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Hardware
In this chapter ,you'll explore the key hardware components of he computer and put them together to create a computer you could use to complete your academic career.
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Computer Networking
10/19/2011

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Term
section 1 summary
Definition
The CPU is the brain of the computer and consists of the control unit and arithmetic logic unit.It processes data through the instruction cycle: fetch,decode,execute,and store. Features such as parallel processing and multi-core processing increase the CPU's ability to process multiple instructions at the same time, increasing its speed.
Term
Hardware
Definition
refers to the physical components of a computer.
Term
peripheral devices
Definition
the components that serve the input,output,and storage function.
Term
Central processing unit CPU or
processor
Definition
the brain of a computer;housed inside the system unit on the mother board. It consists of two parts :the arithmetic logic unit and the control unit.
Term
arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
Definition
performs arithmetic( addition and subtraction ) and logic(And,or,not)calculations.
Term
control unit
Definition
manages the movement of data though the CPU.
Term
instruction cycle
Definition
which is also known as the " fetch-and-execute cycle" or the " machine cycle "
Term
clock speed
Definition
the speed at which the processors executes the cycle.
Term
gigahertz (GHz)
Definition
billions of cycle per second . A 3 GHz processor has 3 billion data cycle per second.
Term
Pipelining
Definition
used by single processor
Term
Parallel processing
Definition
uses multiple processors, or multi-core processor,to divide up the work it can dramatically increase computer performance when running processor-intensive programs, such as system scans or multiple simultaneous programs.
Term
multi-core processor
Definition
consists of two or more processors that are integrated speed over single-core processors and reduces energy consumption over multiple separate processors.
Term
1st thing you need to know (sec 1)
Definition
the CPU consists of the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit.
Term
2nd thing you need to know (sec 1)
Definition
the four steps of the instruction cycle are : fetch,decode,execute, and store .
Term
3rd thing you need to know (sec 1)
Definition
Modern processor use pipelining and parallel processing to improve performance.
Term
4th thing you need to know ( sec 1 )
Definition
A multi-core processing consists of more than one processor on a single chip.
Term
section 2 summary
Definition
The system unit is the case the houses the power supply,motherboard,processor ( CPU), heat sink and cooling fan,and memory of a computer. it also has drive bays to hold the storage devices and openings for peripheral devices to connect to expansion cards on the motherboard. The motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer. In addition to housing the CPU,it contains: drive contains: drive controllers and interfaces, expansion-slots , data buses, ports and connectors , BIOS, and memory. A Motherboard may also include integrated peripherals, such as video, sound and network cards.
Term
system unit
Definition
is the case that encloses and protects the power supply, motherboard,processor (CPU), and memory of a computer.
Term
Motherbroad
Definition
the main circuit board of your computer.
Term
drive controller
Definition
on the motherboard provides a drive interface, which connects disk to the processor.
Term
SATA(Serial ATA)
Definition
the standard internal drive interface.
Term
EIDE(enhanced integrated drive electronics)
Definition
A legacy drive interface found on the motherboard of older personal computers.
Term
Expansion cards
Definition
plugs directly into expansions slots on the motherboard and allow you to connect devices to a computer.
Term
PCI (peripheral component interconnect)
Definition
the most common type of expansion slot on a motherboard that an expansion card plugs into.
Term
PCI express( PCle)
Definition
A faster version of PCI that's typically used to connect a video card.
Term
AGP( accelerated graphics port)
Definition
the standard analog video port on computer manufactured before 2009.
Term
data buses
Definition
Is information that flows between the computer over wires on the motherboard.
Term
ports
Definition
are used to connect peripheral devices to the motherboard. USB and FireWire are the most common ports today.
Term
Serial and parallel ports
Definition
are legacy ports that aren't typically found on computers.
Term
PS/2 port
Definition
A legacy ports used to connect a keyboard and mouse
Term
RAM( ramdom access memory)
Definition
A form of volatil memory that hold the operating system, programs , and the data the computer is currently using. Any information left in memory is lost when the power is turned off.
Term
ROM( read-only) memory
Definition
A nonvoatile form of memory that doesn't need to keep its data.
Term
USB( Universal Serial Bus)
Definition
A standard port type that's used to connect many kinds of devices , including printer, mice, keyboard, digital cameras, cell phones, and external drives. Up to 127 devices can share a single USB port.
Term
USB hub
Definition
A device used to connect multiple USB device to a single USB port.
Term
1st thing you need to know (sec 2)
Definition
The motherboard is the main ciruit board in a computer .
Term
2nd thing you need to know (sec 2)
Definition
A motherboard proviedes the way for devices to attach to a file.
Term
3rd thing you need to know (sec 2)
Definition
Information flows between the computer of a computer over data buses.
Term
4th thing you need to know (sec 2)
Definition
The BIOS is a program stored on a chip on the motherboard that's used to start up the computer.
Term
5th thing you need to know (sec 2)
Definition
RAM is volatile memory that holds the operateing system, programs, and data the computer is currently using.
Term
section 3 summary
Definition
A single bit ( or switch) has two possible states- on or off - and can be used for situation with two possibles , as yes/no ,true/false, or boy/girl.Digital data is repesent by 8-bit(1byte)binary code on most modern computers.the 8-bit ASCII system originally had binary codes for 256 characters.