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Geology chapter 2 flashcards
Atoms, Minerals,Crystals, and Gemstones
119
Geology
08/24/2013

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Term
acicular
Definition
needle-like arrangement of crystals; often applied to the
description of very fine, radiating, hair-like crystals.
Term
adamantine luster
Definition
is an extremely shiny surface, such as a diamond.
Term
agate
Definition
is a gem variety of cryptocrystalline quartz; usually banded
Term
alpha particle
Definition
is a form of radioactivity, consisting of a Helium-4 nucleus being emitted from the nucleus
of a radioactive isotope.
Term
apatite
Definition
is a mineral consisting of calcium phosphate. This mineral has a hardness of 5 and resembles
many other minerals because of its wide range of colors. It is the same mineral that your teeth
are made of
Term
asbestos
Definition
is a term that applies to several minerals that form long, hair like fibers. It has been used for
insulation and fire-proof cloth.
Term
atom
Definition
is the smallest part of an element that retains the characteristics of that element.
It consists of a small, dense nucleus made up of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons
orbiting the nucleus at a distance.
Term
atomic mass number
Definition
is the number of protons plus neutrons within the atomic nucleus
Term
atomic nucleus
Definition
is a small, dense structure in the center of an atom containing protons and neutrons.
Term
atomic number
Definition
is determined by the number of protons within an atomic nucleus
Term
atomic weight
Definition
-is a value representing the weight of one atom of an element compared to the weight of one
atom of oxygen 16.
Term
azurite
Definition
-is a bright blue mineral; a basic copper carbonate. This mineral is often found in the oxidized
zone above a copper sulfide deposit.
Term
barite
Definition
-is a mineral made of barium sulfate, distinguished by its high density
Term
beta particle
Definition
(or beta ray)
is a form of radioactivity consisting of the emission of a high speed electron from an atomic
nucleus.
Term
beryl
Definition
mineral that has the composition of beryllium aluminum silicate.
Term
birthstone
Definition
-is a gemstone associated with the month in which a person is born.
Term
botryoidal
Definition
is a surface structure that resembles a bunch of grapes.
Term
examples of minerals with botryoidal
structures
Definition
azurite, malachite, hematite
Term
cabochon
Definition
-is a gemstone, usually translucent, that is cut and polished with a rounded surface.
Term
calcite
Definition
-is a very common mineral with three directions of cleavage, hardness 3 on Mohs scale, and a
composition of calcium carbonate. In the form of a rock, if it is called limestone and if it has
undergone metamorphism, it is marble.
Term
carat
Definition
is a measurement of the weight (mass) of a gemstone; 0.2 grams.
Term
chalky luster
Definition
-is a very dull, powdery surface appearance of a material
Term
chemical compound
Definition
-consists of chemical elements combined together in a fixed ratio
Term
chemical property
Definition
-is the identification of a mineral through the use of chemicals.
Term
clay
Definition
-can either refer to the tiniest particle size (submicroscopic particles) or it can apply
to a class of silicate minerals that only produce crystals in the submicroscopic range
Term
cleavage
Definition
is the tendency of a crystallized mineral to break along flat planes aligned with a zone of
weak bonding
Term
color
Definition
is composed of the frequencies of light reflected off of the surface of a material or transmitted
through it when the material is exposed to white light.
Term
conchoidal fracture
Definition
breaks in a shell pattern
Term
copper
Definition
is a metallic element with a reddish color
common in Arizona.
Term
corundum
Definition
is a mineral consisting of aluminum oxide
(sapphires and rubies)
Term
covalent bond
Definition
a type of bonding in chemicals where electron pairs are shared between adjacent atoms
Term
cryptocrystalline
Definition
a material consisting of extremely small crystals
Term
crystal face
Definition
flat surfaces on a crystal.
Term
crystal
Definition
is a mineral whose internal, geometrical repeating pattern of atoms is consistent throughout
the entire structure
Term
crystalline structure
Definition
is where the atoms within a crystal are all aligned in a geometrical, repeating three dimensional
pattern.
