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Health Assessment Test 7-Respiratory & Cardiac System
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Nursing
07/19/2010

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Term
Pulmonary angiography
Definition
to detect pulmonary embolism when less invasive studies are nondiagnostic; to evaluate pulmonary circulation abnormalities; to evaluate pulmonary circulation preoperatively in the patient with congenital heart disease; to locate a large embolus before surgical removal— this test is a radiographic examination of the pulmonary circulation following injection of a radiopaque iodine contrast agent into the pulmonary artery or one of its branches
Term
Arterial blood gases
Definition
to evaluate the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange; to assess the integrity of the ventilator control system; to determine the acid-base level of the blood; to monitor respiratory therapy—this test is used to measure the partial pressure of arterial oxygen, the pp of arterial carbon dioxide, and the pH of an arterial sample.
Term
Pulmonary function tests
Definition
to determine the cause of dyspnea; to assess the effectiveness of specific therapeutic regimens; to determine whether a functional abnormality is obstructive or restrictive; to measure pulmonary dysfunction; to evaluate a person as part of a job screening (firefighting, for example)—this test evaluates ventilatory function through spirometric measurements on patients with suspected pulmonary dysfunction.
Term
Bronchoscopy
Definition
to visually examine a tumor, an obstruction, secretions, bleeding, or a foreign body in the tracheobronchial tree; to help diagnose bronchogenic carcinoma, TB, interstitial pulmonary disease, and fungal or parasitic pulmonary infection by obtaining a specimen for bacteriologic and cytologic examination; to remove foreign bodies, malignant or benign tumors, mucus plugs, and excessive secretions from the tracheobronchial tree—this test allows direct visualization of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi through a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope or a rigid metal bronchoscope.
Term
Perfusion and ventilation scans
Definition
a type of medical imaging using scintigraphy to evaluate the circulation of air and blood within a patient's lungs. The ventilation part of the test looks at the ability of air to reach all parts of the lungs, while the perfusion part evaluates how well the blood circulates within the lungs. This test is most commonly done in order to check for the presence of a blood clot or abnormal blood flow inside the lungs
Term
Electrocardiography
Definition
to help identify primary conduction abnormalities, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac hypertrophy, pericarditis, electrolyte imbalances, myocardial ischemia, and the site and extent of MI; to monitor recovery from an MI; to evaluate the effectiveness of cardiac medication (cardiac glycosides, anti arrhythmics, anti hypertensives, and vasodilators); to assess pacemaker performance; to determine the effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy and the resolution of ST-segment depression or elevation and T-wave changes—this test evaluates cardiac status by recording the electrical current generated by the heart
Term
Echocardiogram
Definition
to diagnose and evaluate valvular abnormalities; to measure the size of the hearts chambers; to evaluate chambers and valves in congenital heart disorders; to help diagnose hypertrophic and related cardiomyopathies; to detect atrial tumors; to evaluate cardiac function or wall motion afer myocardial infarction; to detect pericardial effusion; to detect mural thrombi—this test is a noninvasive test that show the size, shape, and motion of cardiac structures.
Term
Cardiac catheterization
Definition
to evaluate valvular insufficiency or stenosis, septal defects, congential anomalies, myocardial function and blood supply, and cardiac wall motion; to help diagnose left ventricular enlargement, aortic root enlargement, ventricular aneurysms, and intracardiac shunts.
Term
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Definition
periodic acute attacks of shortness of breath that awaken a person, usually after several hours of sleep in a recumbent position
Term
orthopnea
Definition
difficulty breathing in any position other than an upright one
Term
adventitious breath sounds
Definition
breath sounds that are not normal
Term
crackles
Definition
fine, high pitched crackling and popping noises (discontinuous sounds) heard
during the end of inspiration. Not cleared by cough
Term
wheezing
Definition
high-pitched musical sound similar to a squeak. Heard more commonly during expiration, but may also be heard during inspiration. Occurs in small airways.
Term
rhonchi
Definition
low-pitched, coarse, loud, low snoring or moaning tone. Actually sounds like snoring. Heard primarily during expiration, but may also be heard during inspiration. Coughing may clear.
