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Groups and Organizations
Taken from sociology lectures on groups and organization
22
Sociology
10/27/2011

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Term
Group
Definition
People who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant, also called a social group.
Term
Primary Group
Definition
A group characterized by intimate long term, face-to-cae association and cooperation, very close/intimate relationships. Ex: Sororities, families, etc.
Term
Secondary Group
Definition
Compared w/ a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity. Very impersonal, short term relationships. Ex: Big college lecture classes
Term
In-Group
Definition
Groups toward which one feels loyalty
Term
Out Group
Definition
Groups toward which one feels antagonism
Term
Reference Group
Definition
A group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves.
Term
Small Group
Definition
A group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all other members.
Term
Dyad
Definition
The smallest possible group consisting of two persons (or groups). Two people/two groups = one relationships.
Term
Triad
Definition
A group of 3 people (or 3 groups). 3 people (or 3 groups)= 3 relationships. The more group relationships you have, the more freedom you have.
Term
Bureaucracy
Definition
A formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor; emphasis on impersonality of position and written rules, communications and records. Number one goal of any bureaucracy is to be efficient. According to Marx, an additional role of this efficiency is alienation.
Term
Trained Incapacity (Standardization)
Definition
Inability to think outside the box. Ex: In restaurants, "not my table" attitude.
Term
Goal Displacement
Definition
An organization replacing old goals with new ones; also known as goal replacement.
Term
Iron Law of Oligarchy
Definition
Robert Michel's term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite.
Term
Peter Principle
Definition
Individuals rise to the level of their own inability in an organization.
Term
Voluntary Associations
Definition
A group made up of people who voluntarily organize on the basis of some mutual interest; also known as voluntary memberships and voluntary organization
Term
Sexual Harassment
Definition
The abuse of one person's position of authority to make unwanted sexual demands on another.
Term
Glass Ceiling
Definition
As women climb the corporate ladder they will eventually hit a block, the glass ceiling.
Term
The study of groups has become an important part of sociology because groups play a role in:
Definition
Cultural Transmission
Term
A three member group is a:
Definition
Triad
Term
What perspective would argue that organizations maintain the status quo through coercion?
Definition
Conflict Perspective
Term
Women are often faced w/ limited opportunities for advancing in the workplace. This is known as:
Definition
The Glass Ceiling
Term
Which theorist presents us with concepts of labor and hierarchy of authority?
Definition
Weber