says whatever comes to mind. Used to treat neurosis.
Term
Freudian slip
Definition
An act of forgetting or a lapse in speech that reflects unconscious motives or anxieties. “A blunder or faulty performance”
Term
Instincts (acc Freud)
Definition
Mental representations of internal stimuli (such as hunger) that motivate personality and behavior. Instincts are the motivating forces of the personality. Freud used instincts only to describe innate drives in animals.
Sources of stimulation within the body
Term
Manifest content
Definition
The dreamer’s story of the actual dream, recalling the events of the dream.
Term
Latent content
Definition
The dreams true significance, the dreams hidden or symbolic meaning.
Term
Oedipus complex
Definition
At ages 4-5, the unconscious desire of a boy for his mother and the desire to replace or destroy his father.
Term
Pleasure principle
Definition
Pleasure is life’s major goal; most things done for pleasure are influenced by cultural constraints
Term
Psychosexual stages
Definition
In psychoanalytic theory, the developmental stages of childhood centering on erogenous zones.
Oral: stimulation of the mouth, such as sucking, biting, and swallowing
Anal: Gratification from the anus, such as toilet training or expel or withhold feces.
Phallic: Erotic satisfaction involves sexual fantisies and fondling and exhibiting of the genitals. The Oedipus complex takes place in this stage.
Latent: Sexual urges are repressed; children only play with the same sex.
Genital: Sexual urges emerge again
Term
Repression
Definition
The process of ejecting or excluding from consciousness any unacceptable ideas, memories, and desires, leaving them to operate instead in the unconscious.
Term
Resistance
Definition
A blockage or refusal to disclose painful memories during a free-association session.
Term
Transference
Definition
The process by which a patient responds to the therapist as if the therapist were a significant person (such as a parent) in the patient’s life.
Term
Heinz Kohut
Definition
replaced psychosexual stages with development of self; the primary developmental and therapeutic goal is replacing fragmented self with cohesive self
Term
Analytical psychology
Definition
Jung’s theory of personality
No Oedipus complex
Focus on inner growth instead of social relationships
Defined libido differently from Freud, to Jung the libido is regarded as a generalized life energy of which sex was only a part. Furthermore libidinal energy expressed itself in growth, reproduction, and other activities, depending on what was crucial for an individual.
Personality was not shaped fully in childhood and could be altered throughout one’s lifetime
Added the collective unconscious
Term
Archetypes
Definition
Inherited tendencies within the collective unconscious that dispose a person to behave similarly to ancestors who confronted similar situations.
We typically experience archetypes in the form of emotions associated with significant life events.
Jung considered the Self to be the most important archetype because it integrates the drive towards self-actualization and unconscious
Term
anima/animus
Definition
The anima/animus archetypes reflect the idea that each person exhibits some of the characteristics of the other sex.
The anima refers to feminine characteristics in man
The animus refers to masculine characteristics in woman.
Term
Persona
Definition
A mask each of us wears when we come in contact with other people; the mask represents us, as we want to appear in society.
Term
Shadow
Definition
an archetype that represents our darker self, it is the animalistic part of personality. Jung considered it to be inherited from lower forms of life, furthermore the shadow urges us to do things we ordinarily would not allow ourselves to do. However the positive side to the shadow is that it serves as a source of creativity and insight
Term
Basic anxiety
Definition
Horney’s concept of pervasive loneliness and helplessness, feelings that are the foundation of neurosis. Anything that disrupts a secure relationship between child and parent can cause basic anxiety.
Term
Personal unconscious
Definition
Jung’s 1st levels of the unconscious, the reservoir of material that once was conscious but has been forgotten or suppressed
Term
Collective unconscious
Definition
Jung’s 2nd and deepest level of the unconscious, it contains inherited experiences of human and pre human species. The collective unconscious forms the basis of personality.
Term
Libido
Definition
To Freud, the psychic energy that derives a person toward pleasurable thoughts and behaviors. The libido is a life instinct and a sexual drive.
Term
Extroversion
Definition
Libido is directed to external events and people. This type of person is strongly influenced by forces in the environment and is sociable and self confident in a variety of situations.
Term
Introversion
Definition
The libido is directed inward, introverts are contemplative, introspective, and resistant to external influences.
Term
Individual psychology
Definition
Adler’s theory of personality, it incorporates social as well as biological factors
Term
Inferiority feelings
Definition
Adler proposed a generalized feeling of inferiority as a motivating force in behavior. Adler related this feeling of inferiority to real or imagined deficits that we try to overcome. These feelings push us to strive for betterment of the self.
Term
Inferiority complex
Definition
A condition that develops when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings, which renders the person incapable of coping with life’s problems.
Term
Neurotic needs
Definition
To Horney when basic anxiety arises, the child develops behavioral stratigies in response to parental behavior as a way of coping with accoponing feelings of helplessness and insecurity. If these behaviors become a fixed part of the childs personality, it is called a neurotic need. The three trends of neurotic needs;
The compliant personality
The detached personality
The aggressive personality
Term
Object
Definition
Freud used the word “object to refer to any person, object, or activity that can satisfy an instinct.
Term
Object relations
Definition
Focus on interpersonal relationships and emphasizes the social and environmental influences on personality. They believe that personality is formed at an earlier age then Freud did.
Object relation theorists argue that the most crucial issue in personality development is to break away from the primary object (the mother) in order to develop a strong sense of self and form relationships with other people.
Term
Noam Chomsky
Definition
language acquisition (the ability to learn a language is innate); helped develop the spark in the cognitive revolution.
Term
Gestalt psychology started as a movement opposed to what approach?
Definition
Behaviorism
Term
Elementism
Definition
The belief that complex mental or behavioral processes are composed of or derived from simple elements and that the best way to understand these processes is first to find the elements of which they are composed.
Term
Gestalt qualitaten
Definition
Christine von Ehrenfel proposed qualities of experience that cannot be explained as combinations of sensory elements, he called these qualities Gestalt qualitaten. Meaning perceptions based on something greater then a merging of individual sensations.
Term
The Mentality of Apes
Definition
A book that Kohler wrote, providing evidence for insight in his chimpanzees. Showing that animals can learn and think.
Term
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyly
Definition
worked with Martin Seligman on Positive psychology; developed the “flow”
Term
Summation principle
Definition
Supports Gestalt way of thinking whereas “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts”
Term
Reductionism
Definition
in order to understand the nature of complex things, one must break it down to the interaction of its parts
Term
Vectors
Definition
directions arrows that represent the direction of a person’s movement toward a goal
Term
Valences
Definition
Lewis noted that weighing certain choices in life is like giving it a valance, there are positive and negative valances which mean that the choice is favorable or threatening with respect.