Term
vesicular breath sounds
Definition
normal breath sounds heard over most of the lungs
Term
bronchovesicular breath sounds
Definition
refers to breath sounds at a moderate pitch heard in the posterior chest over the outer center of the back on either side of the spine between the scapulae and in the anterior chest around the sternal border
Term
respiratory stridor
Definition
used to describe a harsh high-pitched sound associated with breathing that is often caused by laryngeal or tracheal obstruction
Term
bronchial breath sounds
Definition
high-pitched breath sounds normally heard over the trachea and immediately above the manubrium; considered abnormal if heard anywhere over the posterior or lateral chest
Term
vocal fremitus
Definition
vibratory sensations of the spoken voice felt through the chest wall on palpation
Term
pleural effusion
Definition
- an accumulation of serous fluid in the pleural space between the visceral and parietal pleurae
Term
emphysema
Definition
destruction of the alveolar walls causes permanent abnormal enlargement of the air spaces
Term
pneumothorax
Definition
- air in the pleural spaces results in this; three types: 1. Closed- which may be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic; 2. Open- which occurs following penetration of the chest by either injury or surgical procedure; 3. Tension- which develops when air leaks into the pleura and cannot escape
Term
hemothorax
Definition
blood in the pleural space caused by injury to the chest results in this
Term
Atelectasis
Definition
refers to the collapsed alveoli caused by external pressure from a tumor, fluid, or air in the pleural space or by removal of air from hypoventilation or obstruction by secretions
Term
cardiac pacemaker
Definition
the SA node- sends out impulses that stimulate contractions of both atria and then flow to the AV node in the inferior aspect of the right atrium
Term
peripheral vascular system
Definition
arteries, capillaries, and veins provide blood flow to and from tissues
Term
orthopnea
Definition
difficulty breathing in any position other than an upright one
Term
hemoptysis
Definition
coughing up blood or referring to bloody sputum
Term
intermittent claudication
Definition
condition characterized by symptoms of pain, aching, cramping, and localized fatigue of the legs that occur while walking but that can e relieved by rest (2 to 5 mins); discomfort occurs most often in the calf but may arise in the foot, thigh, hip, or buttock
Term
systolic murmur
Definition
a murmur occurring during the ventricular ejection phase of the cardiac cycle
Term
diastolic murmur
Definition
a murmur occurring in the filling phase of the cardiac cycle
Term
angina pectoris
Definition
chest pain that is due to ischemia of the myocardium
Term
myocardial infarction
Definition
occurs when myocardial ischemia is sustained resulting in death of myocardial cells (necrosis)
Term
heart failure
Definition
when either ventricle fails to pump blood efficiently into the aorta or pulmonary arteries
Term
infective endocarditis
Definition
an infection of the endothelial layer of the heart, including the cardiac valves
Term
pericarditis
Definition
inflammation of the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium and outer myocardium
Term
venous thrombosis
Definition
when a thrombus (clot) develops within a vein
Term
thrombophlebitis
Definition
inflammation of a vein that may or may not be accompanied by a clot
Term
# of packs smoked per day x # of yrs smoked
Definition
pack years
Term
90 degrees
Definition
costal angle should be no greater than what?
Term
vertebra prominens
Definition
visible spinous process
Term
low pressure
Definition
on inspiration, is there a low pressure or high pressure inside the chest cavity?
Term
high pressure
Definition
on expiration, is there a high pressure or low pressure in the chest cavity?
Term
less than 3 weeks
Definition
acute cough lasts how long??
Term
longer than 3 weeks
Definition
chronic cough lasts how long?
Term
colds, viral infections, or bronchitis
Definition
white or clear sputum coughed up is indicative of what?
Term
bacterial infection
Definition
yellow or green sputum coughed up is indicative of what?
Term
smoke or coal dust inhalation
Definition
black sputum coughed up is indicative of what?
Term
TB or pneumococcal pneumonia
Definition
rust-colored sputum coughed up is indicative of what?
Term
pulmonary edema
Definition
pink frothy sputum is associated with what?
Term
cystic fibrosis
Definition
thick sputum is associated with what?
Term
bacterial pneumonia, lung abscess, or bronchiectasis
Definition
foul smelling sputum is typically associated with what?
Term
12-20 breaths per min (eupnea)
Definition
normal respiratory rate
Term
bradypnea
Definition
respiratory rate less than 12bmp; rate and depth smooth and even
Term
tachypnea
Definition
respiratory rate greater than 20bpm; rate and depth smooth and even
Term
hyperventilation
Definition
increased rate and depth of respiration
Term
kussmaul breathing
Definition
when hyperventilation occurs with ketoacidosis, very deep and laborious breathing
Term
biot breathing
Definition
breathing characterized by irregularly interspersed periods of apnea in a disorganized and irregular pattern, rate, or depth. may be associated with persistent intracranial pressure, respiratory distress, or damage to medulla.
Term
cheyne-stokes breathing
Definition
breathing characterized by intervals of apnea interspersed with with a deep and rapid breathing pattern; may be seen in clients with severe illness, brain damage, or drug overdose
Term
air trapping
Definition
abnormal respiratory pattern frequently seen in clients with COPD. characterized by rapid inspirations with prolonged forced expirations; air isn't fully exhaled, thus it becomes trapped in the lungs which eventually leads to barrel chest
Term
over trachea; high, loud
Definition
where are bronchial breath sounds heard normally? pitch & intensity?
Term
first and second intercostal spaces at sternal border anteriorly; posteriorly at t4 medial to scapula; moderate & medium
Definition
where are bronchovesicular breath sounds normally heard? pitch & intensity?
