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HIST 101 Midterm
Quiz Answers
75
History
10/11/2011

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Term
The first agricultural revolution:
Definition
occurred around 8000 BCE as villages began to cultivate domesticated cereals and heard animals.
Term
What was the only animal that the people of the Americas partially domesticated to carry heavy loads?
Definition
llamas
Term
During the development of settled agriculture, the emerging divisions between males and females:
Definition
left women preforming more grueling agricultural labor than men.
Term
Human language:
Definition
expanded into nineteen separate languages families as humans moved out of Africa.
Term
Prehistoric human artwork included:
Definition
small sculptures of animals shaped out of bone, figurines of fat and pregnant females, cave paintings of various animals, carved bone instruments such as flutes
Term
Early humans in the Americas:
Definition
adapted to different ecological niches
Term
T/F Population growth in the Americas occurred slowly because humans refused to adopt local crops and instead sought to grow crops not well suited for the new environment
Definition
false
Term
What central Activity shaped the development of village society in Mesopotamia?
Definition
the building and maintenance of irrigation systems.
Term
T/F As humans communities became larger and more stratified, the rough gender egalitarianism of hunting and gather societies eroded.
Definition
True
Term
In the Sahel region in Africa:
Definition
people composed cave paintings that portrayed the transition from hunting and gathering to pastoralism
and
developed settled agriculture with sorghum as the principal food crop
Term
Pastoralist humans:
Definition
domesticated horses, which soon became measures of household wealth and prestige
Term
Food production by humans:
Definition
originated in at least five separate locations.
Term
T/F The domestication of the horse gave pastoralist humans decisive advantages in transportation and warfare over agriculturalists.
Definition
true
Term
The "Fertile Crescent" refers to:
Definition
a region of Southwest Asia with rich soils and regular rainfall in which the agricultural revolution first appeared.
Term
Why where nomadic pastoralists important to settled agriculturalists?
Definition
They transmitted ideas, products, and peoples across long distances, linking them with a wider world.
Term
T/F Hunters and gatherers in Africa only developed settled agriculture after learning its techniques from the peoples of Southwest Asia.
Definition
False
Term
Characterizes human villages as the grew in size:
Definition
Early social stratification emerged as some people accumulated land and wealth.
Changes in labor collectively disadvantaged women. Villagers celebrated rituals and made sacrifices to nature and the spirit world for fertility, rain, and successful harvests.
Some villagers stopped working in fields and became specialized craftworkers.
Term
In comparison with Afro-Eurasians, the people of the Americas:
Definition
were more scattered and isolated from each other.
Term
T/F Archaeologists have determined that the Harappan culture developed a written language called Mohenjo, written in poetic form, that permitted the creation of a highly symbolic mythological system.
Definition
False
Term
T/F The people who lived outside of the river basins in Europe and Anatolia remained more egalitarian than riverine societies and did not evolve much above the level of small-scale societies led by chiefs.
Definition
True
Term
Characterizes ancient Europe:
Definition
Warfare dominated cultural formation.
Mining output slashed the cost and increased the availability of raw materials needed for tools to clear forested land. The building of megalithic stone constructions provides evidence of cooperative planning and work.
Day-to-day confrontations over resources were common.
Term
The Indus Valley:
Definition
had plentiful water from the Himalayas that ensured flourishing vegetation.
Term
The Sumerian family:
Definition
adoption was a common way for a family to gain a male heir.
Term
Ancient Egyptian society used the Nile by:
Definition
building basins that trapped rich topsoil as the Nile overflowed its banks.
Term
The ancient Egyptian system to use the Nile flooding was devised and maintained by:
Definition
local villagers.
Term
The Tigris and Euphrates rivers:
Definition
required farmers to develop irrigation systems to control periods of high and low water.
Term
People in riverine cities:
Definition
developed lifestyles based on the mass production of goods and specialized labor
Term
Around 3500 BCE, in the Afro-Eurasia pastoral communities:
Definition
herders traded meat and animal products for the grains, pottery, and tools in settled agricultural communities.
Term
The use of cuneiform in Mesopotamia spread quickly because:
Definition
cuneiform could be adapted to different languages.
Term
Cities required:
Definition
widespread availability of domesticated plants and animals.
fertile soil.
agricultural surpluses.
access to water for irrigation.
Term
Sargon the Great:
Definition
established the first multiethnic state.
Term
Harappan society:
Definition
Harappans developed a standardized system of weights and measures.
Harappan merchants circulated goods widely throughout the Iranian plateau and regions to the west.Harappans built elaborate sewage and drainage systems, including large public baths.
Term
ancient European warfare:
Definition
Warrior elites learned to combine copper with tin to produce bronze weapons.
Constant warfare propelled Europe to become an innovative frontier society.
European warfare encouraged borrowing among competing peoples in Europe as each tried to best all rivals.
The culture of violence and conflict served to separate European kinship-based societies from the lands of the Mediterranean.
Term
T/F As the Old Kingdom in Egypt matured, the Egyptian state became less centralized, and high officials began claiming power that had once been the sole province of the king.
Definition
True
Term
T/F The Chinese did not create a graphic writing system until the 1000s BCE, well after Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations. However, preliterate signs and marks in Chinese settlements have been dated as early as the seventh millennium BCE, long before similar systems in other societies.
Definition
True
Term
In the Longshan villages in China:
Definition
links between people in northern and southern China emerged as Longshan people migrated to new regions.
Term
Ancient Egypt:
Definition
had nearly all of its needed natural resources available locally.


formed a highly coherent culture stretched out along the banks of the Nile River.