Term
Group dynamics
Definition
(kurt lewis studied dynamic psychology) Groups consist of two or more individuals who interact and influence each other which can show different types of information than individual results.
Term
Who was Christian von Ehrenfels?
Definition
one of the founders and precursors of Gestalt psychology. Also devised summation principle.
Gestalt qualities- qualities of experience that cannot be explained as combinations of sensory elements, which are perceptions based on something greater than a merging of individual sensations.
Ex: a melody is a form quality because it sounds the same even when transposed to a different key. The melody is independent of the sensations of which it is composed.
Term
What was the Gestalt school’s major difference with behaviorists?
Definition
Accepted the value of consciousness
Criticized reducing it to elements
When sensory elements are combined the elements form a new pattern of configurations
Term
What term did the Gestalt psychologists use to describe Wundt’s system?
Definition
Brick and mortar psychology
Term
Which philosopher is closer to the Gestalt approach – Kant or James Mill?
Definition
Kant, he, like gestalt, focused on the wholeness of perception
When we perceive what we call objects were encounter mental stats that appear to be compose of bits and pieces.
Perception is an active organizing of elements into a cohort experience
Term
What was the subject matter of psychology according to Brentano?
Definition
Proposed that psychology study the act of experiencing
Term
For the school of Gestalt psychology, ‘form’ was a creation of ______________?
Definition
the mind by operating on the sensory elements.
Term
In what way was the phi phenomenon a challenge to Wundt’s system?
Definition
Wundt and psychology said that all conscious experience could be analyzed or broken down into its sensory elements, however the perception of apparent movement was explained in terms of a stimulus of individual elements.
Term
Concurrent with the rise of Gestalt psychology, the Zeitgeist in physics was embracing what theory?
Definition
Fields of force theory.
Term
Who were the subjects in Wertheimer’s research on the perception of apparent movement?
Definition
Kofkka and kohler
Term
How did Wertheimer explain the phi phenomenon?
Definition
He said it didn’t need explaining it existed as it was perceived and could not be reduced to anything simpler.
Term
Maslow’s notion of self-actualization was partially based on the person characteristics of which Gestalt psychologist?
Definition
Max Wertheimer
Term
Who introduced the Gestalt system to American scholars?
Definition
Wertheimer ( or, could be Lewin)
Term
Why did Gestalt psychology fail to become popular in the U.S.?
Definition
Behaviorism was at its peak in the US
Language barrier
Psychologists incorrectly believed that gestalt psychology dealt only with perception
Settled at small colleges that didn’t have graduate programs
Term
Which Gestalt psychologist studied the thinking processes of chimpanzees?
Definition
Kholer
Term
The basic premise of the Gestalt principles of perception is that perceptual organization is learned or innate?
Definition
Innate
Term
Do the Gestalt principles of organization depend on past experiences?
Definition
No
Term
What is Kohler’s basic criterion for intelligence?
Definition
Problem solving abilities
Trial and error
Term
Kohler argued that solving a problem requires a restructuring of the _____.
Definition
Perceptual field.
Term
According to Kohler, what does insight involve?
Definition
Spontaneous apprehension or understanding or relationships.
Term
What was Pavlov’s reaction to Kohler’s work on Tenerife?
Definition
He questioned Kohler’s suggestions that apes develop insight into the situation and called the animal’s alleged problem solving behavior “chaotic”. Pavlov stated that their responses were not so different from Trial-and-Error
Term
What was Kohler’s reaction to trial-and-error learning?
Definition

Criticized throndikes trial and error because its experimental conditions were artificial and allowed the research animals to display only random behaviors
Term
What was Wertheimer’s basic premise for productive thinking?
Definition
Thinking was done in terms of wholes
Term
The term field theory was applied to whose system?
Definition
Lewin
Term
What did Kurt Lewin mean by life space?
Definition
He thought that persons psychological activities occur within a kind of psychological field
Life space encompasses all past present and future events that may affect us in a given situation
Consists of the persons needs in interaction with the psychological environment
Term
To what degree did Lewin find statistical analysis useful in his research?
Definition
It was not useful, he was interested in the individual person, not groups of average performance
He chose topology instead, it was geometry maps he used to diagram the life space
Arrows (vectors) to represent the direction of a persons movement toward a goal
Valences- refer to the positive or negative value of objects within the life space
Term
Describe the Zeigarnik effect
Definition
It was used to test lewins basic state of balance between the person and the environment, any disturbances would lead to tensions
Results confirmed the predictions- subjects remember the uncompleted tasks more readily than they recalled the completed tasks
Term
According to Freud, what were the three great shocks in history that were delivered to the collective human ego?
Definition

Copernicus showing us the earth was not the center of the univers but that it was just one of the planets moving around the sun
When Charles Darwin shows that we are not a unique and separate species with a privileged place in creation, but only a higher form of animal species
We are not rational rulers of our lives but are under the influence of unconscious forces of which we are unaware and do not have control over.
Term
Gottfried Leibnitz
Definition
developed monadology –psychic entities that make up reality kind of like how atoms make up the physical world;
Term
Friedrich Herbart
Definition
refined Leibnitz’s notion of the unconscious into the concept of threshold of consciousness, argued that ideas below the proposed threshold are unconscious; conflict develops among ideas as they struggle for conscious realization
Term
Jean-Martin Charcot
Definition
had success in treating hysteria through hypnosis; described hysteria symptoms more scientifically; made the recording or a patient’s body temperature standard in hospital practice. (was apart of the neurological clinic in paris)
Term
Pierre Janet
Definition
Charcot’s student; thought hysteria was a mental problem not a physical one; helped change psychiatrists’ ideas from the somatic to the psychic point of view. causes of hysteria were in the patients dreams. Hypnosis was the treatment.
Term
How were mentally ill persons treated before the time of Sigmund Freud?
Definition
They were treated cruely and inhumanely, thought to have been possessed by spirits
Term
Franz Anton Mesmer
Definition
animal magnetism” – application of hypnosis to the treatment of emotional disturbances originated in a murky force; believe human body contained magnetic force; claimed to reverse mental illness by clenching magnetized bars; James Braid renamed mesmerism to neurohypnology  lead to hypnosis
Term
Josef Breuer
Definition
significant because he used hypnosis on hysteria patient Anna O which lead to the idea of Transference; worked with Freud (father figure) and wrote a book called Studies on Hysteria.
Term
Anna O
Definition
female who was pivotal in psychoanalysis; Breuer treated hysteria using hypnosis and collaborated with Freud (even though Freud never saw Anna); Freud later tweaked Breuers technique and created “free association”
Term
What as the dominant form of American psychology at the time of Freud’s death?
