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History
08/22/2012

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Term
The winner of the presidential election of 1800 was chosen by the 
Definition
House of Representatives
Term
) A direct consequence of the election of 1800 was the constitutional amendment stipulating 
Definition
the organization of political parties
Term
The most important achievement of the Federalist era was the 
Definition
establishment and implementation of the Constitution
Term
The Embargo Act of 1807 
Definition
was resented and resisted by large numbers of Americans
Term
The politician who sought to preserve America as a nation of minimal government and small, independent farmers was 
Definition
Thomas Jefferson
Term
In discussing the debate about whether Thomas Jefferson fathered a child with his slave, Sally Hemmings, your text notes that 
Definition
DNA evidence supports the contention that Thomas Jefferson was most likely the father of at least one of Sally Hemmings's children. 
Term
"Every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans-we are all Federalists." This was written by 
Definition
Thomas Jefferson
Term
In his first inaugural address, Jefferson stressed his desire to 
Definition
minimize the differences between Federalists and Republicans
Term

The purpose of the ___________ was to maintain Federalist control of the judicial branch against Jeffersonianism

Definition
Judiciary Act of 1801 
Term

The Federalist Chief Justice who established the power of the Supreme Court to invalidate federal
laws in Marbury v. Madison (1803) was 

Definition
John Marshall. 
Term
In Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice John Marshall cleverly established the power of the Supreme Court to 
Definition
invalidate federal laws held to be in conflict with the Constitution
Term
Republican attempts to impeach Federalist judges resulted in 
Definition
failure to remove their main target, Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase
Term
During his first term, Jefferson fought a small naval war, attempting to resist the blackmail of the 
Definition
Barbary pirates. 
Term
The greatest naval hero of Jefferson's undeclared war with the Barbary pirates of Tripoli was 
Definition
Stephen Decatur
Term
For Jefferson, one of the most important reasons for the Louisiana Purchase was that it 
Definition
secured access to the mouth of the Mississippi River
Term
Prior to the Louisiana Purchase, Napoleon launched an expedition against which former French 
Definition
SaintDomingue; Toussaint Louverture 
Term
In the negotiations for what became the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson originally commissioned
Robert Li
vingston and James Monroe to purchase 
Definition
New Orleans and Florida
Term
The leader who abandoned his plans for an empire in the New World and sold Louisiana to the United
States was 
Definition
Napoleon
Term
The Republican who caused Jefferson the most trouble by conspiring with General James Wilkinson
and flirting with treason
was 
Definition
Aaron Burr
Term
The Louisiana Purchase furthered weakened the power of 
Definition
the Federalists
Term
The duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr resulted from 
Definition
Hamilton's campaigning against Burr when he ran for governor of New York and then continuing to
cast aspersions on Burr's character
Term
One of the purposes of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to 
Definition
establish official relations with Native American tribes
Term
The western expedition that explored the northwestern area of the Louisiana Purchase from 1804-
1806 was led by 
Definition
Lewis and Clark
Term

In addition to the Lewis and Clark expedition, Jefferson dispatched                            to explore the upper

Mississippi Valley and the Colorado region. 

Definition
Zebulon Pike 
Term

One of the purposes of Lewis and Clark's expedition was to learn if the ____________River connected

with a water route to the Pacific

Definition
Missouri
Term
Although Macon's Bill No.2 temporarily removed all restrictions on trade
Definition
non-intercourse would be reapplied to either major power if the other ceased violating American
neutra
l rights. 
Term
President Madison reapplied the non-intercourse policy to Great Britain because 
Definition
he mistakenly believed that France was no longer seizing American ships
Term
One of the major reasons for American entry in the War of 1812 was the 
Definition
American beliefthat the British were inspiring Native American resistance to American expansion
Term
The Shawnee chief who tried to bind all of the tribes east of the Mississippi into a great confederation
in the early 1800s was 
Definition
Tecumseh
Term
Tecumseh's brother, Tenskwatawa (or "The Prophet") 
Definition

declared Native Americans should reject white ways, clothes, and liquor. 

Term
In the early 1800s, American settlers blamed frontier warfare on a scheme by 
Definition

   the Federalists. 

