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HIAA 0500 FINAL EXAM!
bosch to bruegel
66
Art History
12/08/2009

Additional Art History Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
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Definition

Hieronymus Bosch. The woods have ears, the fields have eyes. (DATE?)

 

  • In pen and ink (unique); indicates a greater spontaneity and delicacy of touch; nervous crosshatching; inscription in Latin "Characteristic of the most pitible of wits, always to use what has been invented and never inventing"
  • Bosch is educated in literary ideals and principles; is interested in applying these to artistic invention
  • In this work: innovative technique which gives illusion of quickness; combining words and pictures so they cross-fertilize
  • eyes in field, ears in trees, fox looking out from base of tree, owl in center, birds flying and screeching (contradiction: owl is blinded in daylight vs. its all-seeing nature)

 

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Hieronymus Bosch. The Last Judgement. c. 1485 or 1504 (?)

 

  • how do we know Bosch: what is by him and not by him; wit=prone to imitaiton
  • hell in the right wing; panoramic landscape/ half a map; creating a view of a universal space with division of bodies

 

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Definition

Anonymous in the style of Bosch. Christ's Descent into Limbo. c. 1555

 

  • knock-off of Bosch after his death

 

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Anonymous in the style of Hieronymus Bosch. Crowning with Thorns. After 1553.

 

  • Use of dendrochronology helps distinguish reals and fakes-produced after his death
  • Christ mocked by soldiers and jewish priest; griselle surrounding of original batthle (fall of angels); differentiation of faces

 

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Anonymous in the style of Hieronymus Bosch. Christ at the Marriage in Cana. c. 1560.

 

  • copies of lost work or new imitaitons, meant to exploit his popularity

 

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Pupil of Hieronymus Bosch(?). The Seven Deadly Sins. c. 1500.

 

  • Product of a close follower; unambiguous meaning--> not true in Bosch's paintings
  • 7 sins on a wheel, inscriptions from Deuteronomy explaining; "beware, beware God sees" center resembles an eye and convex mirror (mirror of moral reflection); hell gives the punishment for each sin
  • KEY PICTURE FOR THE RISE OF MORAL SATIRE IN THE NETHERLANDS

 

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Hieronymus Bosch. Garden of Earthly Delights. c. 1480 or 1500 (?).

 

  • By dating him later, Bosch is correlated to the new innovations in Italy; earlier date shows this innovation to be his own
  • Panoramic landscape/half a map; creating a view of a universal space with activities of human kind being played out: different kinds of lovemaking
  • OUTSIDE: crystal glove with clouds and water and emerging rocks and plantlife; God shown as creative agent "He said it and it was done" PSALM 33
  • INSIDE: explosion of life, proliferation of creation; LEFT: eden, animals, god creating Eve, Bosch is collecting a rich treasury of images and recombines them in his finished picture (invention vs. recombination); CENTER: decorative ornamental play of the human form, figures placed in staccato pattern, use of color

 

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Hieronymus Bosch. Temptation and Torments of St. Anthony. c.1501.

 

  • Dating is more secure--> one can compare this to Garden of Earthly delights (similar composition; GoED has a higher horizon line; figures more on the flattened surface while in Temp. there is more perspective and gradual transitions)

 

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Hieronymus Bosch. Adoration of the Magi. c.1475

 

  • Recently shown as the work of Bosch: tunnel-like persepctive, flattening of figures
  • innovation is also an issue of provinciality--had no constraints to paint in the style of previously established artists

 

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Hieronymus Bosch. Christ shown to the Poeple, Ecce Homo. c.1475.

  • Ghost of the donors seen in the foreground
  • inscription from the mouth of Pilate says "ecce homo", the people say "crucify him", painted over donors say "Save us, Christ redemeer."
  • owl and toad on the platform with Pilate to represent evil
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Hieronymus Bosch. St. John the Evangelist on Patmos. Inside top right shutter for Our Lady Altarpiece. 1488-89

  • John recieving the Revelation of the Apocalypse
  • bird is a falcon - reference to the eagle (his animal), guarding his writing tools from a demon trying to steal them
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Church of Our Lady (Cathedral 1559) 15th-16th century.

 

  • Church of which Bosch was an elite member

 

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Frans Floris. Fall of the Rebel Angels. 1554.

