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General Principles of Pharmacology
Key Terms Chapter 1
33
Nursing
08/23/2011

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Term

 

Additive Drug Reaction

Definition
the combined effect of two drugs equals the sum of the effects of each drug given alone
Term

 

Adverse Reaction

Definition
undesirable drug effect
Term

 

Agonist

Definition
drug the binds with a receptor to produce a therapeutic response
Term

 

 

Allergic Reaction

Definition
immediate hypersensitive reaction by the immune system, it presents as ithcing, hives, swelling, difficulty breathing; SEE HYPERSENSITIVITY SEE ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK
Term

 

 

Anaphylactic Shock

Definition
(also called anaphylactic reaction or anaphylactoid reaction) sudden, sefere hypersensitivity reaction with symptoms that progress rapidly & may result in death if not treated
Term

 

 

Angioedema

Definition
localized wheals or swellings in subcutaneous tissues or mucous membranes, which may be due to an allergic response; also called angioneurotic edema
Term

 

 

Antagonist

Definition
drugs that join with a receptor to prevent the action of an agonist
Term

 

 

Antibody

Definition
molecule with the ability to bind to a specific antigen; responsible for the immune response
Term

 

 

Antigen

Definition
substance that is capable of inducing a specific immune response
Term

 

 

Biotransformation

Definition
process by which the body changes a drug to a more or less active form that can be excreted
Term

 

 

Controlled Substances

Definition
drugs that have the potential for abuse and dependency, both physical & psychological
Term

 

 

Cumulative Drug Effect

Definition

when the body is unable to metabolize& excrete one dose of a drug before the next is given

Term

 

 

Drug Idiosyncrasy

Definition
any unusual or abnormal response that differs from the response normally expected to a specific drug & dosage
Term

 

 

Drug Tolerance

Definition
decreased response to a drug, requiring an increase in dosage to achieve the desired effect
Term

 

 

First-Pass Effect

Definition
action by which an oral drug is absorbed & carried directly to the liver, where it is inactivated by enzymes before it enters the general  bloodstream
Term

 

 

Half-Life

Definition
time required for the body to eliminate 50% of a drug
Term

 

 

Herbal Medicine

Definition
type of complementary/alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders; also called herbalism
Term

 

 

Hypersensitivity

Definition
undesirable reaction produced by a normal immune system
Term

 

 

Metabolite

Definition
inactive form of the original drug
Term

 

 

Nonprescription Drugs

Definition
drugs that are desinated by the U.S. Food&Drug Administration to be safe if taken as directed & obtainable without prescription; over-the-counter OTC drugs purchased in various stores
Term

 

 

Pharmaceutic

Definition
pertaining to the phase during which a drug dissolves in the body
Term

 

 

Pharmacodynamics

Definition
study of the drug mechanisms that produce biochemical or physiological changes in the body
Term

 

 

Pharmacogenetics

Definition
study of how peoples responses are variable to medications sue to individual genetic variation
Term

 

 

Pharmacokinetics

Definition
study of body mechanisms or activity after a drug is administered; these mechanisms include absorbtion, distribution, metabolism, & excretion
Term

 

 

Pharmacology

Definition
study of drugs and their action on living organism
Term

 

 

Physical Dependence

Definition
habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawl symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation
Term

 

 

Polypharmacy

Definition
taking a large number of different drugs (may be prescribed or over the counter drugs)
Term

 

 

Prescription Drugs

Definition
drugs the federal government has designated as potentially harmful unless their use is supervised by a licensed health care provider, such as nurse practitioner, physician, or dentist
Term

 

 

Psychological Dependence

Definition
compulsion or craving to use a substance to obtain pleasurable experiance
Term

 

 

Receptor

Definition
in pharmacology, a reactive site on the surface of a cell; when a drug binds to & interacts with the receptor, a pharmacology responses occurs
Term

 

 

Synergism

Definition
action that occurs when two substances (drugs) interact to produce an effect that is greater than the sum of their separate actions
Term

 

 

Teratogen

Definition
drug or substance that causes abnormal development of the fetus, leading to deformities
Term

 

 

Toxic

Definition
Poisonous or harmful