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Gov. Chapter 17
Foreign and Defense Policy
23
Political Studies
05/02/2010

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Term
cold war
Definition
the ideological, political, and economic impasse that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union following World War II
Term
foreign policy
Definition
a nation's external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them
Term
diplomacy
Definition
the total process by which states carry on political relations with each other; settling conflicts among nations by peaceful means
Term
economic aid
Definition
assistance to other nations in the form of grants, loans, or credits to buy the assisting nation's products
Term
technical assistance
Definition
the sending of experts with technical skills in such areas as agriculture, engineering, or business to aid other nations
Term
foreign policy process
Definition
the steps by which external goals are decided and acted on
Term
national security policy
Definition
foreign and domestic policy designed to protect the independence and political and economic integrity of the U.S.; policy that is concerned with the safety and defense of the nation
Term
national security council (NSC)
Definition
a board created by the 1947 Nationsl Security Act to adivse the president on matters of national security
Term
moral idealism
Definition
a philosophy that sees all nations as willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards for conduct
Term
political realism
Definition
a philosophy that sees each nation acting principally in its own interest
Term
negative constituents
Definition
citizens who openly oppose government foreign policies
Term
intelligence community
Definition
the government agencies that are involved in gathering information about the capabilities and intentions of foreign governments and that engage in activities to further U.S. foreign policy aims
Term
attentive public
Definition
this portion of the general public that pays attention to policy isues
Term
military-industrial complex
Definition
the mutually beneficial relationship between the armed forces and defense contractors
Term
monroe doctrine
Definition
the policy statement included in President James Monroe's 1823 annual message to Congress, which set out 3 principles (1) European nations should not establish new colonies in the Western Hemisphere (2) European nations should not intervene in the affairs of independent nations of the Western Hemisphere (3) the U.S. would not interfere in the affaris of European nations
Term
isolationist foreign policy
Definition
abstaining from an active role in international affairs or alliances, which characterized U.S. ofreign policy toward Europe during most of the 19th century
Term
soviet bloc
Definition
the Eatern European countries that installed Communist regimes after World War II
Term
iron curtain
Definition
the term used to describe the dividion of Europe between the Soviet Union and the West; popularized by Winston Chruchill in a speech portraying Europe as being divided by an iron curtain, with the nations of Eastern Europe behind the curtain and increasingly under Soviet control
Term
containment
Definition
a U.S. diplomatic policy adopted by the Truman administration to build situations of strength around the globe to certain Communist power within its existing boundaries
Term
truman doctrine
Definition
the policy adopted by President Harry Truman in 1947 to halt Communist expansion in southeastern Europe
Term
detente
Definition
a French word meaning the relaxation of tensions. The term characterizes U.S.-Soviet policy as it developed under President Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. Detente stressed direct cooperative dealings with Cold War rivals but avoided ideological accommodation
Term
strategic arms limitation treaty (SALT I)
Definition
A treaty between the U.S. and the Soviet Union to stabalize the nuclear arms competition between the two countries. Talks began in 1969, and agreements were signed on May 26, 1972
Term
most-favored-nation status
Definition
a status granted by an international treaty by which each member nation must treat other members at least as well as it treats the country that receives its most favorable treatment