Definition
behaviorism
Term
State a basic difference between psychoanalysis and the other systems of psychology.
Definition
Different because of it goals, subject matter, and methods
Looked at abnormal behavior and its method was clinical observation
- unlike all other systems of psychology psychoanalysis was not a product of university or pure science; also was not a school of thought.
Term
What was the primary method of psychoanalysis: experimentation, clinical observation, extirpation?
Definition
Clinical observation
Term
The concept of threshold of consciousness may be attributed to which philosopher?
Definition
Herbart
Term
Was the idea of the unconscious original with Freud? How about hypnosis? Mind as iceberg?
Definition
No, philosophical had speculations about the unconscious, early ideas about psychopathology, evolutionary theory
Hypnosis- Mesmer started it “animal magnetism” , Charcot expanded it.
Iceberg-
Term
From whom did Freud borrow the notion of the pleasure principle?
Definition
Fechner
Term
Identify the themes we described as central to Freud’s approach.
Definition
Developmental focus of personality
Determinism
Mechanisms
Evolutionary
Applications
motivations
Term
Identify the three ‘masterpieces’ of Freud’s writing. Which is considered his major work?
Definition
3 essays on theory of sexuality
Interpretation of dreams (Major)
Civilization and its discontent
Term
Who was the person who most strongly influenced humane reforms for the mentally ill in the United States?
Definition
Dorothea dix
Term
Identify the first psychiatrist in formal practice in the United States
Definition
Benjamin rush .
Term
By the era of Freud’s medical training, the dominant view in psychiatry about the causes of mental illness was psychic or somatic?
Definition
Psychic- emotional or psychological explanations or abnormal behavior not brain lesions
Term
What was the attitude toward sex in the Vienna of the Victorian era?
Definition
Interest in sex was apparent in everyday life and in literature
Term
Hysteria
Definition
describes a state of mind, usually one that is of unmanageable fear or emotional expresses which effect physical ailments . Most common neurotic disorder at the time.
Term
Seduction theory
Definition
seduction trauma was usually the cause of neurotic behavior; later on Freud reversed his opinion due to political pressure deciding that the patients may have fantasized about these sexual trauma’s
Term
In nomine daboli
Definition
in the name of the devil
Term
How was Freud influenced by Darwin?
Definition
- Freud influenced by Darwin by his hidden symbolism of certain behaviors, importance of sexual arousal, childhood development progressions in emotional behavior from childhood to adulthood. Darwin also insisted humans were drive by the biological forces of love and hunger. Also others expanded on this and said sex as a basic human motivation
Term
What was the topic of Freud’s earliest research?
Definition
Cocaine and its benefits
Term
What was the goal of Freud’s therapies?
Definition
-To bring into conscious awareness repressed memories or thoughts which were assumed to be the source of the patients abnormal behavior
Term

Freud argued that whether an event happened in childhood is less important than the patient’s _____ that it occurred.
Definition
belief
Term
What precipitated Freud’s self-analysis?
Definition
His sexual frustrations surfaced in the for of neuroses
Self diagnosis was anxiety that neuroses resulted from the accumulation of sexual tension
He chose to analysis his dreams
Term
What event of significance for Freud and the United States occurred in 1909?
Definition
Freud and Jung were invited by G. Stanley Hall to speak at Clark U; two years later the APA was founded and Freud’s work was published in several different languages
Term
Freud died as the result of a ________ overdose.
Definition
morphine
Term
During his Clark University lecture, Freud proposed that “hysterical patients suffer from______.
Definition
Reminiscences
Term
Freud found that the free association method did not always operate freely because of resistance. Explain.
Definition
Many of his patients memories reached back to childhood that they brought memories into conscious awareness that were too shameful to be faced.
Term
Why was it suggested that Freud may not have been a good scientist? Nor a good theoretician?
Definition
He didn’t use apperception, stats, repetition, had no peer reviews and his session notes did not match his case studies.
He was nota good theoretician because his hypothesis was not falsifiable, he can explain it after the talk which is a major problem for theory.
Term
How closely aligned were the notes Freud took during therapy sessions and the published case histories?
Definition
They did not match up
Term
How did Freud distinguish Instinkt from Trieb?
Definition
Trieb- human motivation forces, impulse of driving force
Instinkt- Describing innate drives in animals
Term
In his system of personality, Freud replaced the conscious/unconscious distinction with the concept of?
Definition
id, ego, super ego
Term
The Oedipal conflict occurs during which stage of development?
Definition
Phallic stage, age 4
Term
By the 1930s and 1940s, how was psychoanalysis regarded by the American public?
Definition
It was captured by public attention- combinations of sex violence and hidden motives was hard to ignore
Academic establishments were furious
Term
Experimental research on Freudian theory has shown some support for which of his ideas?
Definition
Characteristics of the oral and anal personality
Castration anxiety
Dreams reflect emotional concerns
Oedipus complex
Term
Which analyst broke with Freud over his claim that women feel inferior to men?
Definition
Karen Horney
Term
How might we characterize the difference between those who are classified as dissenters and those who are classified as carrying on in the Freudian tradition?
Definition
Dissenters are those who disagreed on his basic points of psychoanalysis; the three most prominent dissenters are Jung, Adler, Horney;
Those who are classified as carrying on the Freudian tradition are called Neo-Freudian analyists
Term
What is meant by ‘Neo-Freudian?’
Definition
Adhere the central premises of psychoanalysis as well as modifying them
Suggested that the ego was free of the conflict produce when I impulses pressed for satisfaction
Ego could function independently of the id
Placed less emphasis on the biological forces influencing personality, placing more emphasis on the social and psychological forces
Social interactions > sexual interactions
One of their primary goals was make psychoanalysis a part of the scientific psychology
Term
Name some neo-Freudians?