Term
Among the causes of the War of 1812 was the 
Definition
desire ofWestemers to expand into Canada and Florida. 
Term
The War Hawks called for war against Great Britain because 
Definition
wanted to defend the national honor and save the republic from British domination
Term
The greatest opposition to the War of 1812 came from 
Definition
expansionists
Term

In the War of 1812, Captain Isaac Hull commanded the frigate ________to a brilliant victory over the H.M.S. Guerriere

Definition
Constitution
Term
In the War of 1812, the most effective American action against British shipping was by
Definition
privateering merchantmen
Term
The map "The War of 1812" depicts the British tactic in America of a( n) 
Definition
naval blockade of the American coast. 
Term
The British changed their strategy against the United States in 1814 because 
Definition
the war in Europe, which had diverted their attention earlier, was now over
Term
The major U.S. city sacked and burned by the British in 1814 was 
Definition
Washington
Term
The Treaty of Ghent (1814) ending the War of 1812 
Definition
simply reestablished the status quo ante bellum
Term
During the War of 1812, Federalists in New England 
Definition
refused to provide militia to aid in the fight
Term
In January 1815, which of the following gave states the right to assert their authority should
"deliberate, dangerous and palpable infract
ions of the Constitution" be made? 
Definition
the Hartford Convention 
Term
As a result of the War of 1812, the Federalists 
Definition
were discredited as a political party
Term
The Battle of New Orleans in 1815 resulted in the 
Definition
emergence of Andrew Jackson as a military hero
Term
The measure in which Great Britain and the United States agreed to set a limit on the number of
armed vessels on the Great Lakes was the 
Definition
Rush-Bagot Agreement
Term
The American general who pursued the Seminole Native Americans into Florida and seized two
Spanish forts was 
Definition
Andrew Jackson
Term
The Transcontinental Treaty of 1819 
Definition
transferred Florida to the United States for $5 million and settled the southern boundary of the
Louisiana territory to the Pacific
Term
The Monroe Doctrine 
Definition
hoped to isolate the United States from involvement in European affairs
Term

e Monroe Doctrine's warning against European interference in America came because _____________________ _

colonies rebelled to gain their independence. 

Definition
Spain's
Term
"The American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and
maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European
powers." The source of this quote is 
Definition
the Monroe Doctrine. 
Term
What "may be seen as the final stage in the evolution of American independence"? 
Definition
Monroe Doctrine 
Term
The "Era of Good Feelings" was noted for the 
Definition
absence of organized political parties opposing each other
Term
By 1820 the American population and geographic area both 
Definition
doubled
Term
The original Bank of the United States that Hamilton proposed 
Definition
did not have its charter renewed when it expired in 1811
Term
The depression of 1819 was worsened by the policies of 
Definition
the second Bank of the United States
Term
Western opinion on public land policy in the early nineteenth century generally favored 
Definition
 reducing the price and the minimum size offered for sale
Term
The group which consistently favored low prices and easy credit for western lands was 
Definition
westerner settlers. 
Term
How was slavery a sectional issue before 1820? 
Definition
Most white Americans saw slavery as mainly a local issue
Term
The best-known political leader of the North in the early 1820s, who served brilliantly as Monroe's
secretary of state, was 
Definition

  John Quincy Adams. 

