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Geog277 Exam2
Second Exam for Geog277 @ UW
33
Geography
05/29/2012

Additional Geography Flashcards

 


 

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Term
Labor Market Segmentation
Definition
The breakdown of industry and occupational groups by age, gender, and ethnic differences, etc.
Term
Labor Sheds / Employment Fields
Definition
Daily commuting patterns in urban labor markets

Labor Shed: Discrimination between residential catchments that employers at a given location in a city draw upon for their work

Employment Fields: Scattered job opportunities in a city that individual workers can access from their home base.
Term
Workfare
Definition
Under workfare, recipients have to meet certain participation requirements to continue to receive their welfare benefits. These requirements are often a combination of activities that are intended to improve the recipient's job prospects.

Increases market flexibility
Reduces costs of labor
Tries to get them off welfare.

Opponents: Contributes to income inequality, Saturates labor market, creates class of "working poor", reduces mean wage.
Term
Occupational Division of Labor
Definition
The division of labor based on education standards and occupational qualifications. Occupation status is the primary segmentation of labor market segmentation. This is the organizing structure upon which capitalist societies rest.
Term
Gender Division of Labor
Definition
Gender identities attached to jobs or roles and income inequality between men and women.
Term
Spatial Division of Labor
Definition
Physical separation of production and work tasks. Industrial, finance sectors
Term
Income Polarization
Definition
Incomes move towards the extremes, elimination of the middle-class. Doesn't necessarily mean the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer
Term
Gentrification
Definition
The invasion of an area by high-status households who upgrade the housing stock and raise the property values along the way. Involves the gradual displacement of the incumbent residents who may be economically weakened by the decline in the traditional employment that used to be plentiful in the area.
Term
Neighborhood Change Cycle
Definition
The dynamic forces that bring together supply and demand in housing markets underpin the formation and progressive evolution of neighborhoods and suburbs.

Steadily changes the geography of housing and the built environment as well as the social geography of communities in cities.
Term
Housing Wealth
Definition
Wealth accumulated from property and home ownership. Benefits of home ownership seems unequal between classes - the wealtheir obtain more benefits from ownership than do the less waelthy home owners
Term
Locational Disadvantage
Definition
Relative accessibility - additional inconveniences or costs based on isolation, and/or distance, infrequent public transports

Community Assets - range and quality of community assets available such as education and medical services, libraries, swimming pools, parks, clubs, etc.

Environmental amenity/ disamenity - proximity to pollutants and hazardous agents

Reputation of place - 'redlining' leading to not lending for poor reputation.
Term
Multiculturalism
Definition
Cultural diversity within urban areas. Moving from European white domination to a diverse culture with many ethnicities
Term
New Urbanism
Definition
Planning movement aimed to recreate the idylic community for "frightened" middle-class Americans fleeing old industrial cities.
Term
Chicago School
Definition
Interdependence between urban society and the geography of the city held the key to observing and learning about the social problems that surfaced with increasing urbanization
Term
Burgess Model
Definition
Residential densities falling away from the tenements of the ghetto to the bungalows occupied by city commuters and their families
Term
Hoyt Model
Definition
Residential growth in American cities was more axial than concentric, conforming to a pattern of sectors rather than of concentric circles.
Term
Social Area Analysis
Definition
The analysis of a city to define "social areas" - urban areas which contain people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life-style.

Three constructs to differentiate urban areas:

Social rank - As it changes, the distribution of skills changes from manual to semi-skilled and skilled white collar jobs.

