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Hip - PTA Exam
hip questions for pta exam
55
Health Care
05/20/2009

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Term
Where are the two most common areas which hip fractures occur?
Definition
Extracapsular or trochanteric, Femoral neck (intracapsular), and proximal femoral shaft
Term
What is the most common complication of hip fractures?
Definition
Avascular necrosis of the femoral head
Term
True or False: Arterial thrombosis is the most common complication after hip fracture in the elderly.
Definition
False, venous thrombosis
Term
What are the three clinical complications associated with subtrochanteric fractures?
Definition
Mal-union, delayed union and nonunion
Term
What is the most important criteria used to progress a patient with a hip fracture from the maximum to minimum phase of rehab?
Definition
Rate of bone healing
Term
What exercises are commonly done in the maximum phase of rehab after a ORIF for a fractured hip?
Definition
Active ankle pumps, isometric quad sets, gluteal sets, heel slides, hip abd and add, and supine IR and ER.
Term
True or False: during the max protection phase, exercises should be done sub-maximally.
Definition
TRUE
Term
True or False: treadmill walking can be done in the late healing phase of a fractured hip rehab program.
Definition
TRUE
Term
True or False: exercises which combine diagonal or rotatory forces are contraindicated in the late phase of rehab following a fractured hip.
Definition
False, they contraindicated in the early phase
Term
Name two exercises which are contraindicated in the early phase of rehab following a hip fracture treated with ORIF.
Definition
Active SLR and supine hip bridges
Term
What weight bearing status is encouraged 2 days post-operatively?
Definition
Touch down or PWB
Term
When can closed chain exercises be added to a post-op ORIF hip fracture?
Definition
When the patient has achieved FWB status
Term
True or False: hemiarthroplasties are commonly performed in patients with arthritis.
Definition
False, since this procedure requires a normal acetabular surface it is not done with arthritic patients.
Term
True or False: the most significant complication after THR is thromboembolic disease.
Definition
TRUE
Term
What is a common complication that patients experience after noncemented THR?
Definition
Thigh pain with an antalgic gait (painful limp gait)
Term
True or False: cemented THR patients should be able to achieve FWB status by 8 weeks post-op.
Definition
False, three weeks post-op
Term
What are the universal hip precautions associated with a posterior approach for a THR?
Definition
Avoid hip adduction, IR and flexion beyond 90 degrees and the combination of motions for up to 4 months post-op.
Term
What are some functional activities that are contraindicated following a posterior THR?
Definition
Do not sit in low chairs, cross legs, sleep on the side, avoid bending over, and do not squat.
Term
True or False: Legg-Perthes disease is caused by avascular necrosis to the femoral head in growing children.
Definition
True
Term
What are the goals of treatment for Legg-Perthes disease?
Definition
Maintaining the femoral head in the acetabulum, regaining motion and reducing pain and dysfunction.
Term
True or False: the Thomas test is used to assess tightness in the ITB.
Definition
False, its used to check tightness in the Iliopsoas.
Term
True or False: a + positive Ober test is commonly seen with trochanteric bursitis.
Definition
True, stretching to the ITB is an important part of the rehab
Term
What combined motions should be avoided in the acute phase of a hamstring strain?
Definition
Full knee extension combined with forward trunk flexion and full leg flexion.
Term
What structures does the Faber Test access?
Definition
hip joint, SI joint, iliopsoas spasm
Term
What muscle strength does the Trendelenburg test access?
Definition
Gluteus Medius
Term
What tests access the length of the rectus femoris?
Definition
Kendell and Ely
Term
What anatomical landmarks are used to measure a true leg length?
Definition
ASIS and the medial malleolus
Term
What combined motions are performed to assess a piriformis syndrome?
Definition
Passive Hip flexion concurrent with IR or resistring hip extension and hip ER
Term
What hip imbalances are associated with an anterior pelvic tilt posture?
Definition
Short TFL and IT band, limitation in ER, weakness in the gluteus medius and piriformis
Term
What hip imbalances are associated with a slouched posture?
Definition
Shortened Rectus Femoris and hamstrings, weakness in the iliopsoas and gluteus medius, gluteus maximus
Term
What hip imbalances are associated with a flat back posture?
Definition
Shortened Rectus Femoris and IT band and gluteus maximus
Term
What exercises should be used to correct a slouched posture?
Definition
Stretch the Rectus Femoris and hamstrings and strengthen the iliopsoas and gluteus medius, gluteus maximus
Term
What exercises should be used to correct an anterior pelvic tilt posture?
Definition
Stretch TFL and IT band and the internal rotators, strengthen the gluteus medius and piriformis
Term
Define a "hip pointer."
Definition
Contusion to subcutaneous tissues of the iliac crest
Term
In an open kinetic chain, what direction would a PT mobilize the head of the femur to gain IR?
Definition
Posterior glide
Term
What are the ROM percautions associated with a THR performed with an anterior approach?
Definition
Avoid flexion >90 degrees, hip extension, adduction and ER past neutral
Term
What is the normal end feel for hip flexion?
Definition
Soft or firm
Term
What goniometric measurements of the hip can be taken in the supine position?
Definition
Hip add/abd and flexion
Term
What MMT tests are performed in the sidelying position?
Definition
Hip flexion and extension for grades 2,1, and 0.
Term
What MMT tests can be performed in the sitting postion?
Definition
Hip IR and ER for grades 3, 4 and 5, and hip flexion grades 3,4, and 5.
Term
What muscles insert into the greater trochanter of the femur?
Definition
Piriformis, Obturator Internus, Gemellus Superior, Gemullus Inferior, Gluteus Minimus, Gluteus Medius
Term
What areas of the pelvis do the adductor muscles origin from?
Definition
Ischium and pubis
Term
True or False: the origin of the gluteus maximus is posterior to the origin of the gluteus medius on the iliac crest.
Definition
True
Term
The origins of what three muscles can be felt if you palpate the ischial tuberosity?
Definition
Semitendinosus, biceps femoris and semimembraneous
Term
On the posterior aspect of the knee what is the correct order of muscles going from lateral to medial?
Definition
Iliotibial tract, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gracilis and sartorius (Trail Guide page 321)
Term
What muscle lies deep to the semitendinosus and gracilis?
Definition
Semimembranosus
Term
What muscle can adduct the hip as well as flex and medially rotate the knee.
Definition
Gracilis
Term
What muscle can flex, abduct and laterally rotate the hip as well as flex and medially rotate the knee?
Definition
Sartorius
Term
Which of the following muscles cannot flex the hip? Gluteus Minimis, Tensor fascia latae, Psoas Major or Pectineus
Definition
Pectineus
Term
Which of the following muscles is not innervated by two different nerves? Biceps femoris, Adductor Magnus, Tensor fascia latae, pectineus
Definition
TFL
Term
What is the capsular pattern of the hip?
Definition
Flexion loss is greater than abduction and abduction loss is greater than IR. Another way you may see it written is Flex>ABD>IR
Term
When offering resistance for hip abduction, hand placement should be where in relation to the knee?
Definition
Proximal
Term
When the patient is in the sidelying position, what muscle group would you be testing if they are moving the leg they are lying on towards midline?
Definition
Adductors longus, brevis, magnus, Pectineus and Gracilis
Term
When testing 4/5 MMT for Hip extension, what is the resistance direction that needs to be offered?
Definition
Flexion
Term
When measureing ROM for hip external rotation, the patient is in the sitting position with hip and knee flexed to 90 degrees, what direction does the foot move inward or outward?
Definition
Inward