Term
The gregarious New York politician who never took a political position if he could avoid doing so
and who led a political machine known as the Albany Regency was 
Definition
Martin Van Buren
Term
In the 1 820s, the most prominent southern leader, the highly successful secretary of the treasury under
Monroe, was 
Definition
William H. Crawford
Term
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina was 
Definition
devoted to the South, but known for his broad national view of political affairs
Term
The outstanding western leader of the 1820s, combining a charismatic personality with great skills at
arranging political compromises
, was 
Definition
Henry Clay
Term
The essential question involved in the Missouri Compromise was whether or not Missouri would 
Definition
come into the Union as a free or slave state
Term
As a result of the Missouri Compromise, which two states were admitted into the Union? 
Definition
Missouri and Maine 
Term
The vote in the House of Representatives on Tallmadge's amendment to the Missouri Enabling Act in
1819 demonstrated that 
Definition
the rapidly growing North controlled the House of Representatives. 
Term
Northern objections to admitting Missouri as a slave state were based on 
Definition
the overrepresentation they thought Missouri would have because of the Three-Fifths Compromise
Term
The state admitted to the Union on the condition that, in the future, slavery was prohibited in the area
of the Louisiana Purchase north of the 360 30' line was 
Definition
Missouri
Term
The election of 1824 was waged on mainly personal grounds because the 
Definition
previous party system had collap
Term
The president chosen in 1824 by the House of Representatives when no candidate received a majority
of votes in the Electoral College was 
Definition
John Quincy Adams
Term
As president, John Quincy Adams 
Definition
was an inept politician
Term
The Tariff of 1828 was so high that in the South it was called the
Definition
Tariff of Abominations
Term
The "Tariff of Abominations" was so-called by its detractors because it 
Definition
threatened to impoverish the South with its excessively high rates
Term
The author of the South Carolina Exposition and Protest who, drawing on the works of John Locke,
stated that it was within the authority of a state to nullify a law within its boundaries if a state convention
found an act of Congress unconstitutional was 
Definition
John C. Calhoun
Term
In the face of growing sectionalism, which of the following was NOT a unifying force among the
American landscape? 
Definition
the ideas of preeminent politicians, such as those found in Calhoun's Exposition and Protest 
Term
Definition
was accompanied by the emulation of aristocratic manners
Term

The_______was an early nineteenth century development that constituted the combined solution to the problems of locating sufficient capital, transporting raw materials to factories and products to consumers, and supervising large numbers of workers

Definition
"market revolution" 
Term
The first American factory was developed by 
Definition
Samuel Slater to spin cotton thread
Term
The merchant who headed the Boston Associates, owner of the innovative Waltham mills, was
Definition
Francis Cabot Lowell
Term
As the gap between owners and workers increased in the 1840s, American workers 
Definition
failed to become a self-conscious working class
Term
 In "Mapping the Past: The Making of the Working Class" your text uses maps to show how the
economic growth of the earl
y nineteenth century led to
Definition
physical separation of masters and workers
Term
Most workers in the earliest textile factories were 
Definition
women and children
Term
Under the Waltham System, 
Definition
young farm women worked and lived under strictly supervised conditions
Term
The American population more than doubled between 1790 and 1820 primarily because of the 
Definition
high birthrate
Term
ill the 1830s and 1840s, most of the thousands of poor and wretched immigrants who flooded into
America came from 
Definition
Ireland and Germany. 
Term
One consequence of American industrialization in the early nineteenth century was 
Definition
a decline in the need for foreign goods and thus in the business of merchants
Term
By far the most important indirect effect of industrialization occurred when the 
Definition
South began to produce cotton to supply the new textile mills of New England and Great Britain
Term
As a result of the cotton gin
Definition
cotton production soared and the Southern economy boomed
Term
For a generation after 1815, the most expansive force in the American economy was 
Definition
cotton
Term
The racial beliefs of most white Americans in the last decades of the eighteenth century were
characterized by their 
Definition
greater respect for white property rights than for black American's right to personal liberty
Term
A successful and bloody slave revolt led to the creation in 1804 of the black republic of 
Definition
Haiti
Term
The Republic of Liberia in western Africa 
Definition
was founded by the American Colonization Society and was the eventual home to 12,000 American
blacks
Term
The cotton boom in the early nineteenth century caused a 
Definition
demand for more labor which was met by a renewed growth of slavery
Term
By 1820, the interstate slave trade in the South was 
Definition
a legal, well-organized, cruel, and shameful business
Term
One advantage which Northern blacks had over Southern blacks was their 
Definition
ability to organize movements to protest their treatment
Term

The natural highway for western commerce and communication in the early nineteenth century was

     the__________River. 

Definition
Mississippi 
Term
The first modem road in the United States was built in the 1790s to connect Philadelphia and 
Definition
Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Term
in the 1790's and early 1800s private companies built roads called
Definition
trunpikes
Term
In the nineteenth century, Congress 
Definition
built only one major road, the Old National Road
Term
The Erie Canal 
Definition
solidly established New York City's importance in commerce
Term
Part of the "democratizing" of politics during the age of Jackson was the 
Definition
elimination of property qualifications for voting and holding office
Term
Prior to the "democratizing" of politics during the age of Jackson, presidential candidates were usually
chosen by a 
Definition

congressional caucus. 