 

  • St. Micheal leading the army of the Lord against God's enemies; would have been in altar closest to rood screen
  • painted for the altar of the Antwerp Fencers Militia

 

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Quentin Metsys. Triptych for the altar of the Antwerp Joiners Guild. 1508-1511.

 

  • Lamentation over the body of Christ, Salome with the head of John the Baptist, Martyrdom of St. John the Evangelist
  • Painted for the Joiners guild; artist was originally a blacksmith
  • Incorporates the ideas of van der Weyden with new ideas, particularly those from Italy

 

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Bernaert van Orely. Triptych for the Antwerp Almoners with Seven Acts of Mercy and the Last Judgement. 1519.

 

  • Laymen in charge of distributing acts of charity, so 7 acts are the ideal of what they want to achieve

 

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Jan Gossaert. Neptune and Amphitrite. 1516.

 

  • Sudden change in 16th century visual elements
  • Commissioned for admiral; Neptune is god who controls sea 
  • Figures are nude, shown in a different form of beauty--> poses, articulation of musculature, classical gods (up to now, focus on Christian ideology), setting in an unusual architectural space: fluted columns, bull skull ornament, sense of proportion and geometric measure
  • seems as though a revolution has occured; art dominant up to 16th century has been replaced
  • Cultural movement surrounding Renaissance transplanted to the north with Gossaert at its helm

 

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Jan Gossaert. Virgin in a Church (after Van Eyck) with Antonio Siciliano and Saint Anthony. 1513.

 

  • Classical northern style also in his oeuvre; participates in a historical revival 
  • Painter able to bring together all of the diverse elements of each style

 

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Jan Gossaert. Christ with Mary and St. John the Baptist. c. 1513

 

  • St. John pointing, Mary praying, Christ blessing--distinctive gestures
  • each of the figures inserted into an architectural niche--distinctively gothic in style
  • Figures reference top center of Ghent altarpiece: both enframed; dazzling surface and technique of van Eyck evoked; DIFFERENCES: architecture is simple in van Eyck, new ornamentation that cuts the geometry of the architectural forms-> emphasizes the sacredness of the figures more; new change in dominant northern style

 

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Mathieu de Layens and Sulpitius van der Vorst. Leuven Town Hall. 1439.

 

  • Style that emphasizes more an individual touch; virtuosic fantasy that recognizes individual work as a kind of signature= emphasizes individual builders or groups of builders who dominate production of major buildings

 

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Rombout Keldermans II. Ghent Town Hall. 1518.

 

  • focus on ornament in the arches above the windows: filled with interlace that thrusts upward

 

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Jan Gossaert. Hercules and Deianeira with Cloak Tainted by the Poisoned Blood of a Centaur. 1517.

 

  • His labors are in relief; architectural niche one from Ancient Rome
  • Relationship between male and female full of danger; same relationship as Adam and Eve (sexual tempest) 

 

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Jan Gossaert. Venus and Cupid. 1521.

 

  • "her shameless son accustomed to excite superior men does not spare the mother: be sparing that you might not perish"
  • Further explained on columns: decit of Vulcan and trapped in bed with Mars
  • outer frame is removable: painting as silent poetry

 

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Jan Gossaert. Colosseum in Rome. 1508-1509.
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Albrecht Durer. The Fall of Adam and Eve. 1504.

 

  • Influenced by Italian art
  • Adam and Eve in primordial forest: Eve with an apple and a serpent giving another
  • Very different conception compared to Van Eyck--new set of proportions and new ideal; figures balancing weight in contrapposto; articulation of human body different; mathematical model vs. 'hit or miss'; relationship of parts to the whole figure
  • revival of ancient greek and roman literature--humanist gradual dissemination of learning into Northern Europe; create ideal image and check with nature; combination of theoretical drawing and life drawing and integration of new canons of beauty 

 

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Quentin Metsys. Portrait of Erasmus. 1517 (goes with Portrait of Pieter Gilles)

 

  • Dialogue in scholarship and ideas; kindred spirits; new ideal of friendship rooted in humanist study--> stocism which emphasizes reason and control of passions; friendship between men

 

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Quentin Metsys. Portrait of Pieter Gilles.1517. (goes with portrait of Erasmus)

  • Gilles is a humanist from Antwerp, friend of Moore and Erasmus
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Hans Holbein the Younger. Folly declaims. Pen and ink marginal illustration to Erasmus, In Praise of Folly. 1515 (REAL IMAGE is a full page of the book)

 

  • Erasmus' humor differed from what came before
  • (Bosch's 7 deadly sins: much more straightforward and condemning, negative bite)

 

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Definition

Hieronymus Bosch (inventor). The Blue Ship. 1559.