Definition
Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, Fromm, Erikson, Hartmann, and the Dissenters
Term
Ego psychology
Definition
includes the idea that the ego was more independent of the Id, possessed its own energy not derived from the Id, and had functions separate from the Id; ego psychology as developed by Anna Freud and others became the primary form of psychoanalysis from 1940 to 1970
Term
Anna Freud
Definition
Leader of Neo-Freudian Ego psychology; year of Anna’s birth was the birth of Psychoanalysis; child analysis; published “the introduction to child analysis”; her innovations included the use of play materials and the observation of the child
Term
Melanie Klein
Definition
Klein’s object relations theory focused on the intense emotional bond between mother and child, particularly in the first 6 months of the Childs life; the initial social interaction between infant and mother generalizes to all objects (people) in the child’s life, and in this manner the adult personality is rooted in the nature of the relationship of the first six months of life
She described connections between the infant and mother in social and cognitive terms than in sexual terms(Freud)
Term
Carl Jung
Definition
Jung grew up in Switzerland and attended the University of Basel where he obtained a medical degree. He was appointed lecturer in psychiatry at the University of Zurich and married a wealthy heiress. After marriage he focused on writing, research, and private practice. His therapy sessions were unique-some were held aboard his sailboat, sometimes he sang to his patients, and sometimes he was rude. He became interested in Freud after reading The Interpretation of Dreams. He wrote the Psychology of the Unconscious, 1912, and realized once the book was finished that his position differed significantly from orthodox psychoanalysis and if published it would damage his relationship with Freud. He became the first president of the International Psychoanalytic Association in 1911, but he resigned and withdrew in 1914. He developed analytical psychology, a personality theory that differed from Freud’s (middle age was the most important stage, not childhood), distinguished between the personal and collective unconscious, and archetypes, developed the concepts of introversion and extraversion, and the four functions in which personality differences are expressed.
Term
Alfred Adler
Definition
1st major defector. Breaking with Freud in 1911, he is considered the first proponent of the social psychological approach to psychoanalysis. His social psychological system was called individual psychology which incorporated social as well as biological factors into personality. With large focus being on the social factors, her proposed the concept of social interest, the innate potential to cooperate with others to achieve personal and societal goals. Adler emphasized unity and consistency of personality and believed the goal for all of us is superiority; and it represents the complete development and fulfillment of the self. He believed that inferiority feelings were a motivating force for people to reach superiority, and failure to compensate for our limitations leads to the development of an inferiority complex. Adler also did work on birth order and the creative power of the self (the capacity to determine our own personality in accordance with our unique style of life).
Term
‘style of life,’ according to Adler
Definition
we all have a drive for superiority, but because we have different goals we behave in our own unique way to strive for that goal
The style of life involves the behaviors by which we compensate for real or imagined inferiority (aka: you’re going to be good at what you feel you may be lacking in)
Term
Idealized self-image
Definition
Provides a person with a false picture of their personality or self, preventing Neurotic persons from understanding their true self. They deny the existence of their inner conflicts. The belief that the idolized self image is genuine causes them in turn to think they are superior than they really are
Term
Erik Erikson
Definition
the ego is a creative problem solver
Lifespan psychosocial development- 8 stages- each stage in life has it’s own crisis, resolve successfully or not.
The identity crisis and ego identity. – Trained by Anna Freud.
Erikson’s study of two native american tribes (Siox and Yurok). Did psychohistories on several ethnicities, did study on Martin Luther and applied techniques to entire cultures.
Term
Erich Fromm
Definition
humanistic social analysis: a synthesis of Freud and Marx.
-Freedom is a basic condition. Can paralyze the will and makes you anxious
-hybrid of humanistic thoughts with psychoanalytic thoughts.
-would have exercises, might ask you what is it that you are absolutely certain of? What is your core conviction?
-how many people in your life could you trust with a secret, that is discovered would ruin your life? (social connections)
Term
How did the ego psychologists amend Freud’s original position?
Definition
Expanded the concept of the go, they gave the ego a more extensive role, ego was more independent of the id
Ego was free of the conflict produced when id impulses pressed for satisfaction
Term
In what area was Anna Freud’s pioneering work?
Definition

Interested in child analysis
Anna Freud’s pioneering work was in her development of an approach to psychoanalytic therapy with children that took into account their relative immaturity and the level of their verbal skills.
Term
Who introduced play therapy?
Definition
Anna freud
Term
What was Anna Freud’s most important revision of orthodox psychoanalysis?
Definition
Anna Freud’s most important revision of orthodox psychoanalysis was to expand the role of the ego functioning independently of the id. In The Ego and the Mechanisms of defense, 1936, she clarified the defense mechanisms as they operate to protect the ego from anxiety.
Term
Object relations theorists emphasize which type of influences on personality?
Definition
Social and environmental influences
Term
According to object relations theorists, what is the most critical developmental issue for the child?
Definition
The ability and need of the child to break free from the primary object (mother) in order to establish a strong sense of self and to develop relations with other objects (people)
Term
Melanie Klein described the mother-infant relationship in _________ terms.
Definition
Social Cognitive
Term
According to Melanie Klein, what is the first part-object for the child?
Definition
The Mother’s Breast (Mr. Hoff said “erect nipples”!!)
Term
For Klein, the adult personality is rooted in the mother-child relationship in the First _________(what time period?) of life.
Definition
6 months
Term
Jung’s theoretical system is known as_________ psychology.
Definition
Analytical
Term
Why did Freud select Jung to be the first president of the International Psychoanalytic Association?
Definition
He thought that anti Semitism would impede the growth of psychoanalysis if the groups president was jewish
Term
How did Jung regard the libido?
Definition
Regarded the libido as a generalized life energy of which sex was only a part.
Libido growth expresses itself in growth reproduction and other activities
Term
Jung described patterns of emotions and memories with common themes in the personal unconscious as Complex
Definition
A complex is essentially a smaller personality within a total personality
Term
How does the collective unconscious differ from the personal unconscious?
Definition
Collective unconscious- is the deepest level, it contains inherited experiences of humans, a level below the personal unconscious
Personal unconscious- beneath our conscious awareness contains memories impulses wishes faint perceptions and thing that have been suppressed of forgotten
Term
What did Jung mean by archetypes?
Definition
Inherited tendencies in the collective unconscious that dispose a person to behave similarly to ancestors who confront similar situations
Term
What is the central archetype?
Definition
The self
Term
Which archetype is the source of spontaneity and creativity?
Definition
Extroversion
Term
What did Jung call the two basic attitudes within the person?
Definition
Rational and non rational
Term
Have Jung’s ideas have much of an impact on mainstream psychology?
Definition
No
Term
Child guidance clinics in the Vienna school system were established by which early ‘defector’
from Freudian orthodoxy?
Definition
Adler
Term
Contrast Freud and Adler with regard to their views regarding the importance of past and future; consciousness and unconsciousness; determinism and free will. FREUD
Definition
-put importance on the past
-focused on the parts of personality
-biological forces
-unconscious (motivation)
-sex
-passive/mechanistic
-pessimistic view on human nature
-determinism
Term
ADLER
Definition
-put importance on the future
-unity of the person
-social forces
-consciousness (motivation)
-superiority/perfectionism
-active
-optimistic view
-free willIn Adler’s system, a motivating force in
Term
behavior based on actual or perceived defects is/are
Definition
inferior feelings
Term
What did Adler mean by ‘striving for superiority?’ Is is universal? Does it take the same form in each of us?
Definition
Our goal was superiority and perfection, it is universal, but each of us have a different way to achieve that goal
Term
What did Adler mean by ‘style of life?’