the divide between rural and urban settings was not stark because there were no massive cities.
Term
Which location is NOT one of the three locations in which cities first emerged?

the Euphrates River basin
the northern Nile River valley
the Tigris River basin
the Indus River basin
the Yellow River basin
Definition
the Yellow River basin
Term
The rise of trade:
Definition
was aided by the establishment of settled communities, which typically locally lacked some needed goods.
Term
A representation that transfers meaning from the name of a thing to the sound of the name is a:
Definition
rebus
Term
City life emerged around:
Definition
3500 BCE
Term
People in the Afro-Eurasian world who lived outside of the river basins:
Definition
had a warrior-based ethos.
Term
One reason we know very little about Harappan society today is that:
Definition
their writing has not been translated
Term
In comparison to Mesopotamia and Harappa, Egypt grew:
Definition
very rapidly
Term
Ancient China:
Definition
had a large agrarian region in which communities were spread out from each other.
Term
At first Eurasian city-states were run by:
Definition
assemblies of elders and young men.
Term
T/F In the Shang dynasty in China, the ability to divine the future was a powerful way to legitimize royal power and justify tribute collection.
Definition
True
Term
T/F In the Central Andes, early states formed confederations or alliances of towns similar to those found in Europe at the time.
Definition
True
Term
T/F The transhumant herders were not affected by the warmer weather that occurred around 2000 BCE, as they spent the hottest summer months in the mountain highlands where melting snows provided sufficient water.
Definition
False
Term
The Vedic people called themselves:
Definition
Aryans.
Term
Shang writing began when:
Definition
scribes inscribed queries to ancestors on oracle bones.
Term
the Vedic people:
Definition
adopted the agricultural skills of the people of South Asia.
Term
Under Babylonian rule in Mesopotamia:
Definition
new rulers designated private entrepreneurs to collect taxes, who kept a portion of tax revenues for their profits.
Term
Before 2000 BCE, transhumant herders:
Definition
had paid taxes to and labored on public works projects of the Sumerian cities.
Term
The horse chariot in Eurasia:
Definition
became a highly valued symbol of authority and power in different societies across Afro-Eurasia.
Term
The great territorial states of Southwest Asia and North Africa between 1400 and 1200 BCE:
Definition
created an international system based on a balance of power.
Term
Mesopotamia faced all of the following difficulties around 2000 BCE:
Definition
soil that was depleted of nutrients.
invasions by transhumant people from the Zagros Mountains.
the shifting of the Euphrates River to the west, causing many cities to lose access to fertile lands.
increased salination of the water table.
Term
As environmental conditions changed, nomads and herders gained an advantage on settled populations because:
Definition
nomads and herders adjusted to the dryer conditions more quickly.
Term
The Code of Hammurabi included:
Definition
acing responsibility on rulers to uphold a just order.
socially dividing people into one of three classes: freeman, dependent man, or slave.
detailing social rules about the rights and privileges of family members.

specific crimes and their punishments.
Term
When nomadic peoples entered into the weakened riverine societies after 2000 BCE:
Definition
they adapted their own cultural practices to fit with those of the riverine people they joined.
Term
Around 2000 BCE, the big states of river basins in Afro-Eurasia collapsed for all of the following reasons:
Definition
the world entered a warming cycle, and irrigation could no longer sustain regular crops.

transhumant migrants migrated toward the urban centers.

rains and floods had washed away layers of topsoil.

many centuries of farming had degraded the soils.
Term
T/F The pastoral Vedic people despised agricultural work and looked upon the local people of South Asia as uncivilized farmers.
Definition
False
Term
T/F The islands of the Mediterranean brought together the mainland peoples of western Asia and Europe, thereby serving as a place from which eastern influences spread into Europe.
Definition
True
Term
T/F Hammurabi borrowed from the Egyptians the image of the ruler as shepherd and patriarch of his people, responsible for their well-being.
Definition
True
Term
The Shang state in China:
Definition
had at the heart of its power an awareness of the importance of promoting agricultural growth and controlling precious metals.
Term
The Shang dynasty rulers obtained tribute from:
Definition
commoners who made payments in labor.
farmers who transferred surplus crops to elite landholders.
elites who supplied warriors and laborers as well as horses and cattle.
allies who sought protection from invaders and predictions about the harvest.
Term
In the Mediterranean islands around 1500 BCE
Definition
the Minoans of Crete planted colonies around the islands of the Aegean Sea.
trade centered on the precious metals of tin and copper.
the island of Cyprus became a focal point of trade between Egypt, Crete, and the cities of the Euphrates river.
the Minoans of Crete were eventually conquered by the Mycenaeans.
Term
Long-distance trade in Mesopotamia:
Definition
benefited from commercial rules and early insurance schemes developed by merchant households.
Term
The early Austronesians traveled between the islands of the Pacific in:
Definition
double outrigger canoes.
Term
The Shang dynasty:
Definition
promoted new technologies in agriculture, draining low-lying fields and clearing forested lands.
Term
Political developments in East Asia and the Americas were fundamentally different from those of the lands from North Africa to South Asia because:
Definition
East Asia and the Americas had fewer territorial states and thus fewer rivalries that prompted ruling classes to integrate their dominions.
Term
Hammurabi ruled in:
Definition
Egypt
Term
Austronesian settlements in the South Pacific were characterized by:
Definition
pottery, stone tools, and domesticated pigs
Term
The Shang dynasty had unprecedented dominance over its neighbors because of:
Definition
its access to copper and tin and the technology to produce bronze from them.
Term
In the Central Andes,
Definition
a diverse ecology in a small region encouraged the growth of trade.