Term
cubic zirconia
Definition
is a synthetic material made of zirconium oxide that is used in jewelry because it has optical
properties similar to diamond; also nicknamed CZ
Term
cuprite
Definition
is a mineral whose composition is copper oxide. Cuprite varies from deep red in finely
crystallized forms
to a dark, semi metallic luster in massive forms.
Term
density
Definition
is a measurement of the mass of an object compared to its volume; often expressed in terms of
grams per cubic centimeter.
Term
diamond
Definition
hardest mineral
Term
dogtooth spar
Definition
mineral whose formation resembles a dogs tooth
Term
dolomite
Definition
a mineral with the composition of calcium magnesium carbonate;
it fizzes slower with hydrochloric acid than calcite.
Term
dull luster
Definition
a surface appearance that is the opposite of shiny; has no highlights or sparkles.
Term
example of dull luster minerals
Definition
limonite or calcite
Term
electric force
Definition
s responsible for the attraction between electrons and protons
Term
electron
Definition
a negatively charged subatomic particle that is usually found in an orbit about an atomic
nucleus.
Term
element
Definition
is a pure material in which all of the atoms have the same number of protons in each atomic
nucleus. Only 92 different varieties occur naturally on the Earth.
Term
emerald
Definition
form of the mineral beryl
Term
faceted gemstone
Definition
is a transparent gemstone that has been shaped and polished with flat surfaces
Term
feldspar varieties?
Definition
sunstone or moonstone
Term
flexible
Definition
capable of being bent
Term
fluorescence
Definition
process in which a material absorbs ultraviolet light and then emits light
Term
fluoridation
Definition
the process of adding fluoride compounds drinking water to prevent dental decay
Term
fluoride
Definition
is a chemical compound consisting of one or more elements combined with fluorine
Term
fluorite
Definition
mineral with the composition of calcium fluoride. Fluorite is number 4 on Mohs scale of hardness
Term
fools' gold
Definition
colloquial name of pyrite
Term
force
Definition
is a push or a pull. There are only 4 forces that hold the Universe together
Term
4 main forces of universe
Definition
strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, electromagnetic force, and gravity
Term
fracture
Definition
way a material breaks
Term
friability
Definition
is the measure of how easy it is to crumble a material
Term
gamma ray
Definition
is a high energy x ray
Term
glass
Definition
is a solid in which the atoms are are all in a chaotic distribution and not crystallized.
Term
gold
Definition
is a metallic element with a bright yellow color
Term
gypsum
Definition
soft mineral with the composition of hydrated calcium sulfate. . . . commercially baked to drive the water out
Term
hardness
Definition
the ability of a material to scratch other materials or to be resistant to other materials.
Term
heft
Definition
a crude measure of the density of a material by shaking the object with your hand
Term
hematite
Definition
is a reddish brown to dark, sub-metallic mineral consisting of iron oxide
Term
inorganic compound
Definition
is a chemical compound that does not contain carbon
Term
ion
Definition
-is an atom or group of atoms with excess electrical charge, not electrically neutral.
-Opal's Pals
Term
ionic bond
Definition
is a chemical bond that holds a material together by the electrostatic attraction of the ions that
compose the material.
Term
isotope
Definition
a variety of a chemical element, identified by the number of protons plus neutrons in the atomic
nucleus.
Term
karat
Definition
is used to describe the purity of gold in a gold alloy. Pure gold is 24 karat.
Gold jewelry is often 14 karat (14 k) or 10 karat (10 k).
Term
lab created
Definition
synthetic
Term
limonite
Definition
hydrated, yellow brown iron oxide
Term
luster
Definition
surface appearance
Term
magnetic
Definition
is a physical property in which a material is attracted to a magnet
Term
magnetite
Definition
is the most common occurring mineral that is attracted to a magnet.
It is a black mineral made of iron oxide.
Term
malachite
Definition
composition of a basic copper carbonate....used in jewelry
Term
metallic luster
Definition
is where the surface of the material reflects light like a metal.