Definition
Involves the behaviors by which we compensate for real or imagined inferiority
Term
What does Adler’s concept of the creative power of the self suggest regarding his position of determinism?
Definition
It suggests that we have the capacity to determine our own personality in accordance with our unique style of life.
Term
According to Adler, how does birth order affect one’s personality?
Definition
According to Adler, birth order affects one’s personality by varying social experiences that result in different attitudes toward life and different ways of coping. The oldest child receives a great deal fo attention until dethroned by the birth of the second child. The first born may then become insecure and hostile, authoritarian and conservative, manifesting a strong interest in maintaining order. Adler suggested that criminals, neurotics, and perverts were often first-borns. The second child is ambitious, rebellious, and jealous, constantly striving to surpass the first-born. Adler believed that the second-born is better adjusted than the first or youngest born. The youngest born was likely to be spoiled and predisposed toward behavioral problems in childhood and adulthood. Only children may experience difficulties in adjusting to the world outside the family, where he or she is not the center of attention.
Term
Did Karen Horney have a happy childhood? Is that relevant to her theory of personality?
Definition
Karen Horney did not have a happy childhood. The lack of parental love she dealt with fostered what she later called “basic anxiety”, the fundamental concept in her personality theory.
Term
What contributes to basic anxiety, according to Horney?
Definition
According to Horney, parental actions such as dominance, lack of protection and love, and erratic behavior contribute to basic anxiety.
Term
What did Horney mean by ‘neurotic need?’
Definition
A ‘neurotic need’ is when a child’s behavioral strategy in response to their parental behavior as a way of coping with the accompanying feelings of helplessness and insecurity becomes a fixed part of their personality.
Term
Identify: ‘third force’
Definition
Humanistic psychology ( behaviorism and psychoanalysis are the other two forces )
Term
Describe the basic tenets of humanistic psychology.
Definition
-Human beings, as human, supersede the sum of their parts.
-Human beings have their existence in a uniquely human context, as well as in a cosmic ecology.
-Human beings are aware and aware of being aware-that is they are conscious.
-Human beings have some choice and with that responsibility.
-Humans are not machines.
-Human beings are intentional, aim at goals, are aware that they cause future events and seek meaning, value, and creativity.
-Little of value can be learned about humans by studying nonhuman animals.
-Subjective (phenomenological) reality is the primary guide for understanding human behavior.
-Studying individuals is more informative than studying what groups of individuals have in common.
-The goal of psychology should be to formulate a complete description of what is means to be a human being.
-Research should seek information that will help solve human problems.
Term
Who is considered the spiritual father of humanistic psychology?
Definition
Abraham Maslow
Term
Why did Maslow renounce behaviorism?
Definition
He said it was too limited to be relevant to enduring human issues
Maslow denounced behaviorism because a series of personal experiences that persuaded him that behaviorism was too limited to be relevant to enduring human issues.
Term
What personal experiences influenced Maslow’s approach to psychology?
Definition
Coming in contact with the European psychologists who fled the Nazis
A parade he witnessed after pearl harbor
It changed his whole life, devoted himself to developing a psychology that would deal with the highest human ideals
Wanted to improve human personal and show that people are capable of more
Term
For Maslow, what is the major motivating force?
Definition
Human needs
Term
Self-transcendence
Definition
going beyond self to connect with other people and the universe; cosmic ecology; he overcoming of the limits of the individual self and its desires in spiritual contemplation and realization.
Term
Social interest
Definition
Adler’s word that human race identifies with each other and they have a genuine desire to help each other.
Term
Hierarchy of needs
Definition
Term
Peak experience
Definition
A euphoric experience.
Term
Flow
Definition
is a mental state of operation in which the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing, characterized by a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity
Term
Escape from freedom
Definition
Eric Fromm. Freedom can paralyze us, choices make us anxious. Freedom paralyzes the will.
Term
Unconditional positive regard
Definition
is the primary requisite for the development of psychological health in childhood.
Term
positive psychology
Definition
Developed by Martin Seligman; a branch of psychology with a more positive conception of human nature an dhuman potential that would build on the pioneering work of Maslow and Rogers
-studying everything from some of the worst things in life, to the study of what makes life worth living. Don’t see it as a replacement for what came before it. Relies solely on rigorous experimental research, similar to humanistic but added research
Term
Did Maslow do experimental research on self-actualization?
Definition
Maslow did not do experimental research on self-actualization. His research consisted of analyzing biographies and other written records.
Term
What did he identify as some of the characteristics of self-actualizing people?
Definition
An objective perception of reality
A full acceptance of their own nature
A commitment and dedication to some kind of work
Simplicity and naturalness of behavior
A need for autonomy, privacy, and independence
Intense mystic or peak experiences
Empathy with and affection for all humanity
Resistance to conformity
A democratic character structure
An attitude of creativeness
A high degree of what Adler termed “social interest”
Term
Carl Rogers’s clinical experience during the time he was developing his theory was with what type of population?
Definition
Carl Rogers’s clinical experience during the time he was developing his theory was working with delinquent and disadvantaged youngsters.
Term
What is the basic human motivation in Rogers’s system?
Definition
The drive to actualize the self
Term
In Rogers’s formulation, is the urge toward self-actualization solely the product of early experience?
Definition
In Rogers’s formulation, the urge toward self-actualization is innate as well as the product of early experience, with an emphasis on the mother-child relationship.
Term
Did the humanistic psychologists themselves feel that they had become a formal school of thought?
Definition
Yes, they had the attributes to become a school of thought, however they did not become one
Term
Which contemporary personality psychologist (discussed in class) has developed an narrative psychology approach based on studying one’s life story?
Definition
Dan McAdams is a contemporary personality psychologist that has developed an narrative psychology approach based on studying one’s life story
Term
The positive psychology movement was initiated by which University of Pennsylvania psychologist?
Definition
Martin Seligman
Term
The major difference between positive psychology and humanistic psychology and psychoanalysis is that positive psychologists tend to use _______ methods, while the other two approaches tend to use subjective case histories.
Definition
experimental
Term
Descartes
Definition
Gap between human and animal functioning proposed by Descartes maintains its appeal- generalization of animal cognition operating similarly to human cognition.
Term
Cognition
Definition
Neisser’s definition: processes by which “Sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. Cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do.”
Act or process of knowing.
Term
Turing test
Definition
Developed by Allen Turing to examine the proposition that computers can think; it involved persuading a subject that the computer with which they are communicating is really another person, not a machine; if the subject cannot distinguish the computer’s responses from human responses, then the computer must be displaying intelligence at a human level
-A way to examine a proposition that computers can think, the computer is said to be able to think, if it can trick the judges into thinking it’s another person, not a machine.
