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Genetics Test 3
Genetics Test 3
83
Biology
04/10/2011

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Term
The foreign DNA strands are parallel
Definition
Suppose a scientist explores a distant planet and discovers a novel form of double stranded DNS. When this nucleic acid is exposed to normal DNA polymerases, replication takes place continuously in both directions. What conclusion would be most consistent with this observation?
Term
pseudogenes
Definition
Duplicated copies of genes that have undergone sufficient mutations to render them un-transcribable are called
Term
unique sequence DNA
Definition
most of the genes that encode proteins are found in
Term
heterochromatin
Definition
barr bodies are
Term
the 5' to 3' polarity restriction of DNA polymerase
Definition
the lagging strand produced during DNA replication is caused by?
Term
origins
Definition
replication begins at sequences called
Term
sister chromatids
Definition
DNA replication results in
Term
spliceosome
Definition
splicing of hrRNA takes place within what large complex that consists of snRNAs and proteins
Term
AUG, methionine
Definition
What is the initiator triplet in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes? What amino acid is coded for by this triplet?
Term
introns are removed from mRNA before translation
Definition
Introns are known to contain termination codons (UAA, UGA, UAG) yet these codons do not interrupt the coding of proteins. Why?
Term
lamin
Definition
the protein that is important for the final condensation of chromosomes and the appears at the G2/M boundary of the cell cycle is
Term
folded fiber model
Definition
the model hypothesized to explain the condensation of DNA into chromosomes is termed the
Term
codon
Definition
what name is given to the three bases in a messenger RNA which bind to the anticodon of tRNA to specify an amino acid placement in a protein?
Term
universal
Definition
the genetic code is fairly consistent among all organisms. the term often used to describe such consistency in the code is
Term
all 3 occur in the nucleus
Definition
Three post-transcriptional modifications often seen in the maturation of mRNA in eukaryotes occur where?
Term
false - because the code is degenerate
Definition
If one knows the exact sequence of amino acids in a peptide it is easy to determine the nucleotide sequence in the mRNA that was used in translation.
Term
translation
Definition
Peptidyl transferase is involved in
Term
translation
Definition
three different RNAs are required during
Term
translation
Definition
aminoacyl synthetase plays a role in
Term
translation
Definition
Ribosomes are formed during
Term
replication
Definition
DNA polymerase is required during
Term
replication
Definition
gyrase is active during
Term
replication
Definition
semi-conservative is a term applied to
Term
splicing
Definition
SNURPs can be important during
Term
translation
Definition
charged tRNAs move into A sites during
Term
replication
Definition
primase is active during
Term
separation of homologs during Anaphase I of Meiosis
Definition
Mendel's 1st Principle describes the
Term
GenBank
Definition
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) maintain a repository of DNA and protein sequences. This repository is known as
Term
telomeres
Definition
Excess adipose (fat) has been identified as one cause of rapid ageing. This is believed to occur because of adipose's negative effect on
Term
on the 3' end of the DNA
Definition
telomeres adds nucleotides to the
Term
pyrimidine/RNA
Definition
uracil is an example of what and is only found in what
Term
the % of GC would be greater than the % of AT
Definition
Which genome characteristics would likely be representative of an organism found inhabiting the hot springs that supply water to the Roman spas in Bath, England?
Term
dideoxyribonucleotides
Definition
chain termination sequencing of DNA works because what are included in small amounts in each reaction tube.
Term
transcriptional units in the form of unique and duplicated genes; highly and moderately repetitive sequences; tandemly repeated transcriptional units
Definition
the eukaryotic genome is composed of
Term
154
Definition
if a peptide occurs in one of your cells that is 50 amino acids long, what is the minimum number of nucleotides that would have been required for efficient translation?
Term
facultative heterochromatin
Definition
an inactivated x chromosome is an example of
Term
AUG
Definition
initiation of translation
Term
TATA
Definition
required to initiate transcription
Term
sense strand
Definition
complimentary to antisense
Term
Poly A polymerase
Definition
adds Poly a tail
Term
amino-acyl synthetase
Definition
catalyzes amino acid addition to tRNA
Term
RNA Pol
Definition
synthesizes RNA
Term
tRNA
Definition
component of ribosome
Term
SNURP
Definition
intron removal
Term
MET in P site
Definition
tRNA
Term
RNAses
Definition
degrade RNA
Term
G
Definition
"cap" nucleotide
Term
200+ adenines
Definition
added post-transcriptionally
Term
hnRNA
Definition
found only in nucleus
Term
peptidyl transferase
Definition
catalyzed peptide bond
Term
transcriptional unit
Definition
the region of DNA that comprises what is traditionally called a gene is known as the
Term
true
Definition
telomerase is an enzyme involved in the replication of the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes
Term
euchromatin
Definition
Which is contains more genes and is less dense, euchromatin or heterochromatin?
Term
enhancers
Definition
regulatory elements which serve as coordinators of gene transcription
Term
RNA which is removed during RNA processing
Definition
an intron is a section of
Term
5'-capping, 3'-poly(A) tail addition, splicing
Definition
Three posttranscriptional modifications often seen in the maturation of mRNA in eukaryotes
Term
have more DNA than needed to encode all essential genes
Definition
The C-value Paradox suggests that higher organisms
Term
complexity
Definition
Cot Curves provide info about the size and what of genomes
Term
changing of the tRNA; initiation; elongation of the peptide chain; termination
Definition
translation involves four primary steps, list them in order
Term
translation
Definition
reading frames are defined
Term
transcription
Definition
TATA consensus sequences are involved
Term
transcription
Definition
RNA polymerase is active
Term
translation
Definition
peptidyl transferase is active
Term
transcription
Definition
"hairpin" structures may be present
Term
translation
Definition
rna-rna complexes are formed
Term
translation
Definition
three different RNAs are required
Term
translation
Definition
aminoacyl synthetase
Term
translation
Definition
ribosomes are formed
Term
primase
Definition
during replication, what adds a short length of RNA to the new DNA strands
Term
termination of transcription
Definition
ends of genes are gc rich. these regions allow the formation of hairpin loops which contribute to
Term
start transcription
Definition
the promoter region of a gene is used specifically to
Term
interphase
Definition
replication occurs during the what phase of Mitosis
Term
telomerase
Definition
an enzyme involved in the replication of the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes
Term
nucleus, remove introns
Definition
spliceosomes are found where and help to do what
Term
euchromatin
Definition
Regions of DNA that comprise what are traditionally called genes are most commonly associated with which type of chromosome region?
Term
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Definition
autocatalytic splicing is most associated with
Term
degenerate
Definition
the third position of many codons can vary yet still code for the same amino acid. This observation results in the genetic code being termed
Term
barr bodies
Definition
what are examples of Facultative Heterochromatin
Term
there are more codons than amino acids
Definition
the genetic code is said to be degenerate because
Term
20, R
Definition
In living systems, how many amino acids are formed, and what group does each amino acid differ by?
Term
hydrophilic amino acids
Definition
what are commonly found on the exterior surfaces of proteins
Term
TATA box
Definition
what is the highly conserved sequence which serves as the binding site for RNA Pol
Term
pseudogenes
Definition
nonfunctional sequences due to significant substitution of deletions in the nucleotide sequence