Urbanization - Weakens the importance of the family unit as it increases

Segregation - Redistribution of population as it proceeds

Variables are chosen for the three constructs: for example, occupation, education, and rent for social rank; fertility and number of working women for urbanization; and isolation of racial groups for segregation. These variables are then combined to form categories for residential areas, such as low social rank, high urbanization, and high segregation.
Term
Factorial Ecology
Definition
Describes those investigations of urban spatial structure which use techniques of factor analysis. Factors relating to housing and socio-economic characteristics are worked out and used to divide the city into a number of distinctive, smaller areas.
Term
Ethnic Segregation
Definition
Measuring how different minorities are assimilated with the majority; how minorities are either distributed into majorities or concentrated against the majorities of particular cities.
Term
Pluralism
Definition
A condition in which numerous distinct ethnic, religious or cultural groups are tolerated and represented in the city. Developed by Dahl and Banfield in the 1950's, questions of who governs a city. City politics proceed on an issue by issue basis with elected politicians weighing up the respective merits of the claims presented by various groups with an interest in the urban development process (investors, employees, workers, voluntary agencies, consumers, environmentalists, community activists or residents rallying around a local cause)
Term
Regulation Theory
Definition
Attempts to show how changes to the form of urban governance and power relationships are conditioned by, and related to, the different phases of capitalism
Term
Urban Regime Theory / Urban Regimes
Definition
Shifts the focus of the power struggle in urban government away from the class-based dynamics of control, domination and resistance to coalition building processes to secure agreed outcomes
Term
Identity-based Politics
Definition
The idea that as cities become mroe economically and socially diverse, people will push for policies that benefit their individual demographic interests rather than those of the community as a whole. Because of this, the policies of cities will reflect the individuals that live there.
Term
Smart Growth
Definition
Essentially the same as "green growth" or "sustainable growth". When cities are planned to be ecologically friendly and contain the urban sprawl to protect natural resources, may include zoning laws, mixed-use buildings, urban oasis-type parks.
Term
Re-urbanization
Definition
Suggests metropolitan strategy plans should be setting aside mixed-use zones for higher density redevelopment in the future.
Term
NIMBYism
Definition
"Not in my backyard"; campaigns associated with the defense of property by middle-class home-owners in suburbs.
Term
Agenda 21
Definition
an action plan of the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development and was an outcome of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is a comprehensive blueprint of action to be taken globally, nationally, and locally by organizations of the UN, governments, and major groups in every area in which humans directly affect the environment.
Term
Diagram: Population Density Gradients for the day and night
Definition
1950's:
Daytime - City center is very dense, as you move away from the city center density decreases

Nighttime - The city is deserted as a place of residents, becomes much more dense as it reaches 15 miles out, then decreases as it goes further out.

2005: Daytime - City is most dense at the center, but density stays more constant as you move away from the city center.

Nighttime - place of residence density starts out low at city center (higher than in 1950) then increases and peaks out at about 12 miles out, then stays steady until 30 miles out.
Term
Diagram: Time geography (time-space prism)
Definition
Prism used to explore the time constraints of an individual in relation to new activities they may want to include in their daily routine
Term
Diagram: Downward Filtering
Definition
Process whereby, over time, a housing unit or neighborhood is occupied by progressively lower-income residents.
For example, many older residences near the downtown of big cities were once occupied by the upper classes, but have filtered down to the relatively poor. At some point in the filtering process, many large houses may be converted into rented multifamily housing.

Old housing occupied by lower-status groups. // Better housing occupied by lower-middle classes. Best housing occupied by upper-middle classes.

Next: New housing built by upper middle classes

Next: Lower classes move up the housing scale

Next: Lower class migrants move into vacated, worst housing



Term
Diagram: Burgess' Concentric Zone Model
Definition
Based on human ecology theories done by Burgess and applied on Chicago, it was the first to give the explanation of distribution of social groups within urban areas. This concentric ring model depicts urban land use in concentric rings: the Central Business District (or CBD) was in the middle of the model, and the city expanded in rings with different land uses. It is effectively an urban version of Von Thunen's regional land use model developed a century earlier.[2] It contrasts with Homer Hoyt's sector model and the multiple nuclei model.

The zones identified are:

The center was the CBD
The transition zone of mixed residential and commercial uses or the Zone of Transition
Working class residential homes (inner suburbs), in later decades called inner city or Zone of independent working men's home
Better quality middle-class homes (Outer Suburbs) or Zone of better Housing
Commuters zone

Burgess's work is based on the bid rent curve. This theory states that the concentric circles are based on the amount that people will pay for the land. This value is based on the profits that are obtainable from maintaining a business on that land. The center of the town will have the highest number of customers so it is profitable for retail activities. Manufacturing will pay slightly less for the land as they are only interested in the accessibility for workers, 'goods in' and 'goods out'. Residential land use will take the surrounding land.
Term
Diagram: Hoyt's Sectoral Model
Definition
While accepting the existence of a central business district, Hoyt suggested that zones expand outward from the city center along railroads, highways, and other transportation arteries. Using Chicago as an example, an upper class residential sector evolved outward along the desirable Lake Michigan shoreline north of the central business district, while industry extended southward in sectors that followed railroad lines.

In developing this model Hoyt observed that it was common for low-income households to be near railroad lines, and commercial establishments to be along business thoroughfares. Recognizing that the various transportation routes into an urban area, including railroads, sea ports, and tram lines, represented greater access, Hoyt theorized that cities tended to grow in wedge-shaped patterns -- or sectors -- emanating from the central business district and centered on major transportation routes. Higher levels of access meant higher land values, thus, many commercial functions would remain in the CBD but manufacturing functions would develop in a wedge surrounding transportation routes. Residential functions would grow in wedge-shaped patterns with a sector of low-income housing bordering manufacturing/industrial sectors (traffic, noise, and pollution makes these areas the least desirable) while sectors of middle- and high-income households were located furthest away from these functions. Hoyt's model attempts to state a broad principle of urban organization.
Term
Ecological Footprint
Definition
a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems. It is a standardized measure of demand for natural capital that may be contrasted with the planet's ecological capacity to regenerate.