Term
Chinese room
Definition
developed by John Searle to disprove the Turing test; Searle argued that computer programs may appear to comprehend different kinds of inputs and respond to them in an intelligent manner like the subject in the Chinese room but it no more understands the messages it receives than you may have understood Chinese; this puzzle involves a subject sitting at a desk and receiving slips of paper from the left slot on the wall and they have to match by shape the set of symbols with those in a book, when the matching set is found you are directed to copy another set of symbols from the book onto the piece of paper and feed the paper through the slot on the right; the subject in this test is mechanically following the instructions of receiving inputs from the left slot and writing outputs for the right slots, however if a Chinese psychologist were on the other side of the wall, they would not know that you were unfamiliar with the Chinese language; the subject is not displaying intelligence but simply following orders
Term
Biological preparedness
Definition
evolution --> genes x experience -->current organism x current situation --> current behavior.
Term
Cognitive neuroscience
Definition
a hybrid of cognitive psychology and the neurosciences; the goal of the field is to determine how brain functions give rise to mental activity and to correlate specific aspects of information processing with specific brain regions; advances in mapping the brain have been made due to the development and application of sophisticated imaging techniques; this field has demonstrated that the human brain can exert control over a computer, thought can be translated into movement by electrical impulses alone
Term
Artificial intelligence
Definition
The intelligence of machines; The branch of computer science that aims to create it.
- However, Giant Brains- “a machine can handle information; it can calculate, conclude, and choose; it can perform reasonable operations with information. A machine, therefore can think.” Capacity of a computer to perform operations that lead to learning and decision making in humans.
Term
Cognitive science
Definition
a combination of cognitive psychology, linguistics, anthropology, philosophy, computer sciences, artificial intelligence, and the neurosciences; extends and consolidates the work of several major disciplines in a unified study of how the mind acquires knowledge
Term
Deep Blue
Definition
a computer manufactured by IBM that beat Kasparov (Chess Grand Master), the general conclusion is that deep blue can’t function like people but they’ve made improvements. That it is not thinking like a human but rather doing what it is programmed for.
Term
Nonconscious
Definition
The concept of unconscious; information processing that occurs below level of consciousness; it’s implicit and includes cognition, memory, and attitudes
Term
George Miller
Definition
Published landmark book on psycholinguistics Language and Communication. Initially accepted behaviorists school because he had to. Went into cognitive psychology. Published “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our capacity from Processing Information.” Used phrase “processing information”- gave influence of computer based model of the human mind.
Term
Donald Broadbent (seen in video)
Definition
1958- 1st psychologist, used flowchart to see how it’s received by senses. How it’s filtered through the memory.
Term
Martin Seligman
Definition
Seligman’s work on biological preparedness:  (initiator of positive psychology). Showed that it was easy to condition people to fear snakes, insects, dogs, heights, and tunnels. It is easy to imagine why we would be afraid of snakes; through a evolutionary perspective.
Showed that it was hard to condition them to fear a more neutral or less threatening object such as a car. We didn’t need to avoid a car to survive through the evolutionary perspective. 
Seligman called this the; Biological Preparedness: Phobias are indeed learned though classical conditioning but certain fears may have served an adaptive purpose are more readily conditioned.
Term
Ulric Neisser
Definition
He wrote Cognitive Psychology (1967), Cognition and Reality (1976) and Memory Observed. Although embarrassed by it, he is designated the “father” of cognitive psychology. He insisted that the results of psychological research should have ecological validity (they should be generalizable to situations beyond the confines of the lab). He also felt that cognitive psychologists should be able to apply their findings to practical problems, helping people deal with the everyday issues in their work and in their lives.
Term
Michael Gazzaniga
Definition
He wrote Who’s in Charge? Free Will and the Science of the Brain; he focused on neuroscience and the courtroom with an emphasis on the nature of responsibility
- Stated: “ there is not much new in this world. What passes for discovery these days tends to be an individual scientist’s rediscovery of some well-established phenomenon”
Term
Information processing
Definition
influence of a computer-based model of the human mind.
Term
Ecological validity
Definition
-research that is generalizable to situations beyond the confines of the laboratory, to real life
-Methods, materials, and settings of the experiment must match the real-life situation.
Term
The magic number 7 plus/minus 2
Definition
In 1956, George Miller published an article that demonstrated that our conscious capacity for short-term memory of numbers (words, colors, etc) is limited to approximately seven “chunks” of information; that is all we are able to process at any given point
Term
Sociobiology
Definition
Wilson challenged the belief that everyone was created equal. Environmental and social force alone can help or limit human development. Wilson appeared to stress that genetic forces were more important than cultural ones.
Term
Biological preparedness
Definition
Phobias are indeed learned though classical conditioning but certain fears may have served an adaptive purpose in ancestral environments are more readily conditionable.
Term
On what basis may it be argued that structural psychology (structuralism) was a success?
Definition
Structural psychology (structuralism) was a success in promoting the enterprise Wundt began, the establishment of an independent science of psychology free from the strictures of philosophy.
Term
Who delivered the imperative that ‘psychology must discard all references to consciousness?’
Definition
Watson delivered the imperative that ‘psychology must discard all references to consciousness’
Term
In McKeachie’s opinion, the return of consciousness to psychology signaled a change in favor of ___ psychology.
Definition
cognitive
Term
With what is cognitive psychology concerned?
Definition
Cognitive psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes seeking to explain overt behavior and its relationship to mental processes.
Term
Identify some of the antecedent influences on the development of cognitive psychology
Definition
-Wundt emphasis on the mind’s creative activity
-E.R. Guthrie deplored the mechanistic model and argued that stimuli cannot always be reduced to physical terms. He suggested that psychologists describe stimuli in perceptual or cognitive terms so that they will be meaningful for the responding organism.
-The purposive behaviorism of E.C. Tolman recognized the importance of cognitive variables and contributed to the decline of the stimulus-response approach. He proposed cognitive maps, attributed purposive behavior to animals, and emphasized intervening variables as a way to operationally define internal unobservable states.
-Gestalt psychology with its focus on “organization, structure, relationships, the active role of the subject, and the important part played by perception in learning and memory. It helped keep alive at least a token interest in consciousness during the years that behaviorism dominated American psychology.
-Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget did work on cognitive development which was published in the 1920s and 1930s. He put an emphasis on cognitive factors, with a focus on children which helped broaden the range of behavior to which cognitive psychology could be applied.
Term
Did cognitive psychology come into being suddenly?
