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Geology
Exam 1
37
Geology
09/16/2010

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Term
Bedding
Definition
layering or stratification in sedimentary rocks
Term
Bedrock
Definition
Rock still attached to the Earth's crust
Term
Cement
Definition
mineral material that precipitates from water and fills the spaces between grains, holding the grains together
Term

Clastic 

(detrital sedimentary rock)

Definition
sedimentary rock consisting of cemented-together detritus derived from the weathering of preexisting rock
Term
crystalline
Definition
containing a crystal lattice
Term
carbonates
Definition
rocks containing calcite and/or dolomite
Term
cleavage
Definition
the tendency of a mineral to break along preferred planes; a type of foliation in low-grade metamorphic rock
Term
Conchoidal fracture
Definition
Smoothly curving, clamshell-shaped surfaces along which materials with no cleavage planes tend to break
Term
Crystal
Definition
a single, continuous piece of a mineral bounded by flat surfaces that formed naturally as the mineral grew.
Term
crystal face
Definition
the flat surface of an euhedral mineral grain
Term
crystal habit
Definition
the general shape of a crystal or cluster of crystals that grew unimpeded
Term
crystal lattice
Definition
the orderly framework within which the atoms or ions of a mineral are fixed
Term
crystal structure
Definition
the internal arrangement of atoms or ions within a crystal
Term
Equant
Definition
a term for a grain that has the same dimensions in all directions
Term
Facet
Definition
the flat surface of a cut gemstone; facets are produced by grinding
Term
Gem
Definition
a mineral or form of a mineral that is particularly beautiful and/or rare, and thus has value
Term
Geode
Definition
A cavity in which euhedral crystals precipitate out of water solutions passing through a rock
Term
Hardness
Definition
In mineralogy, hardness refers to the resistance of a mineral to scratching; a harder mineral can scratch a softer mineral
Term
Hand Specimen
Definition
A chunk of rock, about the size of a fist, typically collected to serve as a sample for further study
Term
Igneous Rock
Definition
Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and freezes solid
Term
Inequant
Definition
A term for a mineral grain whose length and width are not the same
Term
Luster
Definition
the way a mineral surface scatters light
Term
Metamorphic foliation
Definition
A fabric defined by parallel surfaces or layers that dvelop in a rock as a result of metamorphism; schistocity and gneissic layering are examples
Term
Mineral
Definition
A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a lattice. Most minerals are inorganic
Term
Mineralogy
Definition
The study of Minerals
Term
Mohs hardness scale
Definition
A list of ten minerals in a sequence of relative hardness, with which other minerals can be compared
Term
Outcrop
Definition
an exposure of bedrock
Term
Photomicrograph
Definition
a photograph of a thin section, as viewed through a petrographic microscope
Term
Polymorph
Definition
Two minerals that have the same chemical compostion but a different crystal lattice structure 
Term
Rock
Definition
A coherent, naturally occurring solid, consisting of an aggregate of minerals or a mass of glass
Term
Silicate
Definition
Minerals composed of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra linked in various arrangements; most contain other elements too
Term
Silicon-oxygen Tetrahedron
Definition
The basic building block of silicate minerals; it consists of one silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms
Term
Specific gravity
Definition
A number representing the density of a mineral, as specified by the ratio between the weight of a volume of the mineral and the weight of an equal volume of water
Term
Streak
Definition
The color of the powder produced by pulverizing a mineral on an unglazed ceramic plate
Term
Symmetry
Definition
The condition in which the shape of one part of an object is a mirror image of the other part
Term
Sedimentary rock
Definition
Rock that forms either by the cementing together of fragments broken off preexisting rock or by the precipitation of mineral crystals out of water solutions at or near the Earth's surface
Term
Thin Section
Definition
A 3/100-mm-thick slice of rock that can be examined with a petrographic microscope