 

  • Related to celebration of carnival- fools would hav ebeen performers, traveled in this shipl; singer resembles an owl

 

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Quentin Metsys. Old Man, Young Woman, and Fool. c. 1520 (ill matched lovers in the real world....)

 

  • Connection to Leonardo's drawing
  • connection to Erasmus's quote that folly says: "thanks to me you can see old men everywhere so pleased with life and eager to be young...."something about going after young girls
  • Uncontrollable lust which goes against reason

 

Term
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Sebastian Brant (author). Title page to Das Narren schyff (Ship of Fools). 1494. (real image is yellow and old looking)

 

  • portrays different kinds of human behavior as negative examples; how different kinds of foolishness are typical of different kinds of people- example: "whoever builds something withoug inquiring on the price is a fool"
  • Emphasis on self-awareness
  • uses proverbs or animals who exemplify meaning

 

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Joachim Patinir. Charon Ferrying a Soul Across the River Styx. c. 1520.

 

  • Spread of humanist ideals <--"nothing comes from nothing" E.H. Gombrich points to presence of natural history in Plimy the Elder
  • Landscape also appears in Venice
  • deeper significance in the layout of landscapes which connects to Christian meditation--> journey in landscape becomes Christian pilgrim's life
  • Mixture of Greek and Roman ideology with Christian hell and heaven, relates to Dante's divine comedy, mixed ancient with christian
  • "moral" landscapes of Christian choice; soul being ferried makes the choice between heaven and hell; "path to hell is lush and wide and the path to heaven is narrow and rocky"

 

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Joachim Patinir. Rest on the Flight into Egypt. c. 1520.

 

  • Roads and vistas that invite the viewer in; offers an experience of travel and variety
  • Divided into three clear parts (center is the rest): danger of soldiers shown on right with the massacre of the innocents; wheat had sprouted up miraculously to hid the tracks of the holy family
  • Patinir always pputs in an image of a shitter as a signature referencing the presence of evil and defilement in the world

 

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THIS IS NOT THE ACTUAL IMAGE, BUT ITS CLOSE!!! Joachim Patinir. Rest on the Flight into Egypt. c.1520.

 

  • General formulaic convention upon which he constructs his view of nature; often two or more versions of the same painting; saleable compositions and their copies; Patinir produces works of varying quality

 

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Joachim Patinir and Quentin Metsys. The Temptation and Torments of St. Anthony. c.1520.

 

  • Specialization and collaboration with figure painters; added value of two different artists, each displaying his own speciality

 

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Joos van Cleve and landscape Collaborator. Triptych of the Crucifixion, St. Paul, and Donor. c.1520.

 

  • landscape appears to be done by an artist coming out of Patinir's workshop; definition of landscape of speciality is flexible; doesn't completely split off from the rest of the Netherlands work

 

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Joachim Patinir. St. John the Baptist Baptizing Christ. c. 1520

 

  • Characteristic rock formations with river flowing around it; such landscapes are seen around south Belgium--> element of nature in his work which becomes a constant in Flemish painting in the next century

 

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Herri met de Bles. Christ Carrying the Cross. 1540.

 

  • Workshop which resembled a factory in its output- different prices for different levels of skill; outcropping as a presence of evil; constructed in three parts: reddish brown--> green--> blue
  • rock outcropping, rivers and trees in distance
  • predicable variety

 

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Jan Gossaert. Married Couple (eldery couple in real life). c.1520.

 

  • probably a court officiail with his wife; Hierarchy established in painting; male placed above the wife--on superior right side

 

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Jacob Cornelisz vanOostzanen (Amsterdam). Artist and His Wife. 1530

 

  • unique relationship; wife is only a painting (dehumanized), but yet a strong presence in the piece

 

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Frans Floris. Portrait of the Van Berchem Family. 1561.