Definition
No, the change occurred slowly in different subfields over 10-15 years
May have been slow because no one working in that field had an ambition to lead a new movement- they were interested with the work of redefining psychology
Term
On September 11, 1956, a conference was held at MIT which brought together scholars from many different areas and was important in catalyzing the further evolution of __________ psychology.
Definition
cognitive neuroscience
Term
Guthrie argued that the behaviorists were unable to deal with the
Definition
cognitive process (mentalistic) of the stimulus to the organism.
Term
Tolman’s contribution to the decline of S-R psychology was the concept of
Definition
cognitive maps
Term
Bridgman’s response to behaviorism’s radical operationism was to recommend the use of what method?
Definition
Objective methods (236)
Term
The ‘new’ Zeitgeist in physics is characterized by Berkeley’s argument that objective knowledge is _________knowledge.
Definition
subjective
Term
Name the child psychology from Switzerland who researched the cognitive stages of development.
Definition
Piaget
Term
Was there a single founder of cognitive psychology?
Definition
There is not one single founder of cognitive psychology, but George Miller and Ulric Neisser had a major influence.
Term
Was there a ‘manifesto’ of cognitive psychology as there was for behaviorism?
Definition
There is not a ‘manifesto’ of cognitive psychology as there was for behaviorism.
Term
George Miller and Ulric Neisser were once behaviorists. Why?
Definition
George Miller and Ulric Neisser were once behaviorists. They did not become behaviorists because the field interested them, but instead because that was the popular form of psychology in America. Miller accepted the behaviorist school of thought, noting he had little choice because behaviorists held the leadership positions in major universities and professional associations. Ulric Neisser saw no escape from behaviorism if he wanted a career in academia.
Little choice, behaviorists held leadership positions in major universities and professional associations. Similarities between computers and the operation of the human mind impressed Miller
Term
Describe the importance of the Center for Cognitive Studies
Definition
The Center for Cognitive Studies was established by Miller and his colleague Jerome Bruner at Harvard to investigate the human mind. In 1960 when they asked for a space, they were given the house in which William James had once lived. When deciding on a name for the lab the word “cognition” was used to denote their subject matter. In defining the center, Miller and Bruner wanted to demonstrate how greatly they differed from behaviorism. Researchers at the center investigated a wide range of topics: language, memory, perception, concept formation, thinking, and developmental psychology (most of which were eliminated from the behaviorists’ vocabulary).
Term
What was the definition of ‘cognition’ at the Center for Cognitive Studies?
Definition
There was no definition for ‘cognition’ at the Center for Cognitive Science. No one at the center could define what cognition really meant at the time or what ideas they were supposed to be promoting. The center was not set up for anything in particular; it was set up to be against things. What was important was what it was not. AND IT WAS NOT BEHAVIORISM.
When using “cognition” they were setting themselves off from behaviorism
Wanted a term that was mental, common sense psychology, and folk psychology, they chose cognition to label it
Term
Name some of the influences on Ulric Neisser
Definition
Inspired by George miller (his undergraduate professor)
Koffkas book- principles of gestalt psychology
Maslow, the department chair at Brandeis University, provided the opportunity for Neisser to pursue his interest in cognitive issues.
Term
For Neisser, “everything a human being might possibly do” is the definition of?
Definition
Cognition, cognitive psychology
Concept of the unconscious- (cognitive nonconscious) information processing that occurs below the level of awareness, considered implicit (covert in processing).
Term
By 1976, what was Neisser’s assessment of cognitive psychology?
Definition
He published cognition and reality, where he expressed is dissatisfaction on what he saw as the narrowing of cognitive science that it relied to much on lab work
By 1976, Neisser was dissatisfied with cognitive psychology, and its narrowing position and reliance on laboratory situations. He insisted that the results of psychological research should have ecological validity-they should be generalizable to situations beyond the confines of the laboratory.
Term
Who developed the very first “thinking” machines (used for calculations)?
Definition
Charles Babbage, and Henry Hollingworth.
Term
What is the principle purpose of the Turing Test?
Definition
The principle purpose of the Turing Test was to examine the proposition that computers can think. The test is to persuade the subject that the computer with which they are communicating is really a person, not a machine.
Term
What was the point of Searle’s Chinese room problem? What was Searle trying to show?
Definition
The point of Searle’s Chinese problem was to disprove Alan Turing’s test and idea that computers have intellect. He was trying to show that although computers receive input, the input does not have any meaning for them, so their responses are not intellectual responses but merely responses.
Term
In class Friday, I listed the names of cities, animals, and flowers in random order, but class members tended to recall them in groups of the three categories.
This illustrates that the mind actively _______experience.
Definition
organizes
Term
The discipline representing a hybrid of cognitive psychology and the neurosciences is called what?
Definition
Cognitive neuroscience
Term
What are some of the brain imaging techniques available to cognitive neuroscientists?
Is it possible for a person who is paralyzed to move a computer cursor by using his thoughts?
Definition
EEG- records vibrations in electrical activity in selected parts of the brain
CAT scans- reveal detailed cross sections of the brain
MRI- 3D pictures of the brain
PER0 live pictures of various cognitive activities as they occur
Yes, it is possible, thoughts can be translated into movements
Term
neuroprosthetics
Definition

Neural prostheses are a series of devices that can substitute a motor, sensory or cognitive modality that might have been damaged as a result of an injury or a disease
The application of cognitive neuroscience, called neuroprosthetics, offers that people who are fully paralyzed and other similar disabilities could one day be able to interact with and exercise control over the subjects environment.
Cognitive neuroscientists have demonstrated that the human brain can exert control over a computer, thought can be translated into movement by electrical impulses.
Term
Is introspection still used in psychology? Explain.
Definition
Introspection is still used in psychology. One approach, retrospective phenomenological assessment, involves asking subjects to rate the intensity of their subjective experiences while responding to a previous stimulus situation aka subjects retrospectively evaluate the subjective experiences that occurred during an earlier period when they were asked to respond to a given stimulus. It is often used, and is a good predictor of people’s behavior, and although some form of introspection constitutes the most frequently used research method in contemporary psychology, there are limitations to its validity.
Term
What is retrospective phenomenological assessment?
Definition
Involves asking subjects to rate the intensity of their subjective experiences while responding to a previous stimulus situation. Subjects retrospectively evaluate the subjective experiences that occurred during an earlier period when they were asked to respond to a given stimulus.
Term
What is subliminal perception?
Definition
Subliminal perception is when stimuli are presented below the subjects’ levels of conscious awareness. Despite the subjects’ inability to perceive those stimuli, the stimuli activate the subjects’ conscious processes and behavior.
Term
Do cognitive psychologists see any value in using animals as subjects?
