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Forensics Final Exam
Study Questions for 12 13 14 15
97
Criminology
11/12/2009

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Term
Ch 12.............what are the 8 different blood types that a human could have?
Definition
A+ A- B+ B- AB+AB- O+ O-
Term
what is the definition of agglutination?
Definition
blood cells clump together due to an immune response
Term
a person that is blood type A has what antibody in serum?
Definition
Antibody B
Term
a person that is blood type B can recieve what blood type in a transfusion?
Definition
B and O
Term
a person that is blood type B- can recieve what type in a transfusion?
Definition
B- and O-
Term
what is the % of blood lost from the body that would cause death?
Definition
40%
Term
what are the four components of blood?
Definition
plasma, RBC, WBC and platelets
Term
what is the property of blood that causes it to contract into a sphere?
Definition
surface tention
Term
what is the definition of a passive bloodstain?
Definition
blood drops created or formed by the force of gravity acting alone.
Term
give two examples of types of passive blood stains.
Definition
drops, drips, pools, clots
Term
what is the definition of a transfer blood stain?
Definition
a blood stain created when wet, bloody surface come in contact with a secondary surface.
Term
give two examples of types of transfer stains
Definition
swipe, wipe, smear, or smudge
Term
what is the definition of a projected bloodstain?
Definition
a blood stain created when a exposed blood source is subjected for an action of force, greater than the force of gravity
Term
give two examples of projected blood stains
Definition
Gush, cast-off, or impact splatter
Term
what are the names of 3 types of impact splatters
Definition
high,low,medium velocity
Term
what could be the cause of medium velocity blood splatter?
Definition
some form of impact from a hand or hand-held object
Term
what could be the cause of high velocity blood splatter?
Definition
gun shot
Term
______velocity blood splatter usually falls 1-4 mm in diameter size range?
Definition
medium
Term
_________velocity blood spatter usually has less then 1mm in diameter size is....?
Definition
high
Term
when a drop of blood strikes a surface at an angle perpendicular to that surface, what is the shape of the bloodstain?
Definition
circle
Term
as blood stains from at more and more acute angles, what happens to the shape of the blood stains?
Definition
they become more elongated
Term
what is the definition of point of convergence?
Definition
it is the common point, in a 2 dimensional surface over which the directionality of several bloodstains can be retraced.
Term
Ch 13..........Technology of DNA has its begining 1985 with the work of:
Definition
Alec Jeffery
Term
how many different bases are associated with the make-up of DNA?
Definition
4 - A....C....T...G
Term
Assume that two strands of DNA have been separated and that the base sequence on one strand is A T G C. what is the sequence of bases on the second strand?
Definition
T A C G
Term
the production of amino acid is coded by sequence of how many bases on the DNA molecule? Therefore, we can say that the specific proteins produced by a cell are directly related to the sequence of neucleotides in DNA of the cell.
Definition
3
Term
portions of the DNA molecules useful for DNA typing:
Definition
Non-coding DNA fragments that are repeated many times
Term
DNA is a polymer. T or F..............What is the repeating unit of DNA?
Definition
true.....neucleotide
Term
what are components of a nucleotides? in which component we can find differences b/w indivduals in DNA typing?
Definition
Nitrogenous base; phosphorous containing groups, sugar, nitrogenous base
Term
what is the technique that can produce many copies of seg,ents of DNA?
Definition
polymerase chains reaction (PCR)
Term
in a DNA typing process, the transfer of DNA fragments onto a nylon membrance is called what?
Definition
Southern Blotting
Term
During gel electrophoresis the DNA is separated by:
Definition
fragment size
Term
Radioactive probes are used to visualize RFLP DNA fragments.
Definition
?
Term
the rate at which large DNA fragments move through the electrophoresis gel is_________the rate at which small DNA fragments move through the same gel.
Definition
less
Term
what are the advantages of working with shore DNA fragments?
Definition
?
Term
the discrimination power of MDNA is________ the discrimination power of STR analysis.
Definition
less than
Term
STRs normally consist of repeating sequences of bases.
Definition
3-7
Term
how many regions of MDNA have been found to be highly variable in the human population?
Definition
2
Term
what is the national system of share DNA databases of DNA typing information for convicted criminals and crime scene evidence?
Definition
CODIS
Term
what are steps in a DNA RFLP typing process?
Definition
digestion with restriction enzyme..............electrophoresis..........southern blotting................hybridization with a radioactive probe..........process with X-film
Term
Chapter 14....the first systematic attempt at personal identification was devised and introduced by
Definition
Alphonse Bertillon
Term
a system of identification relaying on precise body measurements is known as _______________
Definition
Anthropometry
Term
the fingerprint classification system used in most english speaking countries was devised by __________________
Definition
Sir Edward Richard Henry
Term
True or False: the first systematic and official use of fingerprints for personal identification in the U.S was adopted by the New York City Civil Service commission.
Definition
True
Term
The individuality of a fingerprint (is, is not) determined y its pattern.