 

  • Group family portrait of many generations; symbols used to characterize relationship of family; concert=harmony; instruments played by gender (each playing proper role to create harmony)
  • food on table shows abundance and prosperity
  • dead patriarch of family on wall--> portrait as record of family history--> importance of genealogy and descent in cities

 

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Jan van Scorel. Members of the Knightly Confraternity of Jersualem Pilgrims of Haarlem. c. 1525.

 

  • men who went to Jerusalem
  • Identified by coat of arms and inscription below; highlighted by palms they are holding; factotum holds a cross-section of a church in Jerusalem
  • organization of portrait in procession ties to the purpose; figures looking out and engaging with the viewer
  • Jan van scorel himself is in the painting because he was a member of the fraternity

 

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Dirck Jacobsz. Officers of Amsterdam Musketeers Company. Center 1529. Sides 1552. (really called "a group of guardsmen")

 

 

  • shows the officers with their guns as individuals who confront the viewer
  • keeping of individual identity while unified as a group; no religious undertones; no saint clarifying their purpose
  • 1530 strong shakeup of city governemnt caused by threatened anarchy by anabaptists cause need for military vigilance

 

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Cornelis Anthonisz. Banquet of the Amsterdam Cross Bow Guild of St. George. 1533.

 

  • Seated around a table; stained glass shows St. George; individual characters gesturing from one to another

 

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Catherine van Hemessen. Self Portrait. 1548.

 

  • As artists gain status, they explore their own image; shows age and identity as painter; female artist painting her own self portrait refers back to Pliny the Elder (Marcia)

 

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Cornelis Floris. Antwerp Town Hall. 1561-5.

 

  • proclamation of a new order, connection with the rest of Europe--> Antwerp proclaiming itself as a cetner
  • Rusticated columns, corinthian, doric, ionic
  • Signboard of display: Justice, Prudence, (two main virtues of the government to rule), crest, eagle of the Hapsburgs, sea gods on either side signify Antwerp's reliance on maritime trade--> rich symbolism of government; replace of Virign marks an attempt to separate Church and state, centurion of Brabo placed instead

 

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Frans Floris (engraving after). Allegory of Painting, Architecture, and Sculpture Among the Liberal Arts. 1576.

 

  • illusionistic frescos
  • elements are "necessary for human society"
  • poetry embracing painting- symbolizes the highest art, grammer and rhetoric are behind them

 

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Cornelis Floris (drawing after). House and Studio of Frans Floris. 1562.

 

  • Display of new status and position of art
  • Made with same antique orders (Doric, ornamented capitals, ionic); illusionistic frescos of sculptures--> different virtues and values

 

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Pieter Coecke van Aelst. Last Supper. 1531.

 

  • Exemplifies the concerned effort to incorporate Italian art in his own painting
  • shows reaction of apostles to Christ's proclamation that one of them will betray him
  • History painting in idealized terms, references da Vinci's painting; variety and unity of apostles; perspective grid
  • Bruegel's teacher

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. River Landscape. 1552.

 

  • new elements of graphic means, curving parallel hatching; heaviness of touch in foreground and lighter in background
  • connect to Michelangelo's awakening of the slaves b/c  paper as a unifed mater that pen takes away from/ shapes

 

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Giulio Clovio. Last Judgment. c.1550. Water colors on parchment. Towneley Lectionary.

 

  • Bruegel might have collaborated with landscape

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. (Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum after). Alpine Landscape. 1555.

 

  • Designer of prints for Cock; part of a series of 12 prints

 

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Pieter Breugel the Elder. Alpine View. c.1553

 

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Big fish eat little fish. 1556. [also Pieter van der Heyden's engraving after, 1556].

 

  • Comical anecdotes; Bosch marked as inventor to attract buys
  • Proverb: "Little fish are the food of big ones/ Look son, I have known for a long time that big fish each the small"- abundant repitition to drive home the message
  • City of Antwerp in the back connects proverb to society
  • Boschian imagery; uses a very different style of drawing that he had used in the landscapes--picks up nervous pointed style of Bosch
  • print has identical composition as drawing

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The Battle of Carnival and Lent,. 1559.