Term
peripheral lung fields; low & soft
Definition
where are vesicular breath sounds heard normally? pitch & intensity?
Term
fine crackles (rales)
Definition
fine high-pitched crackling and popping noises (discontinuous sounds) heard during the end of inspiration; not cleared by coughing---may be heard in pneumonia, heart failure, asthma and restrictive pulmonary diseases
Term
medium crackles
Definition
medium-pitched, moist sound heard about halfway through inspiration. not cleared by cough; may be heard in pneumonia, heart, failure, asthma, and restrictive pulmonary disease
Term
coarse crackles
Definition
low-pitched, bubbling or gurgling sounds that start early in inspiration and extend into the first part of expiration. pneumonia, heart failure, asthma, restrictive pulmonary diseases, diminished gag reflex. also heard in pulmonary edema and pulmonary fibrosis
Term
wheeze
Definition
high pitched musical sound similar to a squeak. heard more commonly during expiration, but may also be heard during inspiration. occurs in small airways. heard in narrowed airway diseases such as asthma
Term
rhonci
Definition
low pitched, coarse, loud, low snoring or moaning tone. actually sounds like snoring. heard primarily during expiration but may also be heard during inspiration. coughing may clear. heard in disorders causing obstruction of the trachea or bronchus, such as chronic bronchitis
Term
pleural friction rub
Definition
a superficial, low pitched, coarse rubbing or grating sound. sounds like two surfaces rubbing together. heard throughout inspiration and expiration. loudest over the lower anterolateral surface. not cleared by cough. heard in individuals with pleurisy
Term
respiratory stridor
Definition
describes a harsh, high pitched sound associated with breathing that is often caused by laryngeal or tracheal obstruction
Term
diaphragmatic excursion
Definition
the movement of the diaphragm with maximum inspiration and expiration
Term
acute bronchitis
Definition
inflammation of mucous membrane of bronchial tree caused by viruses or bacteria; characterized by cough, chest pain, fever, malaise, tachypnea
Term
pneumonia
Definition
infection of the terminal bronchioles and alveoli; caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycoplasma, or aspiration of gastric secretions; characterized by cough (productive and nonproductive), fever, tachypnea, dyspnea, crackles/wheezes
Term
tuberculosis
Definition
contagious bacterial infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis; characterized by fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, fever, and cough with mucopurulent sputum; checked for it by PPD screening
Term
pleural effusion
Definition
an accumulation of serous fluid in the pleural space between the visceral and parietal pleurae; due to inflammation from infection, injury, cancer; characterized by dyspnea, intercostal bulging, decreased chest wall movement, diminished breath sounds, fremitus
Term
empyema
Definition
accumulation of purulent exudate in pleural space; characterized by fever, increased RR, fremitus, diminished/absent breath sounds
Term
bronchiectasis
Definition
chronic dilation of bronchi or bronchioles; characterized by dyspnea, tachypnea, large quantity of purulent sputum, crackles, wheezing, rhonchi
Term
asthma
Definition
airway obstruction and inflammation, bronchospasms; characterized by increased RR, prolonged respiration, wheezes, shortness of breath, tachycardia, diminished breath sounds
Term
emphysema
Definition
permanent abnormal enlargement of air space due to alveolar wall destruction; characterized by being underweight with a barrel chest, SOB, pursed lip breathing, tripod position, diminished breath sounds, wheezes/crackles
Term
chronic bronchitis
Definition
hypersecretion of mucus by the goblet cells of the trachea and bronchi; productive cough for 3 months in each of 2 successful years; characterized by productive cough, increased mucous production, dyspnea, rhonchi
Term
cystic fibrosis
Definition
autosomal recessive genetic disorder; multisystem; abnormally thick mucus production; characterized by cough, congestion, thick mucus secretions, tachypnea, retractions, decreased chest movement, crackles/wheezes
Term
cor pulmonale
Definition
right sided heart failure due to chronic obstructive lung disorders; right ventricular hypertrophy; characterized by jugular vein distention, weight gain, peripheral edema, bounding pulse, enlarged liver
Term
pneumothorax
Definition
air in the pleural space; three types: open, closed, tension. characterized by dyspnea, tachypnea, respiratory distress, paradoxic chest movement, tracheal displacement
Term
hemothorax
Definition
blood in pleural space; signs are similar to those in pneumothorax--dyspnea, tachypnea, respiratory distress, paradoxic chest wall movement, tracheal displacement
Term
atelectasis
Definition
collapsed alveoli caused by hypersecretions or hypoventilation. affected lobe has diminished or absent breath sounds; decreased O2 saturation (<90%)
Term
lung cancer
Definition
an uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells in the lung; causative factors: tobacco, abestos; persistent cough, weight loss, congestion, hemoptysis, labored breathing