Term
During John Quincy Adams' presidency, the politician who prepared for the next election by relying on
his military reputation and portraying himself as losing the presidency in 1824 due to the "corrupt
bargain" was 
Definition
Andrew Jackson
Term
In the election of 1828
Definition
Andrew Jackson defeated John Quincy Adams in a contest disgraced by character assassination on
both sides. 
Term
Who does the text describe as "the symbol for a new democratically oriented generation"
Definition
Andrew Jackson 
Term
The basic concept underlying the "spoils system" was that 
Definition
party workers must be rewarded with political office after a successful campaign
Term
One of the "fundamental tenets of Jacksonian Democracy" was that 
Definition
ordinary Americans could do anything
Term
Jackson's advisers who did not hold regular cabinet appointments were called the 
Definition
Kitchen Cabinet
Term
Jackson's view of the presidency differed from his predecessor's primarily in his belief that the 
Definition
president was the direct representative of all the people and the embodiment of national power
Term
Jackson's popularity and success were primarily the result of his 
Definition
personality and leadership
Term
) The 1830 debate between Senators Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne focused on 
Definition
the doctrine of states' rights as opposed to national power
Term
In response to the espousal of the states' rights doctrine on the Senate floor by South Carolinian
Robert Hayne
, which of the following argued that the Constitution was a compact of the people and that
the Union was indissoluble? 
Definition
Daniel Webster 
Term
Daniel Webster's "Second Reply to Hayne" 
Definition
helped to prevent the formation of a West-South alliance. 
Term
Other than Jackson's personal popularity, the main campaign issue in the presidential election of 1832
was 
Definition

the Bank of the United States. 

Term

Nicholas Biddle realized that he could use the Second National Bank as a

Definition
rudimentary central bank 
Term
_______________was a leading enemy of the Second National Bank of the United States
Definition
Andrew Jackson 
Term
The senator who pushed for renewal of the Bank of the United States charter in 1832 to provide
himself a campaign issue against Jackson was 
Definition
Henry Clay
Term
Jackson defended his veto of the charter of the Second National Bank on the grounds that it 
Definition
unconstitutional, despite the Supreme Court
Term
Of the second Bank ofthe United States, who believed that it was making "the rich richer and the
potent more powerful"? 
Definition

C)  Andrew Jackson 

Term
Jackson's most powerful weapon against the Bank of the United States was the
Definition
ability to withdraw government revenues from the Bank
Term
Jackson's attitude toward nullification was to 
Definition
oppose it because of his devotion to the Union
Term
The conflict between Jackson and Calhoun was sharpened by their strong disagreement over the 
Definition

  Peggy Eaton controversy. 

Term
Like fellow Westerners, President Jackson 
Definition
preferred that local projects be left to the states 
Term
Jackson's policy toward the Native Americans was to 
Definition
remove them to lands west of the Mississippi
Term
About the removal of tribes, who wrote in Democracy in America about "the frightful sufferings that
attend these forced migrations"? 
Definition
Alexis de Tocqueville 
Term
The famous book in which Alexis de Tocqueville analyzed American society was 
Definition

~ Democracy in America. 