Definition
- Yes, they restored consciousness to animals. Animal memory is complex and flexible and has some cognitive processes that operate similarly in human
- Cognitive psychologists see a value in using animals in research to demonstrate how animals encode, transform, compute, and manipulate symbolic representations of the real world’s spatial, temporal, and causal textures for the purposes of adaptively organizing their behavior.
Term
Do animals have ‘personality?’ What does the research indicate?
Definition
Yes, animals have ‘personality?’ The research indicates that animals do have personalities. In Seattle, Washington, 44 red octopuses were noted by staff scientists and keepers to have differing personalities among their charges. The behavior of the octopuses were observed in three experimental situations and found that they differed on three factors: activity, reactivity, and avoidance. Other studies have documented personality characteristics in a variety of animals including fish, spiders, farm animals, hyenas, chimps, and dogs.
Term
How have behaviorists responded to the advent of cognitive psychology?
Definition
Most Skinnerian behaviorists oppose the cognitive movement. Even those that support it point out weaknesses and limitations, noting that there are few concepts that the majority of cognitive psychologists agree upon or consider important. Another criticism is the overemphasis on cognition at the expense of other influences on thought and behavior, such as motivation and emotion.
Term
Why have some cognitive psychologists adopted the term ‘cognitive science?’
Definition
It is the term used for the combination of all the major disciplines involved such as cognitive psych, linguistics, anthropology, philosophy, computer science, and neurosciences
Cognitive Psychologists; attempt to extend and consolidate the work of several major disciplines in a unified study of how the mind acquires knowledge.
Term
Are all cognitive psychologists ‘on the same page’ with regard to terminology and definitions within the field?
Definition
There is considerable confusion about terminology and definitions among cognitive psychologists.
Term
Why did Ulric Neisser suggest that cognition is a narrow, sterile approach to the field of psychology?
Definition
He thought that the results of psychological research should have ecological validity, they should be generalizable to situations on the real world not just in the lab
Thought psychologists should be able to apply their findings to practical problems and help people deal with everyday issues in their lives
Term
State the key principle of evolutionary theory.
Definition
States that people are biological creatures that have been wired by evolutions to behave, think, feel and learn in ways that have been fostered in past generations.
Term
Describe our model for the biology of behavior
Definition
- Evolution Genes Current Organism Current Behavior
X X
Experiences Current Situation
Term
Identify the fundamental questions dealt with by evolutionary psychology.
Definition
- All psychological mechanisms at some basic level originate from, and owe their existence to, evolutionary processes.
-Darwin’s theories of natural and sexual selectional are the most important evolutionary prcesses responsible for creating evolved psychological mechanisms.
-Evolved psychological mechanisms can be described as information-processing devices.
-Evolved psychological mechanisms are functional; they function to solve recurrent adaptive problems that confronted our ancestors.
Term
Besides Darwin, to whom does evolutionary psychology owe a debt?
Definition
William james- evolutionary psych
Harry Harlow- raised baby monkeys with artificial mothers
Martin seilgman- positive psych, easy to condition people to fear things
Cognitive revolution- likened the human mind to a computer that could process whatever info it received
Term
Brelands’ work on instinctual drift
Definition
Trained animals to perform for the Iq zoo, tv commercials & state fairs. The animals (sometimes) substituted instinctive behaviors for those that had been reinforced with food; even when the when those instinctive behaviors interfered with obtaining food, a clear violation of the basic behavioristic principle that reinforcement rules all
Term
Harlow’s work with monkey mothers
Definition
raised baby monkeys with two types of artificial monkeys.
constructed of mesh, it is hard, uncovered, and contained a nipple for dispensing milk.
constructed of mesh, covered in soft, cuddly terry cloth.
Testing: Skinnerians, thought that reinforcement would only be associated with the mother that supplied milk. However when the monkeys were frightened they clung to the terry cloth mother.
Significance: Suggests that there is some other “guiding force” force that cannot be explained by operant conditioning (& reinforcement).
Term
Seligman’s work on biological preparedness
Definition
(initiator of positive psychology). Showed that it was easy to condition people to fear snakes, insects, dogs, heights, and tunnels. It is easy to imagine why we would be afraid of snakes; through a evolutionary perspective.
-Showed that it was hard to condition them to fear a more neutral or less threatening object such as a car. We didn’t need to avoid a car to survive through the evolutionary perspective.
-Seligman called this the; Biological Preparedness: Phobias are indeed learned though classical conditioning but certain fears may have served an adaptive purpose are more readily conditioned.
Term
Describe the research of David Buss
Definition
A founder of evolutionary psychology
mating strategies, conflict between the sexes, status, social reputation,
Term
What Might the cognitive movement be considered an antecedent of evolutionary psychology?
Definition
Because it likened the mind to a computer that could process whatever information it received. It shows that the mind must be programed to perform a multitude of tasks
The brains evolved function is to extract information from the environment and use that information to generate behavior and regulate physiology. So the brain is not just like a computer. It is a computer that is a “physical system designed to process information.”
Term
How have evolutionary psychologists regarded the cognitive “revolution”?
Definition
The cognitive “revolution” is a precursor of evolutionary psychology. Evolutionary psychologists regarded the cognitive “revolution” as an essential antecedent for their field, as they drew on it as well as expanded its importance as a necessary framework within which to understand human and animal nature. It focuses on the importance of consciousness as it evolved over time and it places a greater emphasis on the notion of the computer as a metaphor for all the conscious processes.
Term
The thesis of sociobiology challenged what assumption (which John Locke would have endorsed)?
Definition
It challenged the belief that everyone was created equal
environmental and social force alone can help or limit human development
stressed that genetic forces were more important than cultural ones
Term
What criticisms have been made of evolutionary psychology?
Definition
If human nature is determined by genes then there is no possibility or positive or cultural forces to change people, or for people to have free will
The theory is hard to test
People question how you can test a theory of human adaption through that many generations
Term
Do evolutionary psychologists argue that all behaviors are determined by genes?
Definition
No, they still think we are influenced by culture and learning they just say we are predisposed at birth to certain ways of behaving as shaped by evolution
Term
Why might it be suggested that evolutionary psychology has the potential to unify psychology?
Definition
The slow integration of evolutionary psych into other sub disciplines of psych indicates a possibility of a unified psych with evolution as its founder
argues that people are biological creatures that have been (wired or) programmed by evolution to behave, think, feel, and learn the ways that have fostered survival over the ages.
This approach is based on the assumption that people with certain behavioral, cognitive, and affective tendencies were more likely to survive, bear, and raise children.
(Its a field that makes use of all the research findings from all other disciplines.)
Term
According to our text, when a movement within psychology becomes a formalized school, the only way its momentum can be stopped is by
Definition
its success in overthrowing the established position.