Definition
is not
Term
A point-by-point comparison of a fingerprint's ________ must be demonstrated in order to prove identity
Definition
expert
Term
___________ are a reproduction of friction skin ridges.
Definition
fingerprints
Term
the form and pattern of skin ridges are determined by the (epidermis, dermal papillae)
Definition
dermal papillae
Term
a permanent scar forms in the skin only when an injury damages the ____________
Definition
dermal papillae
Term
fingerprints (can, can not) be changed during a person's lifetime
Definition
can
Term
the three general patterns into which fingerprints are divided are
Definition
loops, whorls and arches
Term
the most common fingerprint pattern is the ____
Definition
loops
Term
approximately 5% of the population has the ______ fingerprint pattern.
Definition
arch
Term
a loop pattern that opens toward the thumb is known as a(n) (radial, ulnar) loop.
Definition
radial
Term
the pattern area of the loop is enclosed by two diverging ridges known as ___________
Definition
type lines
Term
the ridge point nearest the type-line divergence is known as the ___________
Definition
delta
Term
All loops must have (one, two) delta(s)
Definition
one
Term
the approx. center of a loop pattern is called _______
Definition
the core
Term
if an imaginary line drawn b/w the two deltas of whorl pattern touches any of the spiral ridges, the pattern is classified as a (plain whorl, central pocket loop)
Definition
plain whorl
Term
the simplest of all fingerprint patterns is the _______
Definition
plain arch
Term
arches (have, do not have) types lines, deltas, and crops.
Definition
do not have
Term
the presence or absence of the _____ pattern is used as a basis for determining the primary classification in the Henry system.
Definition
whorl
Term
the largest category (25%) in the primary classification system is (1/1, 1/2)
Definition
1/1
Term
a fingerprint classification system (can, can not) unequivocally identify an individual.
Definition
can not
Term
True or False: computerized fingerprint search systems match prints by comparing the position of bifurcations and ridge endings.
Definition
True
Term
a fingerprint left by a person with soiled or stained fingertips is called a ___________
Definition
visible prints
Term
_______ fingerprints are impressions left on a soft material.
Definition
plastic
Term
fingerprints impressions that are not readily visible are called _______________
Definition
latent fingerprints
Term
fingerprints on hard and nonabsorbent surfaces are best developed by the application of a(n) _______
Definition
powder
Term
fingerprints on porous surfaces are best developed with ________ treatments
Definition
chemicals
Term
______ vapors chemically combine with fatty oils or residual water to visualize a fingerprint.
Definition
Iodine
Term
the chemical _______ visualizes fingerprints by its reaction with amino acids
Definition
ninhydrin
Term
chemical treatment with _____________ visualizes fingerprints on porous articles that may have been wet at one time.
Definition
physical developer
Term
True or False: a latent fingerprint is first treated with Physical Developer followed by ninhydrin.
Definition
False
Term
a chemical technique known as ______________ is used to develop latent prints on nonporous surfaces such as metal and plastic
Definition
Super Clue fuming
Term
__________ occurs when a substance absorbs light and reemits the light in wavelengths longer than the illuminating source.
Definition
Fluoresce
Term
high-intensity light sources known as alternate __________ are effective in developing latent fingerprints.
Definition
light sources
Term
once a fingerprint has been visualized, it must be preserved by ____________
Definition
a photography
Term
the image produced from a digital file is composed of numerous square electronic dots called ________
Definition
pixels
Term
a (high-pass filter, frequency Fourier transform analysis) is used to identify repetitive patterns such as lines or dots that interfere with the interpretation of a digitized fingerprint image.
Definition
frequency Fourier transform analysis
Term
[image]
Definition
have to know the Barrel...trigger....hammer...safety..
Term
[image]
Definition
cartilage....gun powder....shell of cartilage... primer
Term
Slide 52
Know what the extractor is (metal piece with a hook)
Definition
Term
what manufacturer process causes lands & grooves on a bullet?
Definition
rifling in the barrel
Term
why rifling is put into the barrel of a gun?
Definition
it is to make bullets spin & fly farther and straighter
Term
the caliber of a bullet is determined by the_____________ of the barrel of the gun?
Definition
bore diameter
Term
the direction of twist is a ________ character of bullets?
Definition
class
Term
class character of bullets can be found by comparing what character of lands & grooves?
Definition
number and width of lands and grooves, direction of twist
Term
True or False: shot shells come in different sizes called grooves. the most common size is a 12 gauge.
Definition
True
Term
True or False: fired bullets are hard to compare because they are often deformed on impact.
Definition
True
Term
what class characteristic commonly found on bullets would not be found on shots fired from shotguns?
Definition
lands and grooves
Term
what are the individual characteristics found on both bullets and gun barrels?
Definition
striations
Term
True or False: breech force marks can be parallel arched or circular on the rear of a bullet casing.
Definition
True
Term
What part of the gun leaves an indentation mark on the primer of the bullet casing?
Definition
the firing pin
Term
what is stamped on the rear of all bullet casings?
Definition
the manufacturers mark
Term
what are the 2 elements detected on the hands of an individual who has recently fired on a weapon?
Definition
Barium(Ba) Antimony(Sb)
Term
what is a computerized imaging system for story bullets and cartridge casing characteristics?
Definition
NIBIN