 

  • Offers a feast to the eye: Carnival seated on a beer keg vs. Lent pulled by a monk and nun
  • Fatty food vs. pretzels and fish
  • Blue ship Inn vs. Church as headquarters
  • Display of lost folk tradiitons; progression of a clock of urban festivals from Christmas to Easter
  • timeline shown in trees 

 

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Pieter Breugel the Elder. Fall of the Rebel Angels. 1562.

 

  • Spilling out from the blinding light of God, cornucopia of monsters--metamorphisis of angels into demons shows every type of combination; angels shown in purposely archaic style; makes a self conscious contrast to ideal italiante figures

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The Dirty Bride or The Wedding of Mopsus and Nisa. 1570. (this is THE DRAWING, the engraving by Pieter van der Heyden is the actual image)

 

  • street play in carnival
  • parody of pastural idea of beauty; inscription in Latin from Virgil's poems; audience would have been a learned humanist group (If Mopsus is given to Nisa (a nymph), what might we not for, lovers?- parody of the quote, shows them to be crude and laughable

 

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Pieter Breugel the Elder. Cripples. 1566.

 

  • Group isolated from Carnival; placed in a hospital quarter; gives more weight and volume which increases their seriousness; deformity turns into a living grotesque; subject would have been seen as funny with an element of moral commentary (beggars were seen as deceivers); hats identify them as different states of society (bishop, military, bourgeois, peasents)
  • relationship of figures to space: bodies contorted in pain; figure looks outward=desire for escape and a view of the world outside

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Dulle Griet. 1562.

 

  • Continuation of Bosch-like forms through combination of animal and change of perspective (tilted up); "Mad Meg" an aggresive military figure plundering hell along with a troupe of housewives--force and power of women
  • schrewish woman so full of anger that she is capable of conquering the devil- social satire and comedy
  • Kind of womanly anger

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Proverbs. 1559.

 

  • illustrates the many proverbs that were part of humanist culture or commonsense knowledge
  • triology with children's games and battle of carnival

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Flight into Egypt. 1563.

 

  • continuation of landscapes (expansive alpine views) but inclusion of narrative as well--> high foreground which drops off suggesting precipitous height is typical of Bruegel; gives great attention to the craggy rocks--painting in the same conventions set up by Patinir
  • Lighter background; river provides mode of transportation of the eye; suggests all four elements combined with the spiritual 

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Pieter van der Heyden, after). Summer. 1570.

 

  • "July, August and also June make summer"
  • shows activity typical of the months

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Hunters in the Snow. 1565.

 

  • November and December
  • Slaughtering of a pig; people ice-skating; same idea of a high point in the foreground that drops off into the backgorund; treatment of color suggests temperature and feeling of the season--> sympathetic evolution of man with nature--> colors purposely tapped down to convey nature (brown to grey to black); shows covered trees, beautiful silhouettes; shows games of the season
  • rhythm of the silhouettes of the trees against the sky emphasized

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The Harvesters. 1565.

 

  • Shows conventional images of each month; monumentalizes these scenes and eliminates the obvious and constant presence of aristocracy
  • Not democratizing: still landowner looking at the paintings

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Massacre of the Innocents. 1564.

 

  • political opinions in later painting- dating is critical, but controversial- revolution and bloody repression is in 1566/7, so if after that date, could be a reflection of this repression and construed as a soical commentary
  • living in the midst of a revolution which overthrows religious order; after Christ's birth, Hera King of Jews is afraid of being superceded; cluster of calvary becomes center of painting around which everything else revolves; other soldiers are breaking down doors and killing children--> painting later becomes heavily political (painted over!)

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. St. John the Baptist Preaching. 1567.

 

  • coincided with a collapse of Spanish power--> Calvinists flooded back into the Netherlands
  • Calvinist preachers would gather groups outside city walls in important mass displays of religious and political opposition "hedge-preachings"- veiled celebration of this
  • Bruegel shows a variety of characters from different backgrounds, each has drastically different reactions, all different classes, shows events of the time in a disguised way

 

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The Magpie on the Gallows. 1568.

  • magpie=bird like a crow, meant the gossip who informed on protestants, delivering them to the gallows, suggests Bruegel's anger at those who informed, political edge