Term
mica
Definition
is mineral from a group of silicate minerals that have perfect one-directional cleavage and
peel in very thin layers.
Term
mineral
Definition
must meet the following 5 criteria: (1) an element or a chemical compound, (2) natural, (3) crystalline structure, (4) inorganic  (5) distinct physical properties.
Term
naturally occurring
Definition
-means that the substance is not manmade.
Term
neutron
Definition
is an electrically neutral sub-atomic particle of the approximately the same mass as a proton
and found in the atomic nucleus
Term
non-metallic luster
Definition
is a broad array of surface appearances other than a metallic sheen
Term
nuclear fission
Definition
is the process where a large atomic nucleus breaks into smaller atomic nuclei.
Term
nuclear fusion
Definition
occurs when two small atomic nuclei are put together to produce a larger atomic nucleus.
As long as the atomic nuclei are small the process releases large quantities of energy.
Term
opal
Definition
is a mineraloid composed of silica and a variable amount of water
Term
opaque
Definition
means that no light can pass through the material
Term
peridot
Definition
gemstone variety of the mineral olivine
Term
phantom crystal
Definition
is a clear crystal that shows its early development shape due to the earlier form being
partially covered by impurities.
Term
precious gemstone
Definition
are the most expensive gemstones such as ruby, sapphire, diamond, emerald, etc
Term
proton
Definition
is a positive charged, heavy subatomic particle found in the atomic nucleus
Term
description of the mineral pyrite?
Definition
is a brassy yellow metallic luster mineral consisting of iron sulfide.
Term
quartz
Definition
-is one of the most common minerals on the Earth, consisting of silicon and oxygen. This mineral is number 7 on Mohs scale of hardness
Term
radiation effects
Definition
are the damaging effects of radioactivity on biological matter which includes mutations
Term
radioactive half life
Definition
is the amount of time it takes for half of the atoms of a specific radioactive isotope to decay
Term
radioactivity
Definition
spontaneous decay of an atomic nucleus
Term
rock
Definition
is a solid, coherent mass of naturally occurring material made from one or more minerals
Term
ruby
Definition
red colored corundum, one of the most expensive gemstones
Term
salt
Definition
the mineral halite, sodium chloride
Term
sapphire
Definition
is corundum that is colored in any hue with the exception of red
Term
schiller
Definition
optical effect observed with the mineral labradorite.
Term
selenite
Definition
form of gypsum
Term
silica
Definition
-is a compound of silicon and oxygen; usually refers to the mineral quartz but may also refer
to opal.
Term
silicate mineral
Definition
is a mineral made of silicon and oxygen plus at least one more element
Term
silica tetrahedron
Definition
is the basic building block of silicate minerals.
Each silicon atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms
Term
silicon
Definition
is the element number 14; semi-metallic. It does not occur naturally in its pure form on the surface
of the Earth.
Term
silicone
Definition
is a synthetic, man-made rubbery material is in caulking and breast implants
Term
silky luster
Definition
-is a surface appearance that resembles the shiny reflection off of a spool of thread.
Term
specific gravity
Definition
is the comparison of the density of a material with the density of water
Term
streak
Definition
is the color of the powdered form of a mineral when it is rubbed against an unglazed, white porcelain tile
Term
sulfur
Definition
is a lemon yellow, transparent to translucent element that burns in an oxygen atmosphere
Term
Talc
Definition
A mineral, typically white or pink, that is extremely soft.
Term
Topaz
Definition
A complex silicate mineral. This mineral is number 8 on Mohs scale of hardness and has one direction of cleavage
Term
Toughness
Definition
Ability to resist being Broken
Term
Translucent
Definition
Optical property of minerals where some light is transmitted through a material .
Term
Transparent
Definition
Optical condition where light goes through the material without any distortion.
Term
Turquoise
Definition
Blue to green translucent gemstone consisting of a hydrated copper, aluminum phosphate.
Term
ultraviolet light
Definition
-is where light just outside of the normal visible spectrum, just past violet
Term
vitreous luster
Definition
-is a glassy luster