Term
During the 1830s and 1840s the economic differences between the rich and the poor 
Definition
constituted a wide and growing gap, especially in the larger eastern cities
Term
by the 1830s, non-agricultural work increasingly took place 
Definition
outside the home
Term
What was the effect of the growth of the factory system and of cities on middle-class families? 
Definition
Fathers' power decreased because they were now absent from home so much
Term
"The formation of the moral and intellectual character of the young is committed mainly to the female
hand ... The mother forms the character of the future man." This statement supports the concept of 
Definition
the Cult of True Womanhood
Term
Middle-class families in the 1830s had a(n) 
Definition
declining birthrate. 
Term
Among middle-class families, children came to be seen increasingly as 
Definition
innocent and morally superior
Term
The most effective preacher of the Second Great A wakening was 
Definition
Charles Grandison Finney
Term
A typical theme of the Second Great Awakening was that 
Definition
those who were saved were filled with God's grace and need not be bound by human laws
Term
Evangelist Charles Grandison Finney's success depended upon 
Definition
emotional release through personal testimony of salvation
Term
What your text labels "the third pillar of the emerging American middle class," alongside the family
and church, which had neither colonial precedents nor European equi
valents, was 
Definition
voluntary associations. 
Term
The communitarian group whose members were celibate, held their property in common, valued
simplicity and industriousness, stressed equality of labor
, and practiced a joyful and fervent religion was 
Definition
the Shakers. 
Term
The Illinois town founded by Mormon leader Joseph Smith as a semi-independent state within the
federal Union was 
Definition
Nauvoo
Term
The communitarian group which attempted to change society the least were the 
Definition
Fourierists
Term
Individual reformers who tried to care for the physically and mentally disabled were 
Definition
usually more effective than the more colorful communitarian reformers
Term
The pioneer in developing methods for educating deaf people who opened a school for deaf students
in 1817 was 
Definition
Thomas Gallaudet
Term
One of the most striking aspects of the various practical reform movements of the early nineteenth
century was their 
Definition
emphasis on creating special facilities for dealing with social problems
Term
The Auburn system was a pioneering experiment in 
Definition
prison reform. 
Term
"[C]hained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience," is the way which of the following
described the deplorable conditions of insane as
ylums to Massachusetts state legislators? 
Definition
Dorothea Dix 
Term
During the 1820s, Americans' per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages 
Definition
increased to the highest point ever in American experience
Term
The organization of reformed drunkards which focused on reclaiming alcoholics from the gutter was
the 
Definition
Washingtonians
Term
Catholic immigrants from Germany and Ireland often 
Definition
objected to demands for prohibition of all alcohol
Term
The first effective state law prohibiting the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages was passed
by 
Definition
Maine
Term
No reform movement of the early nineteenth century was "more significant" and "more ambiguous"
than 
Definition
abolitionism
Term
William Lloyd Garrison's views on slavery might best be described as 
Definition
uncompromising. 
Term
As a result of the new fugitive slave law from the Compromise of 1850, 
Definition
any Northerners who were not abolitionists were outraged at the sight of people being forced to
return to slavery. 
Term
Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel that brought home the evils of slavery to many in the North was 
Definition
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Term
Harriet Beecher Stowe was 
Definition
a fugitive slave who wrote about the horrors of the Fugitive Slave Act
Term
The "Young America" movement argued that 
Definition
democracy would triumph everywhere. 
Term
The United States attempted to establish some control over a future canal across the isthmus of Central
America by negotiating with 
Definition
Great Britain. 
Term
The most prominent spokesman of the "Young America" movement was 
Definition
Stephen A. Douglas
Term
Stephen A. Douglas believed that Congress should be concerned primarily about 
Definition
rapidly exploiting the continent
Term
The Underground Railroad 
Definition
endangered slavery by its explicit challenge to the South
Term
Stephen Douglas staunchly believed that the slavery question in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
should be resolved by 
Definition
popular sovereignty. 
Term
Northern feelings seemed to reach a boiling point on the Fugitive Slave Law with the arrest and return
of 
Definition
Anthony Bums. 
Term
A major cause of the disorder in Kansas was the 
Definition

interference from outsiders from both the North and the South on the slavery issue. 

Term

In May 1856,______ slaughtered five unarmed, proslavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek in

"bleeding Kansas." 

