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Gov. Chapter 3
Federalism
22
Political Studies
04/27/2010

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Term
Unitary system
Definition
A centralized government system in which localor subdivisinoal governments exercise only those powers given to them by the central government
Term
confederal system
Definition
A system of government consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states.
Term
enumerated powers
Definition
powers specifically granted to the national government by the Constitution. The first seventeen clauses of Article I, Section 8, specify most of the enumerated powers of Congress.
Term
elastic clause, or necessary and proper clause
Definition
The clause in Article I, Section 8, that grants Congress the power to do whatever is necessary to execute its specifically delegated powers.
Term
police power
Definition
The authority to legislate for the protection of the health, morals, safety, and welfare of the people. In the United States, most police power is a reserved power of the states
Term
concurrent powers
Definition
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments
Term
sumpremecy clause
Definition
The constitutional provision that makes the Constituion and federl laws superior to all conflicting state and local news
Term
horizontal federalism
Definition
activities, problems, and policies that require state governments to intereact with one another
Term
interstate compact
Definition
An agreement between two or more states. Agreements on minor matters are made without congressional consent, but any compact that tends to increase the power of the contracting states relative to other states or relative to the national government generally required the consent of Congress. Such compacts serve as a means by which states can solve regional problems.
Term
commerce clause
Definition
The section of the Constitution in which Congress is given the power to regulate trade among the states and with foreign countries
Term
injunction
Definition
an order issued by a court to compel or restrain the performance of an act by an individual or entity
Term
nullification
Definition
The act of nullifying, or rendering void. Prior to the Civil War, southern supporters of states' rights claimed that a state had the right to declare a nationsl law to be null and void and therefore not binding on its citizens, on the assumption that ultimate sovereign authority rested with the several states
Term
secession
Definition
The act of formally withdrawing from membership in an alliance; the withdrawl of a state from the federal union
Term
dual federalism
Definition
A system of government in which the states and the national government each remain supreme within their own sphere. The doctrine looks on nation and state as coequal sovereign powers. It holds that acts of states within their reserv ed powers are legitimate limitations on the powers of the national government
Term
cooperative federalism
Definition
The theory that the states and the national government should cooperate in solving problems
Term
picket-fence federalism
Definition
a model of federalism in which specific programs and policies (depicted as vertical pickets in a picket fence) involve all levels of government - national, state, and local (depicted by the horizontal board in a picket fence)
Term
categorical grants-in-aid
Definition
Federal grants-in-aid to states or local governments that are for very specific programs or projects
Term
Matching funds
Definition
for many categorical grant programs, money that the state must provide to "match" the federal funds. Some programs require the states to raise on 10% of the funds, whereas other approach an even share
Term
equalization
Definition
A method for adjusting the amount of money that a state must provide to receive federal funds. The formula used takes into account the wealth of the state or its ability to tax its citizens
Term
new federalism
Definition
A plan both to limit the national government's power to regulate and to restore power to state governments. Essentially, the new federalism is designed to give the states greater ability to decide for themselves how government revenues should be spent
Term
block grants
Definition
federal programs that provide funds to state and local governments for general functional areas, such as criminal justice or mental-health programs
Term
federal mandate
Definition
a requirement in federal legislation that forces states and municipalities to comply with certain rules