Definition
JohnBrown
Term
 Senator _____ was beaten unconscious by a member of the House of Representatives after he 
Definition
Charles Sumner 
Term
James Buchanan received the Democratic presidential nomination in 1856 mainly because he 
Definition
was overseas during the bitter debate over Kansas
Term
"An Act of Congress which deprives a person ... ofhis liberty or property merely because he came
himself or brought his property into a particular Territo
ry ... could hardly be dignified with the name of
due process of law." This statement is from the 
Definition
Dred Scott decision
Term
A major implication ofthe Dred Scott decision was that 
Definition
slavery was a nationwide institution, excluded only where states specifically abolished it
Term
Many Northerners believed that the Panic of 1857 
Definition
was caused by the southern-dominated Congress
Term
Prior to becoming president, Lincoln's position on slavery displayed his 
Definition
compassion toward the slave owner but condemnation of slavery.
Term
In the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas set out to make Lincoln look like a(n) 
Definition
abolitionist
Term
"It matters not what way the Supreme Court may hereafter decide as to the abstract question ... the
people have the lawful means to introduce or exclude it as they please, for the reason that slavery cannot
exist
... unless it is supported by local police regulations." This statement is from 
Definition
Stephen Douglas's "Freeport Doctrine
Term
 John Brown's major goal in attacking Harpers Ferry was to 
Definition
seize the federal arsenal and arm the slaves. 
Term
Before John Brown was executed by Virginia for treason, conspiracy, and murder, 
Definition
he behaved with such enormous dignity that many Northerners saw him as a martyr. 
Term
Lincoln was nominated for president in 1860 in part because of his

Definition
excellent team of convention managers
Term
Abraham Lincoln won the election of 1860 with a 
Definition
plurality of the Electoral College. 
Term
Among the most basic justifications for the secession of the South were the 
Definition
fears of the overpowering Northern economy
Term
Between the election of 1860 and his inauguration, Abraham Lincoln 
Definition
did not show much leadership. 
Term
 At the start of the Civil War, Lincoln's Secretary of State William Seward 
Definition
thought he could dominate Lincoln
Term
Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee seceded when Lincoln 
Definition
called for 75,000 volunteers after the fall of Fort Sumter. 
Term
President Lincoln viewed secession as 
Definition
a rejection of democracy. 
Term
The Civil War was fought to 
Definition
preserve the Union. 
Term
Military action early in the Civil War seemed to indicate that 
Definition
southern generals were superior
Term
In establishing a new government, the South 
Definition
was handicapped by its states' rights philosophy
Term
According to the graph "Men Present for Service During the Civil War," which of the following
statements is true? 
Definition

At all times during the war the North had at least twice as many soldiers as the South. 

Term
The first and only president of the Confederacy was 
Definition
Jefferson Davis
Term
Comparing them as presidents, the basic difference between Lincoln and Davis was that 
Definition
Davis allowed personal feelings to distort his judgment
Term
The first major battle of the Civil War on July 21, 1861 was a disaster for the Union. It was the Battle
of 
Definition
Bull Run. 
Term
After the Union was defeated at Bull Run, Lincoln chose _____ to command the Union forces. 
Definition
George B. McClellan 
Term
Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, and Benjamin Wade were leaders of the 
Definition
Radical Republicans
Term
Clement L. Vallandigham believed there were two rebellions in progress, "the Secessionist
Rebellion," and
"the Abolitionist Rebellion." Vallandigham was a 
Definition
Peace Democrat
Term
Members of the peace societies in the North were often called 
Definition
Copperheads
Term
How did Lincoln treat the civil rights of dissenters during the Civil War? 
Definition
He suspended the writ of habeas corpus in critical areas and applied martial law freely
Term

The most notorious Peace Democrat was Ohio Congressman 

Definition

Clement L. Vallandigham. 

Term
During the Civil War era, federal courts 
Definition

A)  admirably defended civil liberties. 

Term
After the Battle of Bull Run, President Jefferson Davis revised his military strategy to rely primarily
upon 
Definition
) building a strong defense to wear down the Union's will to fight
Term
The most vexing problem the Confederacy had during the Civil War was 
Definition
finance
Term
An examination of the Confederate war effort reveals that 
Definition
southern armies did not lose any battles because of a lack of armaments
Term
The idea that "cotton is king" played a major role in the way 
Definition
the South conducted foreign affairs
Term
What role did Great Britain play in the Civil War? 
Definition
England needed northern wheat more than southern cotton
Term
The early confidence of both sides was rocked by the staggering casualties sustained in 1862 at 
Definition
Shiloh
Term
Most Republican politicians defended emancipation on the grounds that

Definition
northern blacks would all move to the South